Peer Reviewed Publications


McLaughlin KR, Johnston LG, Gamble LJ, Grigoryan T, Papoyan A, Grigoryan S. Population Size Estimations Among Hidden Populations Using Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys: Case Studies From Armenia. JMIR Public Heal Surveill. 2019. Available from:


Johnston LG, Soe PM, Aung MY, Ammassari S. Estimating the population size of males who inject drugs in Myanmar: Methods for obtaining township and national estimates. AIDS Behav. 2018.

Hakim AJ, Johnston LG, Dittrich S, et al. Defining and surveying key populations at risk of HIV infection: Towards a unified approach to eligibility criteria for respondent-driven sampling HIV biobehavioral surveys. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 2018


Johnston LG, Bonilla L, Caballero T, et al. Associations of HIV testing, sexual risk and access to prevention among female sex workers in Dominican Republic. AIDS Behav. 2017. 21(8):2362-2371.

Johnston LG, Sass J, Acaba J, Cheng WS, Mark Prabhu S. Ensuring inclusion of adolescent key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure: Recommendations for Conducting Biological Behavioral Surveillance Surveys. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2017. 20:3(2). (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Mon MM, Steinhaus M, Sass J. Correlates of forced sex among young men who have sex with men in Yangon and Monywa, Myanmar. Arch Sex Behav. 2017. 46(4):1001-1010 (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, McLaughlin KR, Rouhani S, Bartels S. Measuring a hidden population: A novel technique to estimate the population size of women with sexual violence-related pregnancies in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. 2017. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 7(1): 45-53. (Download PDF)


Johnston LG, Sabin LS, Prybylski D, Sabin K, et al. The importance of assessing self-reported HIV status in bio-behavioural surveys. Bull World Health Organ. 2016. 94(8): 557-632. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Hakim AJ, Dittrich S, et al. A systematic review of published Respondent-Driven Sampling surveys collecting behavioral and biologic data. AIDS Behav. 2016. 20(8):1754-76 (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Steinhaus MC, Sass J, et al. Recent HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Bangkok and Chiang Mai: HIV Testing and Prevention Strategies Must Be Enhanced in Thailand. AIDS Behav. 2016. 20(9):2023-32. (Download PDF)

Stahlman S, Johnston LG, Yah C, et al. Respondent-driven sampling as a recruitment method for men who have sex with men in southern sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional analysis by wave. Sex Transm Infect. 2016. 92(4):292-8. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Oumzil H, El Rhilani H, et al. Sex Differences in HIV prevalence, behavioral risks and prevention needs among anglophone and francophone sub-Saharan African migrants living in Rabat, Morocco. AIDS Behav. 2016. 20(4):746-53. (Download PDF)


Gile KJ, Johnston LG, Salganik MJ. Diagnostics for Respondent-driven Sampling. J Royal Statistical Society. 2015. 178 (1): 241–269. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, McLaughlin KR, El Rhilani et al. A novel method for estimating the size of hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling data: Case examples from Morocco. 2015. Epidemiology. 26 (6), 846–852. (Download PDF)

McLaughlin KR, Johnston LG, Handcock MS. Inference for the visibility distribution for respondent-driven sampling. 2015. Joint Statistical Meetings Proceedings, Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. 2259-2267. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, McFarland W, Sabin ML et al. Editorial: The importance of measuring self-reported HIV status in bio-behavioural surveys. Bull World Health Organ. 2015. 93:287–287. (Download PDF)

Tran HV, Le LV, Johnston LG, Nadol P, Van Do A, Tran HT, Nguyen TA. Sampling Males Who Inject Drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam: Comparison of Time-Location and Respondent-Driven Sampling Methods. J Urban Health. 2015. 92(4):744-57 (Download PDF)

White R, Hakim A, Salganik M, Spiller M, Johnston LG, et al. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology for respondent-driven sampling studies: ‘‘STROBE-RDS’’ statement. J Clinical Epidemiology. 2015. 68. (Download PDF)

Pierce RD, Hegle J, Sabin K, Agustian E, Johnston LG, Mills S, et al. Strategic information is everyone’s business: perspectives from an international stakeholder meeting to enhance strategic information data along the HIV Cascade for people who inject drugs. Harm Reduct J. 2015. (Download PDF)


Sabin K, Johnston LG. Epidemiological Challenges to the Assessment of HIV Burdens among key populations: respondent driven sampling, time location sampling and demographic and health surveys. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2014. 9(2):101-6. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Grigoryan S, Papoyan A, Grigoryan T, et al. High HIV and HCV and the unmet needs of People who Inject Drugs in Yerevan Armenia. International J of Drug Policy. 2014. 25: 740-743. (Download PDF)

