First Chapter - V


 

Qhapaq Ñan: The Inka Path of Wisdom

Javier Lajo, 2007

 

Those who cannot understand will die..

Those who can understand will live.

Manuscript from the Chilam Balam

 

 

First Chapter - V

PACHATÚSSAN

 

THE LINK AND

 SUPPORT OF EXISTENCE

 

 

Finally, we have traced a line from one of the eight points where the hanigo paqas crosses with the hanigo pacha, and connected it with its opposite to create the ch’ekkalluwa or great diagonal, which is a slant at 22° 30’ between the vertical and the Qhapaq Ñan of 45°. In Runa Simi, this great diagonal means the «line of truth» and according to our arguments regarding its representation of and conceptual coincidence with the Earth’s axis, it is also the path of life, the foundation, support, or master beam of existence. This is the Pachatússan.

This representation of interconnectedness and theoretical tool is a variable proportion of measurement whose origin is in the proportionality between the circle and the square. Examples of similar instruments include the Tupu and Papacancha (Earls, 1984) in the case of proportional agricultural measurements.

                      The ch’ekkalluwa diagonal line with its angle of 22 degrees and 30 minutes in relation to the north-south axis of the Earth – by the power of its influence – is the optimal angle for the rotation of the Earth’s axis. Its balanced inclination or yanan-tinkuy makes the Earth rotate before the sun in the most intelligent way, giving complement and proportion to all climates of the hemisphere and establishing shifts in each latitude for the seasonal cycles. The axis and its angle are responsible for life and bio-diversity, maintaining the normality of the seasons and climates in all latitudes – because this angle is the relation between square and circle, and the zone of intersection, balance, and yanan-tinkuy between the hanigo paqas and the hanigo pacha, the two essences that make up existence.

There is an evident identity and coincidence between this conclusion about the Earth’s rotational axis and the proto-Andean religiousness of the Puquina god «I» as we will verify later. In fact, we cannot overlook the information given by Frederico Aguilo in his book The Language of the Puquina People throughout which he refers to that flowing quasi-pantheistic god «I,» the pan-Andean god of light, brilliance, reflection, etc, and the great abundance of words that begin with I in the four Andean languages: Quechua, Aymara, Puquina, and Kallawaya. He considers these words: the trail of that religiousness transmitted from generation to generation and that still today has its popular expression, though in a subconscious way – but no less real – because it seals the Andean, Quechua, Aymara, and Puquina idiosyncrasies.

According to Aguilo: In remote times, the Puquinas shared equally with the Aymaras, Quechuas, Urus, Kallawayas, and many other groups throughout the Andes – thus, their belief is reflected in the development of the languages, because the toponymy of the god «I» is ubiquitous in the Andes. The most overwhelming demonstration is that all the development of our Andean culture culminated in the I-N-K-A confederation, whose center formed about the divinity I-N-TIN (see chapter I.; 37-40 with regard to the morphological analysis of the yana-n-tin), which according to Aguilo means: The Centralized Globalization of the God I.

                      We ought to slightly expand on and improve these meanings given by Aguilo in order to further unveil our understanding of yana-n-tin. «I,» which is God, receives the suffix «N,» which is its complement, and lastly the suffix «TIN,» meaning inseparably joined – all this meaning: God and its complement or parity in an eternal tin-kuy. Aguilo also says that INTIN is: an effort for unification of the religious phenomenon for strategic control. Later he insists that the topic should be taken up by specialists in Andean linguistics until its plain understanding and exhaustive verification… For now the god «I» is equally a religious patrimony to the Puquina-Kallawaya, Quechua, and Aymara, … Was its origin in Puquina? It appears to be. Why was a clergyman so interested in uncovering the linguistic roots of a non-Christian god in indigenous lands? Why so much interest in the Puquina people from an order of Christian friars?

                       We have found no guiding light in the «open» doctrine of Christianity nor in the official theology to answer these questions. Nonetheless, the philosopher René Guénon in his work The Interior Adventure (Obelisk Editions. BBAA 1993) relates the following: One last note concerning the secret name that The Faithful of Love gave to God…, in the Divine Comedy, Adam says that the first name of God was I, which later came to be He (Él). This identity between the «first name of God» of Dante Alighieri, and the Andean God «I» – in addition to Dante’s allusion to «Earthly Paradise» being in those times located in some unexplored region of the planet – give us many clues whose conclusions we give later and, though still partial, we continue to investigate. Though there are abundant references in the ancient history of the west that identify the American continent as the place of utopias.

