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Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Official name of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and a brief "Libya" as its capital city of Tripoli, a Member State in a number of organizations and regional groupings and international organizations including the United Nations, African Union, Arab Maghreb Union, Arab League, Non-Aligned Movement, Organization of Conference Islamic Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. 
 
Geography

 

Libyan territory stretching in the vast spaces between latitudes 45. 18 and 57. 32 degrees north latitude. Deserts constitute the bulk of the Libyan territory, land is a plateau is an extension of the African plateau, and on the coastal plain extends along the Mediterranean, where many oases, the most important mountains of Jabal Al Akhdar on the Mediterranean in the north-east, and Mount Nefoussa in the north-west, in the Tibesti Mountains south, where the highest peak is the summit of bits and a height of 2286 meters, mountains and Mount Acacus F. Law. The most important plateau plateaux Batnan.

 

 

Date

 


 


Historically, the name of Libya was on the territory in North Africa between Egypt and Tunisia in relation to the Libo Libyan tribe that inhabited this region for thousands of years, migrated from the island of Crete, the Greeks around the eighth century BC to form the five cities Greco (Abanntaboles) in Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica), is the most prosperous cities in Africa in that era. Existing historical records indicate that Libya was inhabited by ancient Berber tribes, and the west coast has Qtunh Phoenicians - who emigrated from the western Mediterranean coast - from the tenth century BC. In the sixth century BC, Carthage rose to prominence as a country with the strength and position on the Mediterranean, and continued until the fall of Carthage, however, the Romans in the second century BC, in the fifth century AD, Libya was in the hands of the Vandals and then under the control of the Byzantines in the sixth century AD, the Arabs income Muslims in the seventh century AD. The rule of governors Muslims amid a sporadic result of the recalcitrance of the Berbers. The most important species that wisdom and ages, has been thriving Aghlabids in the ninth century AD, Zîrids starting in the year 972 AD, and they are of Berber origins belonging to the Fatimids in 1050, a rebellion to succeed Zîrids the Fatimids in Cairo, which angered the Fatimids and to get them to send the Bani Hilal tribe to eliminate the built Ministers Alsnhadjiyin, passed Libya through the centuries, political and historical landmarks are important and can be divided into those stations to:
- The period before the date (the date of Ancient Libya)

- Phoenician, Hellenistic period, and Romanian until the Islamic conquest.

- The subordination of the Umayyad and Abbasid state sequence since 644 AD.

- Secede from the central government in the east and the dependency of the regional states (Aghlabid, Fatimid State Rustumiya, Unitarians).

- The period of the Ottoman or Turkish 1551 - 1911 م.

- The Italian occupation (1911-1943 AD).

- The British administration - French (1943-1951 AD).

- The establishment of the independence of the Libyan state, are divided into:

             - The period property 1951 - 1969 م. 

            - The rule of leader Muammar Gaddafi since 1969:

- Libyan Arab Republic (1969 -1977)

- Libya (since 1977).

  Has permeated some of these periods, attitudes and important events, it remains the events played a role in mapping the geographic and demographic makeup of this region, Xitrp Carthage or join parts are located within the Libyan border, the current of some countries such as the State or States or Rustumiya Hafsid or Fatimid, and was invaded by Arabs, Bedouins (tribes Bani Hilal and Bani Salim). The capital city of Tripoli to the current occupation by the Spaniards and then the Knights of St. John to be liberated by the Ottoman Turks Igmoha thereafter. I knew Libya current sometimes called "Tripoli," or gently and Tripoli.


Change

 