Gyarmathy AV, Johnston LG, Caplinskiene I, Caplinskas S, Latkin CA. A simulative comparison of respondent driven sampling with incentivized snowball sampling - the "strudel effect". Drug Alc Depend. 2014. 1(135):71-7. (Download PDF)

van Gemert C, Stoove M, Kwarteng T, Bulu S, Bergeri I, Wanyeki I,....Johnston LG. Chlamydia prevalence and associated behaviours among female sex workers in Vanuatu: results from an integrated bio-behavioural survey, 2011. AIDS Behav]. 2014;18(10):2040–9. (Download PDF)


McCreesh N, Copas A, Seeley J, Johnston LG, et al. Respondent Driven Sampling: Determinants of Recruitment and a Method to Improve Point Estimation. PLoS ONE. 2013. 8(10):e78402. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Alami K, El Rhilani MH, et al. HIV, syphilis and sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men in Agadir and Marrakesh, Morocco. Sex Transm Infect. 2013. 89 Suppl 3:iii45-8. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Caballero TV, Dolores Y, Vales HM. HIV, Hepatitis B/C and syphilis prevalence and risk behaviors among gay/trans/men who have sex with men, Dominican Republic. Int J STD AIDS. 2013. 24(4):313-321. (Download PDF)

Zohrabyan L, Johnston LG, et al. Determinants of HIV infection among Female Sex Workers in two cities in the Republic of Moldova: The role of injection drug use and sexual risk. AIDS Behav. 2013. 17(8):2588-96. (Download PDF)

Zohrabyan L, Johnston LG, et al. HIV, Hepatitis and Syphilis Prevalence and Correlates of condom use during anal sex among men who have sex with men in the Republic of Moldova. Int J STD AIDS. 2013. 24 (5):357-364. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Chen YH, Silva-Santisteban A, Raymond AH. An empirical examination of Respondent Driven Sampling design effects among HIV risk groups from studies conducted around the world. AIDS Behav. 2013. 17(6):2202-10. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Prybylski D, Raymond HF, et al. Incorporating the service multiplier method in respondent driven sampling surveys to estimate the size of hidden and hard-to-reach populations: Case studies from around the world. Sex Transm Dis. 2013. 40(4):304-10 (Download PDF)

Montealegre JR, Johnston LG, Murrill C, Monterroso E. Respondent Driven Sampling for HIV Biological and Behavioral Surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean. AIDS Behav. 2013. 17(7):313-340. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Corceal S. Unexpectedly high HIV and Hepatitis C prevalence among female sex workers in Republic of Mauritius: Strong association with injecting drug use. AIDS Behav. 2013. 17(2):574-84. (Download PDF)

Manopaiboon C, Prybylski D, Subhachaturas W, Tanpradech S, Suksripanich O, Siangphoe U, Johnston LG, et al. Unexpectedly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand in a respondent-driven sampling survey. International Journal for STD and AIDS. 2013. 24(1):34-8


Johnston LG, Paz Bailey G, Morales-Miranda S, et al. High Prevalence of M. genitalium among Female sex workers in Honduras: Implications for the spread of HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections. International Journal STD and AIDS. 2012. 23(1):5-11. (Download PDF)

Bozicevic, I, Lepej S, Rode O, Grgic I, Jankovic P, Dominkovic Z, Lukas D, Johnston LJ, Begovac J. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections and patterns of recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Zagreb, Croatia. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2012. 88(7):539-544. (Download PDF)

McCreesh N, Johnston LG, Copas A, et al. Evaluation of the role of location and distance in recruitment in respondent-driven sampling. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2012, 10:56. (Download PDF)

McCreesh N, Frost SDW, Seeley J, Katongole J, Tarsh MN, Ndunguse R, Jichi F, Lunel NL, Maher D, Johnston LG, Sonnenberg P, Copas A, Hayes RJ, White RG. Evaluation of Respondent-driven Sampling. Epidemiology. 2012. 23:138–147. (Download PDF)


Johnston LG, Saumtally A, Corceal S, et al. High HIV and hepatitis C prevalence amongst injecting drug users in Mauritius: Findings from a population size estimation and respondent driven sampling survey. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2011. 22(4):252-8. (Download PDF)

Townsend L, Mathews C, Jewkes R, Johnston LG, et al. HIV risk behaviours and their relationship to intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have multiple female sexual partners in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS and Behavior. 2011. 15(1):132-141. (Download PDF)

Taran YS, Johnston LG, Pohorilac NB, Saliuk T. Correlates of HIV risk among Injecting Drug Users in sixteen Ukrainian Cities. AIDS and Behavior. 2011. 15(1):65-74. (Download PDF)

Dahoma M, Johnston LG, Holman A, et al. HIV, viral hepatitis, syphilis and associated risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Zanzibar, Tanzania. AIDS and Behavior. 2011. 15(1):186-92. (Download PDF)

Townsend L, Ragnarsson A, Mathews C, Johnston LG, et al. “Taking care of business”: Alcohol as currency in transactional sexual relationships among ‘players’ in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative Health Research. 2011. 21(1):41-50. (Download PDF)