                       In other words, America is the place of utopias for both the educated and common westerner, and not only after Columbus, but above all before him. A study of pre-Colombian European utopianism is needed and certainly would be more interesting than the known post-Colombian utopianism because it would shed light on the undeniable global relations since time immemorial and also on what we have called interconnectedness. This we will show in the following analysis, but above all it opens doors to begin to know more accurately the cultural influences of the continents from well before the disembarkation, invasion, and occupation of America by the western Europeans; those who brought a mission and will so strong that they provoke tacit suspicions of various kinds. Can ambition bring out this infinite homicidal passion unleashed by the Europeans at their arrival? Can ambition set loose this blind impulse to destroy everything – especially all traces of indigenous knowledge? Their instructions were evidently to leave no trace. But of what? What was it they wanted to hide or deny by destroying it all? This impulse is still noticeable today, though much more undercover and concealed; it is that predatory, radical compulsion that seems to say: Nothing is left nor should be left of the indigenous system, only remains like ruins, irrelevant for the reconstruction of their own future. All other options are impossible and idealistic; the current indigenous world – the remains of what was – have no other option than to align themselves behind the west.

                       Returning to our reflection on the Axis of the World or the first «God» of all or the majority of traditional known cultures that has excited all humanity in varying latitudes and epochs: Why? Undoubtedly, it seems to have imprinted all early human consciousness with volcanic fire. What we believe in a hypothetical way is that there have occurred cataclysms and catastrophes that in our culture we call pachakutis, literally meaning the world turns over, which have left an immortally traumatic and atavistic print in the human soul. This God «I» and his place of residence, have been called in the west: Center of the World, Heart of the World, Holy Land, Omphalos, Chemia, Pure Earth, Land of the Saints, Land or Dwelling of Immortality, Land of the Living, Earth without Evil, Paradis, Paradesha, Paradise, Pardes, Tree of Life, etc. What else could be behind this myth or primary God that caused such commotion in the human being? What aside from the cyclical catastrophe of the pachakutis?

                       All this symbolism regarding the Axis or Center of the World and the Holy Land has two reiterative common ideas: one is the state of Eden that alludes to a primordial state or basic state of Eden (which will not be explored in this text). The second theme is the idea of immortality, which seems to require we check our reflections from paragraphs 24, 25, and 26 in this text. We will leave for later the forms of immortality we qualify as perverse, like in the analysis of the «anxiety of immortality» in the west and its relationship with gold.

                       In the Andean world there exists and has existed a presiding aspiration to re-balance the world beginning with the balance between human society and nature. In the Inka society, and Andean culture in general, there was more than a desire to monitor the incidence angle of solar rays over the Earth through the system of intiwatanas and the Qhapaq Ñan – there is also a register of being a sincere aspiration and intention to control (see footnote 14) or reestablish the optimal angle of the Earth’s axis, through what we will call the privileged relation between the human being and nature. This particular form of refining, of our Andean culture, is what explains the presence and characteristics of our paradigmatic founder: Tunupa Wiracocha, the maker and caretaker of the world. It is he that his actions in the past offered himself imperfect and defective, and only in so far as he rectifies and perfects …his work, does it acquire the most important essential note which is the power and mandate over all existence (Rivara, 2000: I: 114).

                      One of the conclusions our text suggests is the pre-existence in the Andean world of an interconnectedness between cosmos-human, pacha-runa, el yanan-tinkuy, or intin-pacha-runa (Wiracocha-pacha-runa, in Rivara, 2000:I), which achieved in the Inka society would have allowed our ancestors to try and control the equilibrium of the Earth’s axis at its optimal angle of rotation – and the maintenance of the World Order, given that the greater successive inclination generates a collective of climatic disorder getting worse each year. This line of reflection brings us to support our hypothesis that with the system of the Qhapaq Ñan (and in general, what we have called balanced thought) that served as principle C’eje of the Tawantinsuyu, they tried from human society, from their interconnectedness, and from their H’ampi balance (Kreimer, 1999) with nature, to maintain this optimal inclination; or, at least to revert, control, and detain the cataclysms called pachakuti, which literally means the world turned over (chapter I; paragraph 25).

