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Growing Fluency Lesson Plan

Leaping into the Wonderful World of Fluency

Lauren Tolleson



Rationale: After children have learned the strategy of decoding, it is important for them to receive fluency instruction. Fluency instruction helps students learn how to turn new words into sight words, or words that they can recognize automatically. Using the strategy of rereading helps the student move improve fluency because students are rereading texts multiple times; therefore, they are turning the words into sight words. In this lesson, students are reviewing how to crosscheck. They are also doing paired readings and the teacher will be charting the student’s progress to maintain the student’s motivation to reread.




·      Stopwatches for each pair of students

·      Fluency graph for each students, apple stickers

·      Class set of Frog and Toad are Friends

·      Fluency checklist

·      Reader response form

·      Smart Board

·      Document Camera





1. The teacher will say, “Today we are going to learn how to become fluent readers. You all are great decoders; so today we are going to learn how to become fluent readers. When we are fluent readers, we can read a book smoothly, the same way we talk. We use expression in our voice so the story really becomes interesting and fun to read! We are going to practice becoming fluent readers by reading and then rereading a great story, Frog and Toad are Friends. When we reread a story that means we practice it several times until we become professionals at reading that story.”


2. The teacher will need a copy of Frog and Toad are Friends and the document camera. The teacher will say, “I am going to show you what an example of a reader who is not fluent and a reader who is fluent, make sure you are all listening and watching as I read.” The teacher will display the first page of Frog and Toad are Friends on the document camera. She will finger track and model mistakes as she reads.

Frog ran up the pa-th, path to Toad’s h-ow-se. He k-no-kt on the door? Oh knocked! That makes sense. There was no /an-sw-er/ /ans-wer/ oh, answer.  Did you notice how I finished the sentence to figure out what the word knocked meant? That’s called crosschecking. It really helps to finish the sentence when you are reading to help you figure out what a word is. So now, let me try that sentence one more time. Frog ran up the path to Toad’s house. He knocked on the door. There was no answer.”

Raise your hands if you think the first time I read sounded better. Now raise your hand if you think the second time I read sounded better. Wow, everybody thought that the first time I read sounded better. Why do you think it sounded better? Yes, that’s right because I read smoothly without having to stop to figure out any of the words.”


3. The teacher will say, “Now let’s try reading the line of this page together. Everybody look at the document camera so we can read as a class. Toad, Toad, shouted Frog, Wake up. It’s Spring! Great Job! I heard some of you having a little bit of trouble with the word shouted, but you finished the sentence and were able to figure it out. Let’s read that sentence one more time to practice being fluent.”


4. The teacher will say, “Now let’s stop reading for a minute so I can tell you a little bit more about this book Toad and Frog are Friends. Frog is awake from his long winter’s nap and he is excited that it is spring. He goes over to his friend Toad’s house to wake him up, but instead of coming to play Toad says, “I am not here.” Oh no! I wonder what Frog will have to do to convince his friend to come and play!


5. The teacher will need the Smart Board to write directions on while explaining the next steps.

The teacher will say, “Now I am going to explain what we will be doing next. I am going to write the directions on the board as I explain, but make sure you are listening. Also, please don’t get up until I am done explaining.” 

1. Pair up with your reading buddy; one buddy will come up and get two Partner Reading Progress checklists and two of the reader response forms from my back table, then go find your reading places. While one buddy is doing this, the other one will count all the words in this chapter and put that number at the top of your checklist forms.
2. One child will read the chapter to the other. While one reads, the other one will use the stopwatch to time your partner’s readings. After one buddy gets done reading, you will switch jobs. Each buddy is going to read the chapter 3 times and each buddy is going to time their partner 3 times.

3. Make sure you are being a very good listener while your buddy reads so that you can hear if he makes any mistakes. If your buddy does make a mistake while he reads, you are going to make a tally, like this, at the top of your paper. Make sure you put one tally mark for each mistake your buddy makes. After your buddy is done reading, stop your stopwatch.

4. After your buddy is done reading, you are going to do a subtraction problem. You are going to take the total number of words in the story and subtract the number of tallies your buddy made. For example, if your buddy made 5 mistakes while reading, and there were 50 words in the story, you are going to say 50-5=45. (Display the Partner Reading Progress sheet on the document camera). Now when you get the answer from your subtraction problem, you are going to put the number on this line”: _______ words. Then you will put the number of seconds they read in on this line: ______ seconds.

5. When you are done listening to your partner read 3 times, you are going to put which time you thought your partner sounded the smoothest (either 1, 2, or 3) and put it in this blank: Turn number that sounded smoothest _________. Then you are going to put the turn that your partner made the fewest mistakes in this blank: Turn number that had the fewest mistakes ________.

6. When you are done timing each other, you can talk about the answers to the reader response questions.



7. Then, go back to your seats and write the answers to the questions on a separate sheet of paper. Make sure you write good complete sentences to the answers.

8. When you are finished, turn in your papers and checklists. Then, I will give you your very on fluency graph so you can track your progress to becoming an expert reader! I will figure our your three reading rates and I will use these neat apple stickers to show your reading rates.

9. Then, you’ll put your completed apple chart on the back bulletin board.


Assessment: I will give grades using the following rubric. There will be ten points possible for this assignment.



I will also calculate the student’s WPM using the following formula:

Number of words X 60
Number of seconds


Sample reading graph.






Lobel, Arnold. (1970). Frog and Toad are Friends. New York: Harper Collins


Lesson Design Resources:


Geri Murray, Reading is a Breeze  http://www.auburn.edu/~murrag1/murraygf.htm


Reading Genie, Developing Reading Fluency



Frog Clip Art