 
Climate is moderate in spring and autumn and Ikonalsif warm and relatively cold winter, a diverse climate dominated by the Mediterranean and semi-desert in the North East and the desert climate in the South has no cold winter and hot in summer and rare rainfall, hot summer desert climate prevails most of the country, and with the exception of only a narrow strip stretching along the Mediterranean, and some spots of the country's mountainous north or south, where rainfall amounts sufficient for the growth of plant life naturally vary in intensity and in its relevance to the plant, and human life according to the amount of rain. It is these areas, sufficient rainfall for the growth of forests and jungles of evergreen similar to the one growing in a Mediterranean climate, as is the case with Green Mountain, including the money but enough rainfall to seasonal growth of grass quickly disappear disappearance Rkp rain in the last season as in the plain area Aljafarah . And the location of the country's tropical and sub-tropical average large areas of dry Africa make temperatures do not vary greatly from one area to another, where there are no great mountain ranges Kjebal Atlas or the Alps, for example, do not go fabulous cold ocean currents are generally high to high very summer, with the exception of bar coast and the mountains green, and Montenegro to the west and moderate cold in winter and increased temperature range between day and night, summer and winter towards the south away from the influences of the Mediterranean The relative humidity is high, particularly in the months 8 and 9, bar coast due to wind wet from the sea and very low desert areas because of Qahalip the surface and away from the effects of marine With regard to the prevailing winds on the coast can be divided into two seasons of the year according to the prevailing trend in the eastern half of the summer is followed by the south-eastern and eastern and north-west, while in winter the north-Vaiglb and north-west and then west and south while in the southern provinces Variyah commercial North and Northeast are prevalent throughout the year, and generally characterized by the Libyan climate is mostly tropical climate of the desert, where drought is dominated by the result of several factors related to the nature of the air, surface and geographical location.
Libya does not have the resource of surface water tortured perennial lack of fluctuation of rainfall and the nature of the geological formations of the water sources are rainwater and groundwater, as the study of water resources based on the proportion of 95% of the underground water.
The problem of lack of water sources and the lack of the key factors affecting the achievement of the objectives of sustainable development, and Libya depend on groundwater by 95.6% and valleys water by 2.7% and desalinated water by 1.4% water and reused after treatment by 0.7%, and to overcome the deficit problem water in the coastal strip has already been achieved and one of the largest projects at a cost of about $ 30 billion under the name of the Great Artificial River, the project aims through four stages and through a network of giant pipes in length 4040 kilometers, to transport approximately 5.5 million cubic meters of water per day of groundwater basins in the south to the coastal areas in the north. Has been established many desalination plants, where small and medium production capacity reached 700 million cubic meters per year and work is under way for the construction of a huge sea water desalination plant in Tripoli and Benghazi, and some other cities.

 

Population

 


The population of Libya 6,310,434, including tens of thousands of non-citizens. High population density in coastal areas in the north of the country, averaging 50 people / sq km, while it is about 1 / km in the south. Ethnic groups in Libya are the Arabs and Berbers, who make up about 97% of the population, in addition to about 3% of different origins.


Languages

 

 


Arabic is the most widespread, the official language and spoken by the vast majority of the population, speaks dialect Libyan Jamahiriya, as English is the language of business and university study, or vernacular, differ slightly from place to place due to the wide geographical area of the country.
Berber language in different dialects spoken by various Berber tribes in the country, its people and is concentrated in a number of villages of Mount Nefoussa (Aljebalip) and in the north-west Bzoarpo (Algdamsip) in the village of Ghadames and (Altargip) to the Tuareg village of languages in addition to small groups in different parts of the country such as Language Aloocalip Vioocalp and Suknp. And is fluent in most of the Berbers speak Arabic.
I have a Hausa language Alhosaip village languages and are scattered among the people of Hausa in Niger, Nigeria, West Africa.
Alteda language, the language of a branch of the Toubou Alqranip and is the language of the people of Sudan, East Africa القرعان Chad. Famous Libyan folk poetry loan is similar in purpose, structure and weights some of what others say Bedouin in the Arabian Peninsula. 
 

 
Religions

 



Religious, Libya is homogeneous, where the majority of the population condemns the Islamic religion, 97% Muslim and 3% belong to other religions, mostly non-resident aliens on a permanent basis, and no Shi'ite groups, and most of the Christian community, foreign refugees, Africans or Europeans, or the Copts working in Libya. There are also a small Anglican community composed of one resident priest and, workers of African refugees in Tripoli, the Indians belonging to the diocese of Egypt. No unifying churches in Tripoli and Benghazi. There are also three churches closed in the city of Casablanca, and there are also in the majority of towns and villages in Libya churches, but also unlocked. Catholic priests and nuns working in most cities, coastal and mountainous, and there was one priest in the city of Sabha, most of whom work in hospitals and shelters and in helping the disabled and the elderly. The monks and nuns wear religious clothes all the time, did not know about any cases of religious discrimination or harassment.
As for the Libyan Jews, left the country, individuals and groups, most recently in 1967, perhaps there may be a small number of Jews in Libya, mostly in the old city of Tripoli. Issued in 1974 the World Council of Jews, it is no longer in Libya, only about twenty Jews. The Jewish minority, which numbered up to thirty-six thousand people after the end of World War II, left for Italy, Israel and other countries at various stages between 1948 and 1967.
The number of Holy Quran in Libya at about one-third of the population.