                       These cosmic pachakutis are terrifying planetary catastrophes, periodic and cyclical, and the traces of the last one were registered as a «universal flood» or unu pachakuti, with which life on Earth returns cyclically to its beginning. These planetary catastrophes reinitiate the cycle of life on Earth. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) in his Discours sur les révolutions du globe argued and explained the extinction of fossilized animal species by means of planetary catastrophes that periodically destroy the Earth and all living species in each geologic stage. This theory of catastrophes, according to which all diverse fauna through time come to be annihilated totally by a universal catastrophe followed by the creation of new fauna, was popularized in his work Recherches sur les osseents fossiles (1812) dedicated to bone fossils. For Cuvier, the cataclysms must have been quick as proved by the disturbed geological stratospheres. The only causes he finds for these upheavals are floods or violent raising of the ocean floor. Here George Cuvier is undoubtedly speaking of what our indigenous Andean people know as pachakutis.

                       We sustain here that the Andean society developed an historic sacred practice and a transcendent aspiration (as religion and spirituality are in the west) to prevent the catastrophe of cosmic pachakuti by way of a human pachakuti that reverts the angle of inclination to its optimal position, thus making the Earth a true dwelling of immortality. In this way, humankind would obtain an uninterrupted continuum in their history and biological evolution, and this would be a just prize for the achievement of their human equilibrium and interconnectedness with the cosmos. Or, at least this aspiration might serve to preserve the maximum possible of what remains of human culture after the cataclysm. This sacred practice also explains the megalithic architecture and high mountain urbanism – if it can be so called – of the constructions of Inka cities and the current Ñaupa Llactas on the summit of the sheer peaks of the Andean corridor, in clear preparation for cataclysms and floods that would be provoked by the total instability of the Earth’s rotational axis when the time of Pachakuti comes.

                       All this vocation and preparation for the cosmic cataclysms would have to do not only with the advance of science and technology of the Andean people, but also with the improvement of a primitive individual conscience (megalomania, egoism, and imbalance) and the conquest of a superior communal conscience, environmental, and cosmic. For the Andean world it remains clear that this is not a problem of religion, moral, or of ethic; rather, of levels or states of conscience that represent for the Andean those complementary and proportional links of humans with the community and with nature.

                       In other words, Good and Reality just like Human and Nature in the Andean world are not separate concepts, rather joined-in-relation or yanan-tinkuy. The Good, like the Human, is realized and flows in Reality and Nature; these represent the one formula for the Good and the Human to be viable, exist, and be. This content of wisdom in Puquina is expressed with the term qhapaq. What is neither well-done nor made just nor made correctly does not exist or if it does – it has an ephemeral existence. If it does exist temporarily for some strange reason, as is the case of lies, idleness, or theft – inevitably time and life annul them, making them disappear, and killing them – it is only a question of having a little patience. If human beings greatly imbalance life and the world, Pachakuti erases them from the face of the Earth and life returns to its beginning like a clean slate. But this process has a mechanic that is quite pragmatic and if someone wants to call it mystic, alright, but this sacred practice of the Andean people is something of a practical school, the school of the Qhapaq Kuna, of which we are giving sufficient, coherent, and consistent evidence in this text. 

Therefore, the Andean consciousness is a consciousness linked with and made up of the things of the world and the community. It thinks and it is conscious with them; it is not a consciousness that looks within at itself, isolated, reverted inwards, primitive, individualistic, and solitary. The west is convinced that their access to that which they call their consciousness depends only on the individual, on itself in each person – thus, their consciousness is a reflection of the Individual God. This is the origin of a great and historic imbalance. But what produced it?

                       Though it is not the objective of this text to delve further into this point, we shall leave some ideas for expansion later on. In the development of western culture, what we can call the traumatic ritual or phobic memory of the last cosmic and planetary cataclysm or pachakuti, came about with time in the worship of the individual person or Divine Unity. This occurs parallel to the historical development of what we have called the primitive individual conscience, and generates a perverse form, traumatic and morbid of identifying the world’s axis with the God «I,» the individual God, or the Divine Unity. This last entity corresponds to an individual anxiety substituting the sense of collective eternity with a relatively eternal object like gold, which comes undone presenting itself instead as an extreme or boundless ambition for the temporal accumulation of riches and power and a correspondingly extreme terror of death. The memory apparently disappears or is repressed by this substitution, as is natural, from the traumatic remembrance of the violent changes of the world’s axis, as Guenón senses (note 28). Here, it is necessary to note that the sense of Christian or western salvation is lived as a strictly individual and otherworldly aspiration, which makes quite evident the nature and vocation of this culture and explains the terror they feel towards the individual death and atavistic remembrance, the panic, and the reluctant phobia of the pachakuti; still present in our periphery when the rumble of that distant echo remains, the muffled sound, and the tremble of katatatay, the telluric movement that is the pulse of Pachakamac.

