Group Presentation Assignment (Mark's Labs only):  https://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/group-presentations

First Lab Report - Pea Plant Germination and Growth (Due in lab Feb 15): https://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/pea-plant-lab-report 

Current Course Textbook:  "What Is Life?  A Guide To Biology With Physiology" 3rd edition by Jay Phelan

Required Lab Book:  Laboratory Manual For Non-Majors General Biology, 6th edition by Mark Lewis

Also note that the Khanacademy web site (www.khanacademy.org) and the Education Portal Academy (http://education-portal.com/academy/course/introduction-to-biology.html) both have free video lectures on most (though not all) of the topics we cover in this class.  

And if you like rap music, there are several great science rap videos at the Science With Tom YouTube site: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3gFS6DINL-JBj5kd6hm9Ng

All of the major topics we will cover in the Biology 10 course are separated into different sections below.  Each section contains a summary of the topic, a link to the lecture notes for that topic, and links to online pictures and videos that may help you learn about the topic.  Happy Hunting!



Online Videos:

            The characteristic of life:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uM_CgOgJGG0

            Eight characteristics of life:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHTkIwVvr9A 

            Characteristics of life simplified:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvMBJZLEwFs&feature=related

Lecture Outline:

    What is biology?   
    Characteristics of life:
            Motility (moves on its own)
            Reproduction with heredity ("like begets like")
            DNA (a molecule containing genetic information that is passed from parents to offspring)
            Cellular structure (life is made of one or more cells) 
            Growth (becomes larger by building more cells or cell parts)
            Metabolism (converting absorbed matter and energy into new forms of matter and energy and waste)
            Homeostasis (life maintains a stable internal environment different from the external environment)
            Senses and responds to the environment
            Eventual death (stops all of the above)
       Metabolism creates the energy and chemicals necessary for all life processes

Deep Question:

    Why don't biologists consider fire to be a living organism?


Online Images:

            How Microscope Lenses Work:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/how-a-lens-works 

Online Article:

            Different types of microscope:  http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/chapter1.html#a15 

Lecture Outline:

    History of the microscope
    Magnification Basics
            How lenses work
            Calculating total magnification
    Parts of the dissecting microscope
    Parts of the compound microscope
    Preparing slides for the compound microscope

Deep Question:

    The compound microscope has greater magnification than the dissecting microscope, so why would a biologist ever choose to look at an organism with a dissecting microscope?



Online Article: 

             Metric system history, units, and conversions:  http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=47 

Lecture Outline:

    Brief history of metrics
    Why all scientists use metrics
    Basic metric units of length, weight, volume, and temperature
    Metric length units
    Converting between metric length units

Deep Question:

    Why doesn't any country use metric time units?


Online Video:

            The scientific method:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BVfI1wat2y8

Online Image:

Online Article/Lecture Notes:

Lecture Outline:

    What scientists are trying to explain - How nature works
    The scientific definition of nature
    Defining key terms - fact vs truth and proof vs evidence
    The scientific method - observations, questions, testable hypotheses, predictive testing, analyzing results, publishing results
    Characteristics of a testable hypothesis
    Hypothesis vs theory

Deep questions:

    Why can't scientists ever really prove a theory?

    Why don't scientists use God to explain nature? 



Online Video:
            Basic atomic structure:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lP57gEWcisY

            Atomic theory animation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6UujimddEc&feature=related 
            Covalent and ionic bonds:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QqjcCvzWwww&feature=related
            Compounds and molecules:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LRVW0tgSLRI&feature=related

Online Images:
            Structue Of Life Picture:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/structure-of-life

            Atomic Structure:  http://www.universetoday.com/56747/atom-structure
            Periodic Table of Elements: http://www.ptable.com/#Writeup/Wikipedia
            Neutral atoms and ion:  http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cms/imagedb/albums/userpics/ionize.jpg 
            Covalent bond:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/covalent-bond 

Lecture Outline:

    Matter vs Energy
    All matter is made of atoms
    Atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
    Basic atomic structure
    Different types of atoms (periodic table of elements)
    Different forms of an element
            Neutral atoms vs ions
    Electron orbits
    Bonds between atoms
            Ionic bonds
            Covalent bonds
            Compounds vs molecules
            Naming molecules and compounds (common, formula, and structural names)
    Molecules and compounds common to all forms of life
            Small molecules and compounds

Deep Question:

    Why did biologists and chemists accept the atomic theory of matter long before any human being had actually seen an atom?

