LOVOTICS = Love + Robotics

Lovotics refers to the research of human-to-robot relationship. These relationships offer new possibilities for exploring the concept and possibilities of human love. After industrial, service and social robots, Lovotics introduces a new generation of robots, with the ability to love and be loved by humans.

Lovotics is proposed by Dr. Hooman Samani, Director of AIART Lab (Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Technology Laboratory) and Asst. Professor at National Taipei University, Taiwan.

The first step in Lovotics is to develop a deep understanding of the physics, physiology and emotions of the human being in order to model this in the robot. Even though various fields have proposed ideas about the role and function of love, the current understanding about love is still quite limited. Furthermore, developing an affection system similar to that of the human being presents considerable technological challenges.

The novel advanced artificial intelligence system of Lovotics includes an Artificial Endocrine System (based on physiology of love), Probabilistic Love Assembly (based on psychology of love) and Affective State Transition (based on emotions) modules.

Psychological unit of the Lovotics artificial intelligence calculates probabilistic parameters of love between humans and the robot. Various parameters such as proximity, propinquity, repeated exposure, similarity, desirability, attachment, reciprocal liking, satisfaction, privacy, chronemics, attraction, form, and mirroring are taken into consideration.

Physiological unit of the Lovotics artificial intelligence employs artificial endocrine system consisting of artificial emotional and biological hormones. Artificial emotional hormones include Dopamine, Serotonin, Endorphin, and Oxytocin. For biological hormones Melatonin, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Orexin, Ghrelin, and Leptin hormones are employed which modulate biological parameters such as blood glucose, body temperature and appetite.  

A wealth of information about a person’s emotions and state of mind can be drawn from facial expressions, voice, gesture, etc.  The affective system of the robot analyzes system inputs to generate suitable states and behaviors for the robot in real-time. The affective system is modeled as closely to the human being as possible in order to be an emotionally engaging system.

The Lovotics robot is an active participant in the communication process and adjusts its internal hormonal levels, probabilistic love parameters and affective states depending on inputs and feedback from the human in long term. 

Lovotics is a multidisciplinary research field utilizing fundamentals concepts from robotics, artificial intelligence, philosophy, psychology, biology, anthropology, neuroscience, social science, computer science and engineering. Proposed approach provides a system allowing the development of functionalities based on multidisciplinary research yielding a new form of love relationships. 

KissengerMini-Surrogate and XOXO are applications of Lovotics. Lovotics has been featured in media such as Reuters, CBS News and more.


~ H. Samani, E. Saadatian, N. Pang, et al. (2013) Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in CultureInternational Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, Vol. 10400. doi: 10.5772/57260.
~ E. Saadatian, H. Samani, A. Pandey, R. Parsani, L. Rodriguez, R. Nakatsu  (2013) Personalizable Embodied Telepresence System for Remote Interpersonal CommunicationThe 22nd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Gyeongju, Korea, IEEE Ro-Man 2013.

~ H. A. Samani, J. Teh, E. Saadatian, R. Nakatsu (2013). XOXO: Haptic interface for mediated intimacy. In 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE). Download

~ E. Saadatian, H. Samani, A. Toudeshki, R. Nakatsu  (2013) Technologically Mediated Intimate Communication: An Overview and Future Directions12th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, October 16-18 2013, São Paulo, Brazil. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 8215, 2013, pp 93-104

~ E. Saadatian, , H. Samani, N. Fernando, D. Polydorou, N. Pang and R. Nakatsu(2013) Towards the Definition of Cultural Robotics. IEEE International Conference on Culture and Computing, Kyoto, Japan.
~ H. A. Samani (2012) Book: Lovotics: Loving robots   
buy Lovotics book from amazon

~ H. A. Samani, E. Saadatian (2012) A Multidisciplinary Artificial Intelligence Model for an Affective RobotIn International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, volume 9. Download

~ H. A. Samani, J. Koh et al. (2012) Towards Robotics Leadership: An Analysis of Leadership Characteristics and the Roles Robots Will Inherit in Future Human Society. In Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 7197/2012, 158-165. Download

~ H.A. Samani, R. Parsani, L. T. Rodriguez et al. (2012) Kissenger: Design of a Kiss Transmission DeviceIn Designing Interactive Systems conference – DIS 2012. Download

~ H. A. Samani, A. D. Cheok, N. Fernando (2011) An Affective Interactive Audio Interface for Lovotics. In ACM Computers in Entertainment, CIE, volume 9, issue 2, July 2011. Presented in International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology – ACE 2010. Download

~ H. A. Samani, A. D. Cheok, M. J. Tharakan et al. (2011) A Design Process for Lovotics. In Springer, Human - Robot Personal Relationships, Springer LNICST series , Volume 59, 118-125, Presented in 3rd International conference on Human-robot personal relationship – HRPR 2010. Download

~ H. A. Samani, A. D. Cheok (2011) From Human-Robot Relationship to Robot-Based Leadership. In 2011 IEEE International Conference on Human System Interaction - HSI 2011. Download

~ H. A. Samani, A. D. Cheok (2010) Probability of Love between Robots and Humans. In 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems - IROS 2010. Download

~ H. A. Samani, A. D. Cheok, A. Nagpal et al. (2010) Towards a Formulation of Love in Human-Robot Interaction. In 19th IEEE International Symposium in Robot and Human Interactive Communication – Ro-Man 2010. Download

~ S. Nomura, K. S. Teh, H. A. Samani et al. (2009) Feasibility of Social Interfaces based on Tactile Senses for Caring Communication. In The 8th International Workshop on Social Intelligence Design - SID 2009.

~ H. A. Samani, D. Polydorou, T. Marsh, A. D. Cheok (2009) Emotional Intelligence Engine for Serious Game. In 40th annual conference of International Simulation and Gaming Association, Learn to Game, Game to Learn – ISAGA 2009.

~ A. D. Cheok, I. S. Godage, H. A. Samani et al. (2009) Intimate Physical Interaction with Robots , Human – Robot Kiss. In 2nd International conference on Human-robot personal relationship – HRPR 2009.

~ H. A. Samani, A. D. Cheok, I. S. Godage (2008) LOVOTICS : Adding Love to Human-Robot Relationships. In ACE International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2008.

~ S. S. Ge, H. A. Samani, Y.H.J. Ong, C. C. Hang (2008) Active Affective Facial Analysis for Human-Robot Interaction. In The 17th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication – RO-MAN 2008. Download

~ H. A. Samani, S. S. Ge, C. C. Hang (2008) LOVOTIC : LOVE and ROBOTIC Affective States Based on Visual Perceptions. In 1st International conference on Human-robot personal relationship – HRPR 2008.

Contact: Hooman Samani