                       Scientist and essayist Carl Sagan, trying to get to the bottom of the content of metaphors and biblical myths to think scientifically about the development of human intelligence, says something that could leave a trail to continue stimulating these reflections: Including in the time when the story of Paradise was written, the development of the cognitive faculties was associated with the idea of the human loaded with Divine attributes and tremendous responsibilities. The God Yahweh said: ‘I have here Man made like one of us, knowledgeable of Good and Evil; he shall not reach out his hand to the tree of life, and eating from it, live forever’(Genesis 3,22). In this case, man should be expelled from Paradise and God assembled in the East of Eden a guard of cherubs with flaming swords to keep the Tree of Life far from man’s ambitions. Far, of course, from the western man, because these myths are part of the western proto-history. Here we should understand the phrase Tree of Life as Earth’s Axis.

                       On the other hand, the official history of the meeting between western man with the so-called New World and its discovery results for us each day more unbelievable and false in terms of the propaganda it has put out. Each day it becomes more clear that the attempted voyage of Columbus to the Indies was neither an expedition of lost people nor something casually arranged by the European kings. That the European courts and the Vatican are hiding something is evident; and their families, archives, and libraries still exist in full. We must know those secrets of the indigenous of America, and we will do it someday, because as the same sacred scriptures of the westerners say: Only the truth will set you free… The life and predecessors of the «discoverer» are still covered up and kept secret by the impenetrable Vatican, but we do know of the relation of the apprentice Christopher Columbus with his teacher René de Anjou (1418-1480). By knowing the master, we will know his disciple.

                       Rene de Anjou (Baingent, Leigh, and Lincoln, 2004) was master of diverse Christian lodges and multifaceted noble of the European courts; an architect and pragmatic leader of the Renaissance phenomenon, also great motivator of genius, artists, and even warriors of the old world like Joan of Arc. He was helmsmen to the powerful families of his time, like the Sforza of Milán and the Medici of Florence, the Este and the Gonzaga of Aragón. This character had great influence in almost all the European courts. In his most relevant work, he convinced Cosimo de Medici to translate the work of the Platonists, Neoplatonists, Pythagorists, Gnostics, and Hermeans founding the first public library of Europe, the St. Mark’s library, and bringing about institutes, academies, and laical universities, thus contributing to the rise of the Renaissance of western culture. But beyond his public acts, René de Anjou developed a clandestine activity or subterranean current known as The Arcadia.

                       The relation of Anjou with Christopher Columbus and the mission the former brought to America is a clue we must investigate to its final consequences, because we understand that if the descendents of the protagonist do not want to tell their truth, the descendents of their victims must unveil it until its minutest details and spread it to the furthest stretches. Because if there exists some historic project that propagates a mental machinery of second order to which the citizens of the old world are subjected, this should not continue as a rule of life and the future in the current globalization. We should well investigate that strange mission and compulsion to exterminate that possessed the Europeans to effect the deaths of more than 70 million of our ancestors in only 10 years since 1492. But what is certain is that Columbus traveled guided by the knowledge of the lodge of René de Anjou (The Order of the Temple), among whom figured the famous and known map of Piri Reis (a very clear map of the American continent), a Turkish navigator who was surely member of these secret societies and ancient lodges. In other words, the renowned voyage to the west Indies is a total lie, and should be abandoned once and for all. As should also be brought to light all the secret documents that the clandestine lodges and those pious monks of the Vatican hide with guilt and with shame.

                      Our reflection on the God «I» of the Puquina and its similarities with the Earth’s axis or Paradise has brought us here. It is interesting to observe how the myths of origin and sacred texts of western culture associate this loss of the meaning of eternity with their expulsion from some region of the Earth, the supreme region where the world’s axis once was, and the land without evil. This loss of meaning or the way of immortality should have stayed in western humanity, converted in myth (Jorge Nelson Trujillo, 1998) as a primordial lacking, as a divine punishment, or as they say in their own terms: trapped in a temporal sphere (René Guenón, 1993: 111).