    Why do most atoms form covalent or ionic bonds with other atoms?



Online Video:

            Metabolism overview (catabolic and anabolic reactions):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUtfF2qnzGo 

Online Images:

            Anabolic and catabolic reactions:  http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/ecb/ecb_images/03_03_catabolic_anabolic.jpg 

            Human metabolism chart:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/metabolism-chart 

            ATP energy storage and release:  http://bio1151.nicerweb.net/Locked/media/ch08/08_12ATPCycle.jpg 

Lecture Outline:

    What is a chemical reaction?
    Chemistry notations for chemical reactions
    Atoms are never created or destroyed during chemical reactions
    Exothermic vs endothermic reactions
            Metabolism definition
            Why do organisms need a metabolism?
            Anabolic vs catabolic reactions
            Basic metabolism chart
            Energy storage in ATP nucleotide molecules
            Energy release from ATP nucleotide molecules

Deep Question:

    Why does human body temperature begin to fall after a person dies?


Online Videos:

            Simple diffusion animation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXJMBgyT_hk

            Excellent diffusion video:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7QsDs8ZRMI&feature=related 

            Semipermeable membrane/osmosis animation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdiJtDRJQEc 


Online Images:

                 Diffusion:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/diffusion-image 

            Evaporation:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/evaporation 

            Osmosis across cell membranes:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/osmosis-across-cell-membranes 

Lecture Outline:

    Constant random motion of molecules
    Relation between molecular motion and temperature
    Relation between temperature, motion, and chemical reactions
    Diffusion definitions
    Diffusion examples
            Dissolving solutes in a solvent
            Osmosis definition  
            Semipermeable vs impermeable membranes
            Osmosis terminology
                    Hypertonic fluid
                    Hypotonic fluid
                    Isotonic fluid
            Consequences of osmosis when a cell is placed in hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic fluid
            How different organisms deal with osmosis problems

Deep Questions:

    If you are stuck in the middle of the ocean on a small raft, and you have no drinking water, you still shouldn't drink the ocean water, no matter how thirsty you get.  Why not?

    If you leave bread on a counter for several days it will get hard, but if you leave crackers out on a counter for several days they will get soft.  Explain this observation in terms of evaporation and diffusion.

Lecture Notes Page:  https://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/molecular-motion-and-diffusion-lecture-notes


Online Video:

            Cell Theory:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OpBylwH9DU
            Organelle functions:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fzj6TRnXmps&feature=related
            Insulin receptor and glucose channel in diabetes:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbwRYFMPZS4

Online Article:

Lecture Outline:

    Cells are the smallest form of life
    Cell theory proposed by Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow
    Structure and metabolic function of cellular organelles
            Plasma membrane
            Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough)
            Golgi apparatus
    Kingdom classification by cellular structure
            Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells
            Differences between plant, animal, and fungal cells
            Cell wall function
            Chloroplast function
Deep Questions: 
    Why do biologists accept the idea that cells are living organisms?
    The human body is made of trillions of cells.  If these cells are alive then are you really just one person, or are you a colony of living organisms? 



Online Videos:

            Cell Respiration Rap:   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCpNk92uswY
            Aerobic Respiration Overview:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DyrUbsyBjfQ&feature=related
            Glycolysis:  www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-stLxqPt6E 

            Chemiosmosis General:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YSVy-SHlwqI 
            Electron Tansport Detailed:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbJ0nbzt5Kw&feature=related
            Chemiosmosis Detailed:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3y1dO4nNaKY&feature=related
            Fermentation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_k8xLrBUfg&feature=related 

Online Images:

           Electron Transport:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/electron-transport


Lecture Outline:

    Two forms of cellular respiration

            Aerobic cell respiration overview
            Anaerobic cell respiration overview
    Why do organisms perform cell respiration?
            Energy yield from aerobic cell respiration
            Energy yield from anaerobic respiration
            Why would an organism perform anaerobic cell respiration?
    Where does cell respiration occur?
    When do organisms perform cell respiration?
    The process of aerobic cell respiration
            The Kreb's cycle 
            Electron transport/chemiosmosis
    The process of anaerobic cell respiration
                    Fermentation in human cells
                    Fermentation in yeast cells

Deep Question:

   Why do all forms of life store the energy released from burning fuel molecules in ATP molecules?  Why does this energy need to be stored in a molecule? 