 

Administrative Divisions

 

 

Libya to divide (22) popular (synonymous with the concept of county or municipality). Each is divided into several popular Basic People's Congresses. Each conference is divided people to a number of key actualize (the smallest political unit). Began in 2007 has become Libya consists of 22 popular to replace the popular previous 32:
  1 - Butnan 2 - Darnah 3 - Al Jabal al Akhdar 4 - Marj 5 - popular Benghazi 6 - Wahat 7 - 8 infidels popularity - popular Sirte 9 - Murzuq
10 - Sabha 11 - a popular Valley of Life 12 - Popular Misurata 13 - Murgub 14 - a popular Tripoli 15 - Jfara 16 - a popular corner
17 - a popular five-point 18 - a popular mountain west 19 - Naloot 20 - popular languages 21 - Jufrah 23 - and led a popular beach 

 
Economy

 

 

Natural resources: oil, natural gas, gypsum. Oil and gas are the main source of income in the country. The total oil reserves in Libya, 41.5 billion barrels, making it the forefront of African countries in this area.
- Oil accounts for about 94% of the proceeds of Libya's foreign exchange and 60% of government revenues and 30% of the gross domestic product.



- Libya produces 2 million barrels of oil per day and plans to increase production to three million barrels a day from the year 2010.
- The rate of oil production: 2 million barrels / day, and an estimated reserve of $: 41.5 billion barrels.
- The rate of gas production: 399 billion feet | 3 in the amount of proven reserves: 52.7 trillion feet | 3.
Budget
- Revenues: U.S. $ 36.34 billion
- Public expenditure: $ 24 billion
- Public Debt: 8% of the total national income of $ 4.5 billion (2006)
- Exports: 38.5 billion dollars (2006)
- Imports: $ 10.4 billion (2006)
Industries:
Iron and steel - cement and building materials - caustic soda - urea - other petrochemical industries.
Agricultural Products:
Barley - Wheat - Tomatoes - Potatoes - Olive - vegetables - fruit - meat.
Policy support:
Being in Libya to support prices of basic food commodities, and are also supporting the prices of fuel and electricity to education and health services provided free of charge.

 

Banks

 

 



- Central Bank of Libya
- Bank Unit
- Bank of the Republic (Union bank of the Republic and the nation)
- Bank average
- Trade and Development Bank
- Sahara Bank (purchased by the Bank BNP Baribas France, now known as Bank of deserts BNP Baribas
- Bank Arab consensus
- Commercial Bank
- Bank security

 

Currency

 


 
Dinar is the basic unit of currency of Libya. It consists of 1000 dinar, which is covered with gold and convertible to foreign currencies There are no restrictions on cash transfers to and from the masses. The U.S. dollar is equivalent to about 1.28 dinars. Categories of paper currency in Libya (0.25 dinars, 0.5 dinars, JD 1, 5 KD, 10 KD, 20 KD, 50 KD). Groups of coins in Libya (50 AED and 100 AED, 0.25 JD, 0.5 JD). 
 


Tourism

 

 
Libya has a large coastline and wonderful fit for Tourism Investment
Libya owns one of the largest deserts in the world amazing
Libya has the best fascinating natural beauty in eastern Libya the Green Mountain area that exceed the size of Lebanon
Libya has a history of Grecian Roman Turki Italiana in Leptis Magna and Sabratha, and Cyrene, and Ptolemais, and in Sousse and Josberidesotocrp and Qasr Libya.
Libya has a good climate "climate of the Mediterranean" moderate
Libya has the ability to attract tourists to Libya is classified as a new country has no foreigners and Arabs.
We have a tourism potential that can replace oil

 

Airports

 



- Tripoli International Airport
- Airport Mitiga International
- Benina International Airport in Benghazi.
- Airport Sabha International
- Sirte international airport
There are domestic airports in: Ghadames, Tobruk, Abraq, GATT, Brega, infidels, Zouara, Bani Walid Airport Misurata civil society.

 

Ports

 

 

- Maritime port of Tripoli - Benghazi sea port - Port of Misurata - Port Zowara - Port tuber - the five-port - Port of Tobruk - oil ports, such as: Brega, Port Harikah Tobruk, and the top of the noses. 
    