                       Understanding the previous lines makes it easy to explain how patriarchal monotheism expelled woman from the zone of the mythic-religious or divine. The Mother God disappears, but at the same time, is converted into an anti-myth (the Holy Grail), turned into something eternally sought and mysterious, sensual and prohibited, desired with great anxiety to precisely recover the meaning of eternity; which is a morbid way of worshiping the counterpart of the primordial pair, after having eliminated and excluded her. Once the partner of God has been denied (a key absence for understanding the west), there can never again be possibility in the western cosmogony to balance the world.

                       Returning to Guenón: This Holy Land of excellence is the supreme region…it is effectively Earthly Paradise, which is the starting point of all tradition having in its center the unique source of the four rivers departing towards the four cardinal directions, and that is also the dwelling of immortality. These allusions to the four rivers and the enormous accumulated riches bring us a memory of the four «s’ejes» that mark the division of suyus organizing the Inka territories.

                       We leave these topics planted for their deeper exploration and reflection. But we also want to leave a desire to verify if these traces (Figures 8 and 10) located in the west are by chance just ancient reflections of the propagation of (important parts of) our Andean culture still visible today? Consider these symbols of Andean culture and its science of proportions, of what was our Andean proto-history, and other signs now remnants in the terrain of western religion – like the anti-myth of the Holy Grail and clandestine cults and even the virginization of the Mother. Are they perhaps an early diffusion of our knowledge and wisdom towards the Mediterranean, perhaps by occasional messengers, Amauta globetrotters, or Andeanizers? Or, perhaps they were remembrances transported beyond the oceans by navigators and visitors who came to our continent long before the voyage of Columbus.

                      What remains clear, is that in the western middle ages, those traces and symbols that identified the Templars as guardians of something, in our evident analysis, can only be explained with the satiric figure used by René Guenón: That those who used our symbols in pre-Columbian Europe, were like donkeys loaded with relics who lost the blessing (René Guenón; 1993, 50). This definitely meant for the Templars their principle weakness, because in the absence of foundations and authentic contents, they were defeated, persecuted, and assassinated by their rivals: the kings of Europe and the papal Vatican, who they themselves helped to exalt with riches, symbols, and knowledge partially known and poorly used.

                      As a conclusion to this text, I postulate that our Andean knowledge and wisdom (whose system and structure is being reconstructed) was partially transmitted and taught on other continents. And for reasons still unknown, after its diffusion in Europe, Asia, and Africa, only pure symbols, forms, and mysterious icons remained, secretly guarded by clandestine sects and lodges, but devoid of their contents, functions, explanations, and purposes. In the words of an old principle from the schools of knowledge: The influence of wisdom always streams down from the center to the periphery, from the sacred world to the profane, and never the other way around … just as water never returns to the spring.

                      Finally, for the skeptics who think that we have abandoned our philosophic reflection and detoured into the field of sterile speculation, or worse – of esotericism – I invite them to visit the sanctuary of the Lord of Huanca in Cusco, an ancient Inka sanctuary occupied at present by one of the Christian sanctuaries that have supplanted the one-time Inka sites of worship. In this case in Cusco, we refer to the Wanca or Wacca stone that predominated and protected the Inka sacred valley. What is interesting to note is that crossing to the exact opposite side of the mountain, the imposing Inka sanctuary of Tipón emerges, which has not been occupied by any church or saint of Christianity and continues being venerated by those who maintain the ancestral Inka worship. Both sanctuaries one on each side, on each opposing slope of the Apu Pachatussan, the sturdy mountain sustaining both sanctuaries and serving as a support of existence that tolerates both sides of the world: Inka and Christian, obliging and imploring h’ampi balance.

                       For contemporary philosophers who research all cultures with tolerance, the concept and geometric figure of the tawa-chakana and the concepts that we have here put forth and analyzed could be useful as testimonial proofs, reflections, and critiques of the systemized indigenous thought, native to these latitudes, which at their base explain that for the Andeans our existence is only possible by the crossing of two parallel and combined cosmos. In other words, we exist in a pair-verse, or two cosmos that share a link or bridge of interconnection, from which existence originates. If we compare this instrumental Andean concept to the western concept of universe, we will be able to conclude without a doubt that this concept of universe and its cosmogony is the origin of individualism, of egoism, of all exclusive attitude, and of so much war and depredation of humans by humans.

 

 

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