Online Videos:

            Photosynthesis rap:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65qBlnUTO3k

            Photosynthesis overview:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mpPwmvtDjWw 

            Light reactions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BK_cjd6Evcw

            Calvin cycle reactions:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHU27qYJNU0 

Online Images:

            Chloroplast structure:  http://www.helpsavetheclimate.com/chloroplast1.gif 

            Light Reactions of Photosynthesis:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/photosynthesis-light-reactions
Lecture Outline:

    What is photosynthesis (what are the reactants and products)?
    Where does photosynthesis occur?
    Which organisms perform photosynthesis?
    Why do these organisms perform photosynthesis?
    How do plants get water, CO2 gas, and light into their leaves?
            Leaf stomata
            Transpiration in the xylem
    How do plants perform photosynthesis?
            Light reactions of photosynthesis
                    Roles of ATP and NADP in photosynthesis
            Calvin cycle reactions

Deep Questions:
    Why does cellular respiration in animals require photosynthesis in plants?

    Why can't humans perform the light reactions of photosynthesis?  What specific chemical are we missing, and what is the role of this chemical in the light reactions?

    Which two chemicals produced during the light reactions are necessary to complete the Calvin cycle reactions of photosynthesis?  Why are these two chemicals necessary to build sugar molecules in chloroplasts?



Online Videos:

        Transpiration in plants:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=At1BJJDcXhk

        Circulation basics:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NF68qhyfcoM

        Simple human circulation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oE8tGkP5_tc

        Simple human lung function and asthma:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S04dci7NTPk

Online Articles with Images:

            Transpiration in plant xylem:  http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Transpiration.html 

            Animal circulation systems:  http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookcircSYS.html 

            Animal respiratory systems:  http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookRESPSYS.html 

Lecture Outline:

    Why do living organisms have to breathe?
    Types of breathing
            How plants breathe
            Skin breathing animals
            Lung breathing animals 
                    Humans and other land animals
                    Bird lungs and air sacs
            Gill breathing animals 
    Why do animals and plants have a fluid circulation system?
    Types of circulation
            Plants circulation 
                    Transpiration in xylem tubes
                    Sap Circulation in phloem tubes
            Animal circulation
                    Heart muscle and blood vessels 
                            Animals with single hearts and heart tubes
                                    Fish and insects
                            Animals with double hearts
                                    Humans and other mammals
                            Animals with multiple hearts
                    Animals without hearts
                            Jellyfish, etc 
                    Open vs closed circulation

Deep Question:

    Why are breathing and circulation necessary for cellular respiration and photosynthesis in plants and animals?



Online Videos:

            Protein Rap:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W_VT56ozlY8
            Peptide bond formation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=va0DNJId_CM

            Basic protein structure and shape:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lijQ3a8yUYQ 
            Protein functions:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T500B5yTy58&feature=related
            Protein functions:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9G0zzdQx-M
            Nice Enzyme Overview:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E90D4BmaVJM&feature=related

            Enzyme function:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbZsXjgPDLQ 
            Artistic 3D protein structure animation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iaHHgEoa2c8&feature=related

Online Images:

            The twenty amino acids used to make all proteins:  http://www.personal.psu.edu/staff/m/b/mbt102/bisci4online/chemistry/chemistry8.htm

            Different types of cellular proteins:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/types-of-protein-made-by-cells 

Lecture Outline:

    Why all organisms make proteins
    What all proteins have in common
    Protein structure
            Proteins are chains of covalently linked amino acids
            All organisms build their proteins from the same twenty types of amino acid
            Basic amino acid structure
            Covalent peptide bonds link amino acids together in chains to form proteins
            Proteins are built in ribosomes
            Different types of protein have different functions
            Different types of protein have a different order and number of amino acids
            The order and number of amino acids in a protein determines the shape and function of the protein
    Protein function
            Basic activity of all proteins
                    Non-covalent bonding to substrate molecules
                    What proteins can do with their substrate molecules
            Each type of protein bonds to a specific set of substrate molecules
            Different types of protein bond to different types of substrate molecules
            Specific protein types and functions
                    Enzyme function 
                    Structural protein function
                    Channel protein function
                    Receptor protein function
                    Muscle (motor) protein function
            Possible effects of altering amino acid sequence on protein function
            How do cells know how to build all of their proteins?