    

Education

 

 
Education in Libya is free at all levels and is divided into two parts:
- The first is general education (compulsory) and is divided into two phases:
The basic stage, consists of nine academic years.
The middle stage (secondary) and is specialized and consists of three years of study, according to the latest amendment for the year 2006-2007, including: Division of Basic Sciences, Division of Life Sciences, Division of Engineering Sciences, Division of Social Sciences, Division of Economic Sciences and Division of languages.
- Is the second and higher education and consists of:
  Undergraduate degree or a bachelor's fun. Undergraduate master's degree (high). University study for a doctorate (minute).
And the executive bodies of the State to send Libyan students to study abroad in the developed countries to complete their studies at the expense of the State.
And oversees the General People's Committee for Education on the stages of public education. It also oversees the General People's Committee for Higher Education on higher education. The illiteracy rate in 1993-1997 from 26.6% to 23.6%, and Libya represents the highest percentage of learners in North Africa; or about 82% of the population can read and write. And for enrollment in the three stages of education has experienced a moderate change, rising from 88% in 1993 to 92% in 1997.
Universities and institutes of higher public
- Arab Medical University (Benghazi)
- Gar Younis University (Benghazi)
- Al-Fateh University (Tripoli)
- Open University
- University of Omar Al-Mukhtar white
- University of Alosamarip of Islamic Sciences (Zliten)
- Seventh of April University - corner
- University Sabha
- University Challenge - Sirte
- University Observatory
- University of the seventh of October - Misurata
- Nasser University International.
- University of the mountain west.
- Academy of Graduate Studies.
- High Center of Computer Benghazi.
- The Higher Institute of Computer Technology in Tripoli.
- Center of Higher health white.
- High Center of occupations comprehensive Sabha (Sabha)
- Center for Higher administrative and financial occupations (Tripoli)
- Center for Higher Mken mechanical Benghazi
- Center for Higher administrative and financial occupations Benghazi
- High Center of Computer Benghazi
- High Center of Benghazi Engineering Careers

 

Health

 


Libya has seen extensive development in the health sector during the past few decades where there has been until the year 2000 as follows:
- The high number of dentists to 7183 the average doctor to doctors to the population to one doctor for every 704 people.
- Increase in the number of workers in the medical assistance to 30551, which made it possible to raise the average service for the population to one for each 165 inhabitants.
- The number of hospital beds, 18,454 beds to 707 beds as well as a points of legal and cooperatives to an annual average 3.8 beds per thousand people.
The available data indicate that the indicators of human development in Libya, had risen through the development of positive health and educational services, the average life expectancy at birth from 63.4 years in 1993 to 70 years in 1997 as rates fell and the infant mortality rate from 118 per thousand in 1973 to 24.4 per thousand in 1995, and there are several medical centers in Libya is one of the largest medical centers in the Middle East and Africa:
- Tripoli Medical Center.
- Benghazi Medical Center.
- Batnan Medical Center - Tobruk

 

National Holidays

 



  -1 September - Eid al-Fateh Revolution of September.
2 March - the anniversary of the proclamation of the power of the people.
-28 March - the anniversary of the evacuation of the British bases.
-7 October - the anniversary of the evacuation of the remnants of the Italians.
-11 June - the anniversary of the evacuation of U.S. bases (Wheelus Air Base in Tripoli, now a civilian airport).

 

Religious holidays

 

 

- Eid al-Fitr (three days) 1,2,3, October
- Eid al-Adha (three days) 10,11,12,
- A Ahadjpamold Birthday (one day) 12 April 

 
Libyan Calendar

 

 

Dating in Libya, solar calendar, but on the basis of the death of the Prophet Mohammed bin Abdullah peace be upon him, which was the year 632 AD. As the most important event (as the official point of view), which was interrupted by the contact and communication between heaven and earth, and not the historical stages of the march of the Islamic call such as migration and others. Is called the calendar that dates to the birth of Christ (Christian). And the nomination of Libya to months instead of the old name of the Gregorian calendar, such as March or August, which are the names of Roman gods and emperors.

Label solar months
Any fire: January - Nawar: February - Spring: March - Bird: April - Water: May - Summer: June - Nasser: July - Hannibal: August - Conqueror: September - Dates: October - tillage: November - canon: December
   
  
  

For convenience, the year 2001 AD, offset by the year 1369 the death of the Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah.

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