Townsend L, Johnston LG, Fisher A, et al. Effectiveness of Respondent-Driven Sampling to Recruit High Risk Heterosexual Men Who Have Multiple Female Sexual Partners: Differences in HIV Prevalence and Sexual Risk Behaviours Measured at Two Time Points. AIDS and Behavior. 2010. 14(6):1330-1339. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Holman A, Dahoma M, et al. HIV risk and the overlap of injecting drug use and high-risk sexual behaviours among men who have sex with men in Zanzibar (Unguja), Tanzania. 2010. International Journal of Drug Policy. 21:485–492 (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Sabin K. Échantillonnage déterminé selon les répondants pour les populations difficiles à joindre (in French) or Sampling hard-to-reach populations with respondent driven sampling (In English). Methodological Innovations Online. 2010. 5(2):38-48.

Johnston LG, Whitehead S, Simic M, Kendall, C. Formative research to optimize Respondent Driven Sampling surveys among hard to reach populations in HIV behavioral and biological surveillance: Lessons learned from four case studies. AIDS Care. 2010. 22(6):784-92. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Sabin K, Prybylski. Update for sampling most-at-risk and hidden populations for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance. Journal of HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Epidemiology. 2010. 2(1). (Download PDF)

Uusküla A, Johnston LG, Raag M, et al. Evaluating recruitment among Female Sex Workers and Injecting Drug Users at Risk for HIV using Respondent Driven Sampling in Estonia. Journal of Urban Health. 2010. 87(2):304-17. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, Thurman TR, Mock N, et al. Respondent-driven sampling: A new method for studying street children with findings from Albania. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 2010. 5(1):1-11. (Download PDF)

Johnston LG, O’Bra H, Chopra M, et al. The associations of voluntary counseling and testing acceptance and the perceived likelihood of being HIV-infected among men with multiple sex partners in a South African township. AIDS and Behavior. 2010. 14(4):922-931. (Download PDF)


Johnston LG, Trummal A, Lõhmus L, Ravalepik A. Efficacy of convenience sampling through the internet versus respondent driven sampling among males who have sex with males in Tallinn and Harju County, Estonia: Challenges reaching a hidden population. AIDS Care. 2009. 21(9):1195-1202. (Download PDF)

Kasianczuk, MG, Johnston LG, Dovbakh, AV, Leszczynski, EB. Risk factors associated with condom use among men who have sex with men in Ukraine. Journal of LGBT Health Research. 2009. 5:51-62. (Download PDF)

Judd A, Rhodes T, Johnston LG, Platt L, et al. Improving survey methods in sero-epidemiological studies of injecting drug users: unlinked anonymous and rapid HIV testing in two community settings in Serbia and Montenegro. British Medical Journal. 2009. 9:14 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-14. Access at

Chopra M, Townsend L, Johnston LG, et al. HIV risk behaviors and prevalence among heterosexual men with multiple sex partners in Cape Town. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009. 51(1):72-7. (Download PDF)

Bozicevic I, Dakovic OR, Zidovec LS, Johnston LG, et al. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Zagreb, Croatia. AIDS and Behavior. 2009. 13 (2): 303-309. (Download PDF)


Johnston LG, Malekinejad M, Rifkin MR, et al. Implementation challenges to using respondent-driven sampling methodology for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance: Field experiences in international settings. AIDS and Behavior. 2008.12(Suppl 1): 131-141. (Download PDF)

Malekinejad M, Johnston LG, Kendall C, et al. Using respondent-driven sampling methodology for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in international settings: A systematic review. AIDS and Behavior. 2008.12(Suppl 1): 105-130. (Download PDF)

Kendall C, Kerr L, Gondim C, Werneck G, Macena R, Pontes M, Johnston LG, et al. An empirical comparison of respondent-driven sampling, time location sampling, and snowball sampling for behavioral surveillance in men who have sex with men, Fortaleza, Brazil. AIDS and Behavior. 2008. 12(Suppl 1):97-104. (Download PDF)


Johnston LG, Khanam R, Reza M, et al. The effectiveness of respondent driven sampling for recruiting males who have sex with males in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A pilot study. AIDS and Behavior. 2007. 2(2): 294-304. (Download PDF)


Johnston LG, Sabin K, Hien MT, Huong PT. Effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling to recruit female sex workers in two cities in Vietnam. Journal of Urban Health. 2006. 83 (Suppl 7):16–28. (Download PDF)

Simic M, Johnston LG, Platt L, et al. Appropriateness of using respondent driven sampling in sex worker populations in Eastern Europe: emerging evidence and key issues for formative research. Journal of Urban Health.2006. 83 (Suppl 7):6-15. (Download PDF)

Platt L, Wall M, Rhodes T, Judd A, Hickman M, Johnston LG, et al. Methods to recruit hard-to-reach groups: Comparing two chain referral sampling methods of recruiting injecting drug users across nine studies in Russia and Estonia. Journal of Urban Health. 2006. 83 (Suppl 7):28-34. (Download PDF)