Deep Questions: 

    Which cell surface receptor protein is reduced or missing in people with type two (adult-onset) diabetes?  What is the normal function of this membrane receptor protein?  What can cause this receptor protein to be removed from the cell membrane?


Online Videos:

            Watson and Crick vs. Roslind Franklin rap:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35FwmiPE9tI
            Basic DNA structure and function:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qy8dk5iS1f0&feature=related

            DNA structure part one:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1ZvsYDTxc8 

            DNA structure part two:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S8DMoDJ8FWA 
            DNA structure and function lecture:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_-vZ_g7K6P0&feature=related 

            DNA replication:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW3qZF9cLIA
             DNA replication claymation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FCEUnoJRKlo 
Online Images:

            Basic nucleotide structure:  https://www.msu.edu/course/isb/202/ebertmay/2004/drivers/nucleotide.jpg 

            Four DNA nucleotides:  http://www.wvup.edu/ecrisp/fournucleotides.jpg 

            Basic DNA structure:  http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/dna-base-pairings.gif 

            Basic DNA structure:  http://www.uic.edu/classes/phys/phys461/phys450/ANJUM04/DNA_helix.jpg 

            DNA structure multiple views:  http://www.stkate.edu/physics/Astrobiology/DNA%20Structure.jpg 

Lecture Outline:

    What does DNA do?
    Brief history of DNA discoveries
    DNA structure
            DNA is made of two chains of DNA nucleotides 
            All organisms build their DNA from the same four types of DNA nucleotide molecule
                The three parts of a DNA nucleotide
                Different types of DNA nucleotide have a different nitrogen bases
                    The four types of nitrogen base in DNA nucleotides
                Linking adjacent nucleotides on a DNA strand with covalent sugar-phosphate bonds
                The DNA template and coding strands have different nucleotide sequences
                The DNA template and coding strands are held together by ionic bonds between their nitrogen bases
                    A nucleotides (one strand) bond to T nucleotides (other strand)
                    G nucleotides (one strand) bond to C nucleotides (other strand)
                New DNA molecules are made from existing DNA strands
    DNA function
            DNA has the instructions for making all proteins an organism needs to survive, grow, and reproduce
            DNA also has the instructions for making new DNA molecules
                DNA Template strand functions
                DNA Coding strand function
            The DNA language (genetic code)
            DNA codons and stop codes
    DNA mutations
            What are mutations?
            Possible cellular effects of DNA mutations



Online Videos:

            RNA structure:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzi_uRY90R8 

            Protein synthesis overview:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qO6MhVwnUIc 

            DNA transcription overview:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztPkv7wc3yU
            Virtual cell translation animation:  http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/translation/movie.htm

            Protein translation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5vH4Q_tAkY&f

            Nice complete protein synthesis video:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVkdQhNdzHU&NR=1&feature=fvwp
            Beautiful protein synthesis complete:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1fiJupfbSpg&feature=related
            Transfer RNA strutcure:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6O6uRb1D38&feature=related

Online Images:

            DNA vs RNA structure:  http://images1.clinicaltools.com/images/gene/rna2.jpg

            Transcription of RNA from DNA:  https://eapbiofield.wikispaces.com/file/view/c7.17.7b.transcription.jpg 

            Basic transfer RNA structure:  http://www.stkate.edu/physics/Astrobiology/Transfer%20RNA.jpg 

            Transfer RNA "reading" messenger RNA codon:  http://fog.ccsf.edu/~mmalacho/physio/oll/Lesson2/images/5Slide6.GIF 

            Translation process:  http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/80/780-004-BB3E8762.gif 

            Transcription and translation overview:  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/proteinsyn.jpg  

Lecture Outline:

    DNA does not create proteins directly (logistical problem)
    DNA template strand is used to build RNA molecules
    RNA molecules build proteins
    RNA structure
            RNA is a single chain of RNA nucleotides
            All RNA molecules are made from the same four RNA nucleotides
                Three parts of an RNA nucleotide
                Four types of nitrogen base in RNA nucleotides
                RNA nucleotide bases can bond ionically to either DNA or RNA nucleotide bases 
                    RNA A base bonds to DNA T nucleotides or RNA U nucleotides  
                    RNA U base bonds to DNA A nucleotides or RNA A nucleotides  
                    RNA G base bonds to DNA C nucleotides or RNA C nucleotides  
                    RNA C base bonds to DNA G nucleotides or RNA G nucleotides  
    RNA types and functions
            messenger RNA (mRNA) function
            ribosomal RNA (rRNA) function
            transfer RNA (tRNA) function
    Why do cells need RNA to build proteins?
    Protein synthesis is a two stage process in cells
            Stage one:  Transcription of genes in the nucleus (making RNA from DNA)
                Transcription process occurs in the nucleus
                    Role of RNA polymerase enzyme
                    Role of free RNA nucleotides
            Stage two:  Translation in the ribosomes (building proteins from amino acids)
                Translation process occurs in the ribosomes
                    Role of messenger RNA in translation
                    Role of transfer RNA's in translation
                    Differences between structure and function of transfer RNA and messenger RNA
                    Anticodon sequences in transfer RNA
                    How do transfer RNA molecules "know" when and where to bond to messenger RNA?
                    Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids
            How DNA mutations affect transcription and translation  



Online Videos:  
            Cell Cycle Overview (pretty):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6ucKWIIFmg&feature=related

            DNA duplication claymation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FCEUnoJRKlo

            Apoptosis detailed video:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=witLM--V2v8
            Apoptosis process video (nice):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FP8Cr9n_oXw&feature=related  

Online Images:

            Stages of the cell cycle:  http://teachline.ls.huji.ac.il/72373/substance_x/cell-cycle2.jpe 

            Cancer cells vs normal cells:  http://www.targetedtherapy.info/img/img_cancer_cells.jpg 

            Telomeres in adults and embryos:  http://stemcells.nih.gov/StaticResources/info/scireport/images/figurec2.jpg 

Online Article:

Lecture Outline:

    Four stages of the cell life cycle
            G1 stage events
            S stage events
            G2 stage events
            M stage events
    Trigger for G1 -> S progression in the cycle
    Process of DNA duplication in the S stage
            Basics of DNA replication
            Basic chromosome structure after DNA duplication
    Three ways cells die
            Necrosis:  Cell murder
            Senescence:  Old age
                    The Hayflick limit 
                    How cells age
            Apoptosis:  Cell suicide
                    Two triggers for cell suicide
                    The process of cell suicide
    Cancer:  Caused by a single defective cell that develops mutational damage in three key genes:  Growth hormone Receptor Gene, Senescence Gene, and Apoptosis Gene.  



Online Videos:

            Mitosis phases (no narration):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WwIKdyBN_s&feature=related 

            Mitosis phases (narration):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VlN7K1-9QB0&feature=related 

            Actual cell going through mitosis:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1ylUTbXyWU 

Online Images:

            In-class mitosis phases drawing:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/mitosis 

            Actual cell undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis:  http://www.cbp.pitt.edu/faculty/yong_wan/images/main_cell_cycle.jpg 

Lecture Outline:

    Mitosis and cytokinesis defined
    Why do cells reproduce?
    Interphase defined
    Four step mitosis process
            Prophase events
            Metaphase events
            Anaphase events
            Telophase events
            The roles of centrosomes, spindle fibers, and centromeres in mitosis
    Cytokinesis process



Online Videos:

            Meiosis phases (compared to mitosis):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3xtD8uUZBhM&feature=related 

            Meiosis again:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1_-mQS_FZ0&feature=related 

            Crossing over (recombination of linked alleles):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdJUvagZjYA 

Online Images:

            In-Class Meiosis Drawing:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/meiosis-drawing  

            Human chromosomes homologous pairs:  http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/2355/M150_2_014i.jpg   

            Human chromosomes in Down's Syndrome:  http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/104/karyodown.jpg 

Lecture Outline:

    The purpose of meiosis
            Haploid vs diploid cells
            The role of haploid gametes in sexual reproduction
    Which organisms can perform meiosis?
    Which cells can perform meiosis?
    The eight step process of meiosis
            Meiosis first division
                    Prophase 1 events
                            DNA recombination during prophase 1
                            Possible reason for DNA recombination during meiosis prophase 1
                    Metaphase 1 events
                            Differences between meiosis metaphase 1 and mitosis metaphase
                    Anaphase 1 events
                            Difference between meiosis anaphase 1 and mitosis anaphase
                    Telophase 1 and cytokinesis events
                    Prophase 2 events
                    Metaphase 2 events
                    Anaphase 2 events
                    Telophase 2 and cytokinesis events
            When meiosis goes wrong:  non-disjunction genetic conditions



Online Videos:

            Plant pollination:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuYrFwDuYn0

            Penguin egg development:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOxjQudECbU

            Human fertilization/copulation:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVG1hA9aq7U 

Online Images:  

            Cloning a plant:  http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/cloning-plant.gif 

            Flower picture:  http://www.life.illinois.edu/ib/202/labs/lab3/lily_flower.jpg 

            Fertilization/conception:  http://www.sciencehelpdesk.com/img/bg3_4/EmbryonicDevelopmentEarly2.gif 

Online Article with Images:

            Menstrual cycle of human females:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menstrual_cycle 

Lecture Outline:

    Asexual reproduction basics
            Examples of asexual reproduction 
                    Cell mitosis and cytokinesis
                    What organisms can reproduce asexually?
    Sexual reproduction basics
            Meiosis in reproductive organs
            What organisms can reproduce sexually?
    Plants sexual reproduction (pollination)
            Sex in flowering plants
                    Flower anatomy
                    How flowering plants get their pollen to their ova
            Sex in coniferous plants
                    Cone anatomy
                    How conifers get their pollen to their ova
    Animal sexual reproduction
            Oviparous animals vs mammals
            External fertilizing animals
                    Examples:  Fish, etc
            Internal fertilizing animals
                    Example:  Mammals
                            Basic mammalian reproductive anatomy
                            How sperm gets to the egg
                            Where does conception (fertilization) occur?
                            Embryo and fetal development in the female uterus
                            Differences between estral and menstrual females


Online Videos:

            DNA and chromosome basics - part one:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOvMNOMRRm8 
            Genetic differences between individuals - part two:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5raJePXu0OQ&feature=related 

            Chromosome inheritance and meiosis - part three:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJzZ7p-47P8&feature=related 

            Phenotypes - part four:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHWJqzlHl3w&feature=related 

            Mendel's experiments - Bill Nye:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FjgM37MAxtY 

Online Images:

            Human chromsomes:  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/chromosomes.jpg 

            Mendel's experiment #2:  http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio111/images/13_10.jpg 

            Mendel's experiment with Punnett square #1:  http://courses.bio.psu.edu/fall2005/biol110/tutorials/tutorial4_files/fig_14_4.gif 

            Mendel's experiment with Punnett square #2:  http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/examplecrossflower.JPG 

            Codominance in flowers:  http://farm1.static.flickr.com/10/12919997_3b0920750f.jpg?v=0 

            Conditional gene color trait in siamese cats:  http://chinkisiamese.com/siamese_cats_mkayla.jpg 

Online Article with Images:

            Inheritance of sex-linked traits:  http://www.thereforyou.com/patients/about/overview/who-gets/gist-of-genetics.html 

Lecture Outline:

    What is genetics?
    The foundation:  Mendel's work with pea plants
    Mendel's theory
            2 factors determine each physical trait
            Each offspring inherits just one factor for each trait from each parent
            Some factors can be dominant, while others may be recessive
            Recessive factors are silent when paired with a dominant factor
    Modern genetic theory
            Chromosomes and genes determine heredity
            Animals have homologous chromosome pairs
            Homologous chromosome pairs provide two copies (two alleles) of all genes on those chromosomes
            Mendel's "factors" are actually alleles (copies) of genes
            Genotypes and phenotypes
                    Homozygous dominant genotypes
                    Heterozygous (carrier) genotypes
                    Homozygous recessive genotypes
            Autosomes and sex chromosomes
                    XX and XY individuals
                    Sex-linked vs autosomal genes
                    Why males are considered genetically inferior to females
            Genes that don't obey Mendel's rules
                    Incomplete dominant genes
                    Codominant genes
                    Multigenic traits
                    Conditional genes
                Punnett squares
                        Uses of Punnett squares
                        Necessary conditions for the use of Punnett squares
                        Punnett square calculations
                                For an autosomal gene
                                For a sex-linked gene

Lecture Notes Page:    http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/genetics-notes



Online Videos:

            Natural selection - nova:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5pZc62P5zI&feature=related 

            Evolution theory (natural selection) - part 1:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_RXX7pntr8&feature=related 

            Evolution theory (evidence for evolution) - part 2:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7w57_P9DZJ4&feature=related 

            Selection and mutation in evolution:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTyNtpdKrrs&feature=response_watch 

            Vicious anti-creationist argument:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irVqVKdiohE 

            Intelligent design argument for origin of life (audio only):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5j6gWRf7nKc&feature=related

            Negative consequences of Darwin's theory:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mxXICZ9mXo&feature=related 

Online Images:

            Beagle voyage route:  http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/learning/htmls/images/map.gif 

            Origin of Species cover:  http://spencer.lib.ku.edu/exhibits/darwin/originb.jpg 

            Bacterial evolution cartoon:  http://www.answersingenesis.org/assets/images/articles/nab/h-pylori.jpg 

            Results of artificial selection of dogs:  http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2007/images/0405dogs.jpg 

            Horse evolution from fossil record:  http://darwiniana.org/equid2t.gif 

Online Articles and Images:

            Natural selection article and images:  http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article//bergstrom_02 

            Evolution process:  http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIMechanisms.shtml 

 Lecture Outline:

    Darwin's life and times
    The development and publication of the theory of evolution
    Evolution theory
            Natural variation (genetic variation)
            Natural selection (environmental selection)
            Heredity (genetic inheritance)
            Environmental change
            Natural vs artificial selection
            The evolution "equation"
    Evidence for evolution by natural selection
            Fossil record
            Earth and fossil ages
            Common genetic code and cell functions
            Observed evolutionary changes in modern species
    Modern evolution theory
            Why sex doesn't explain all observed natural variation
            Mechanisms for natural variation
                    Sexual reproduction
                    Genetic recombination
                    DNA mutations
            Causes of DNA mutations
                    Exposing DNA to strong radiation
                    Exposing DNA to mutagenic chemicals
                    Exposing DNA to mutagenic viruses
                    DNA replication errors
    Biological Creation:  What evolution doesn't explain
    Why creationism isn't taught in biology courses


Online Videos:

            Food chain song:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TE6wqG4nb3M 

            The fast food chain (funny):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uJvRx2L_CME 

            Human food chain lecture - Michael Pollan at U.C. Berkeley:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AM_PSqjIF0o 

            Symbiosis talk:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pP5ZwAZzDeY 

            Reef symbiosis (no narration):  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaJdXO_j2MY 

            Water cycle song:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YswL4dIDQuk&feature=related 

            Water cycle technical:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYBjPE0wekw 

            Yet another water cycle video:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u0PdbJ3rsFI&NR=1   

Online Images:

            Food web general image:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/the-food-web  

            Shark remora mutualism:  http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=96094&rendTypeId=4 

            Mosquito parasite:  http://www.cbu.edu/~seisen/ExamplesOfParasitism_files/image008.jpg 

Online Article:

            Symbiosis:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiosis 

Lecture Outline:

    Ecology defined
    Relation between ecology and evolutionary theory
    Interspecies interactions
                    The food web
                            Role of producers
                            Role of herbivores
                            Role of carnivores
                            Role of omnivores
                            Role of decomposers/detritivores
                            Example of a local food web
                            Effects of loss of species in a food web
    Interactions between organisms and their physical environment
            The water cycle
                    Evaporation, precipitation, and gravity
                    The local water cycle
                    Why does California have a water shortage problem?



Online Videos:

            Good global warming video:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zpu7IZcdzXE&feature=related 

                Global warming basics - national geographic:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJAbATJCugs&feature=fvw 

Online Images:

                Arctic melting seen from space:  http://image.examiner.com/images/blog/wysiwyg/image/arctic_melting.jpg 

                Correlation between atmospheric CO2 and average global air temperature:  http://www.art.ccsu.edu/Gallery/2008-2009/Sustainable/Graph%20wikimedia.orgwikipediacommons990CO2-Temp.jpg 

                Fossil fuel emissions over last 200 years:  http://www.unido-ichet.org/ichet.org/fossil_fuels/fossil_fuels/assets/Global_Carbon_Emission_by_Type.png 

Online Articles:

            Natural resources:  http://sites.google.com/site/lmcbiology10/Home/natural-resources 

Lecture Outline:

    Natural resources defined
    Types of natural resources
            Renewable vs non-renewable resources
    The carbon cycle and global warming
            How carbon compounds heat the air
            Sources of carbon in the air
            Removal of carbon from the air
            What changed the balance?
                    Types of fossil fuels
                    Human use of fossil fuels
                    Cement production
            Evidence for global warming
            Evidence for human influence on global warming
            Possible effects of global warming
                    Land effects
                    Weather effects
                    Ocean effects
            Conserving natural resources
                    Do we have a responsibility for the planet?
                    Ideas and suggestions
                    The case for recycling and conservation

© 2009 Mark Lewis



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