Volume 6 (2015) Issue 1

Journal of Linguistics and Language Teaching

Volume 6 (2015) Issue 1 (PDF)

Table of Contents

Foreword to the Issue

I. Articles

Hasan Said Ghazala (Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia):


The term metaphor was traditionally defined in aesthetic and rhetorical terms as the fundamental figure of speech and major form of figurative language. Now this approach no longer holds in the light of the latest monolithic developments of conceptual approaches to metaphor. Yet, dispute is going on about some issues that have not been covered yet by Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) regarding aesthetic and other basic functions of metaphor. The present paper is an attempt to investigate and pay tribute to the latest developments and contributions made by CMT to the conceptual studies of metaphor and its functions and scope, viewing it basically as a matter of cognitive, social, cultural and ideological conceptualization of topics, objects and people. All metaphors are, in principle, reflections and constructions of concepts, attitudes, mentalities, and ideologies on the part of the speaker. Hence, any metaphor is conceptualized in terms of target domain and source domain in different discourses and contexts, literary and non-literary. This means that the aesthetic-rhetorical line of argument - though essential - is left out in favour of a recently developed cognitive conceptualization of metaphor. And this is regarded by some as a major loophole in the CMT. The ultimate objective of this paper is to find out about the CMT partial failure to address some basic functions of metaphor, aesthetic or other. To handle these problems, a cognitive stylistic model of analysis of conceptual metaphor is put forward. It is based on recent cognitive arguments, models and theories. This would open new avenues of analysis, comprehension, interpretation and appreciation of metaphor in language in general.

Katrin Ziegler (Macerata / Italy):

Abstract (English)

Morpho-syntactic descriptions of reflexivisation processes in German are usually based on a grammatical approach that considers specific elements in terms of categories (for example, as individual words: nouns, verbs or adjectives) without considering the variable paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations of interdependence which link the clause elements. This article, in contrast, adopts a functional approach to the analysis of reflexive structures, in order to provide an in-depth study of clauses as nexuses of grammatical relations. In doing so, it provides a comprehensive description of the various constructions containing German reflexive pronoun sich, and attempts to provide systematic summaries of the complex sets of forms and functions.

Abstract (Italian)

Dietro le descrizioni morfosintattiche dei processi di riflessivizzazione in tedesco sta solitamente una prospettiva grammaticale che osserva i singoli elementi dal punto di vista categoriale (per es., come singole parole: sostantivi, verbi, aggettivi), non considerando invece i mutevoli rapporti di interdipendenza paradigmatica e sintagmatica che correlano gli elementi proposizionali. Nel lavoro presente, invece, si procede ad un’analisi delle strutture riflessive adottando un punto di vista funzionale sotto il quale si esaminano le proposizioni in un modo complessivo e cioè come nessi di relazioni grammaticali. In questo modo è possibile fornire una descrizione unitaria di tutte le costruzioni marcate dalla presenza di sich e tentare sistemazioni organiche degli insiemi complessi di forme e funzioni.

Shelley Byrne (Preston (Lancashire), United Kingdom):


This study situates itself amongst research into spoken English grammars, learner success and descriptions of linguistic progression within the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) (Council of Europe, 2001). It follows previous corpus research which has sought to document the language required by learners if they are to progress through levels and ultimately ‘succeed’ when operating in English. In the field of language testing, for which the CEFR has been a valuable tool, qualitative descriptions of learner competence and abilities may not provide sufficient detail for students, assessors and test designers alike to know which language is required and used by learners at different levels. This particular study therefore aims to identify the language and abilities demonstrated by successful C1 candidates taking the University of Central Lancashire’s English Speaking Board [UCLanESB] speaking exams. Using a learner corpus of C1 exam performance (26,620 words), examinations of vocabulary profiles, word frequencies, keywords, lexical chunks and can-do occurrence were conducted to identify the lexico-grammar required for C1 students to obtain solid pass scores. It was found that vocabulary belonged largely to the first two thousand most frequent words in English, lexis and chunks displayed some parallels with native-speakers, and language relating to can-do occurrence performed a more productive than interactive or strategic purpose.

Julia Davydova (Mannheim, Germany):


While advocating an integrative approach to the study of language attitudes, the present study explores perceptions of two native and two non-native varieties by German learners of English. The native varieties chosen for the elicitation of attitudes include standard British English and mainstream American English. The non-native varieties targeted in the study are Indian English, a second-language variety, and German English, a foreign-language variety. Exploiting the method mix consisting of a survey, a verbal guise test, and sociolinguistic interviews, the study brings forth converging evidence consistent with the foregoing research. More specifically, it shows that learners evaluate the standard variety of British English as the one showing high levels of prestige and status. In contrast, mainstream American English is perceived as highly socially attractive. It is argued that the social context (formal vs. informal) guides the acquisition of learners’ evaluations of different native Englishes. On a more general level, however, the native-speaker varieties receive much more favourable ratings than the non-native Englishes. This finding is indicative of “an inferiority complex” (Tan & Castelli 2013), a phenomenon whereby non-native speakers exhibit far more negative evaluations towards their own variety than native speakers would. In this situation, possible remedies are suggested.

José María Santos Rovira (Lisbon, Portugal):


Stereotypes fill foreign languages and cultures with pre-established ideas. We set out to confirm if the old proverb saying that learning a foreign language will open a new window to the world could be authenticated, as well as to define the main factors in the moving process from a stereotyped vision of the target language and culture to a more realistic one. With these aims, in May 2014, we developed and administered a questionnaire to 156 students of Spanish at the University of Lisbon (Portugal) and carried out a narrative inquiry with 27 Portuguese students to confirm if the foreign language learning process transformed their preconceived ideas about the language and the culture of Spain. Based upon the results, we suggest that preconceptions and language attitudes deeply influence the pace and the level of proficiency of the target language reached by students.


Los estereotipos están siempre presentes en las lenguas y culturas extranjeras, en forma de ideas preestablecidas. Por ello, nos propusimos confirmar si el antiguo proverbio que dice que aprender una lengua extranjera es abrir una nueva ventana al mundo podía ser demostrado, así como definir cuáles son los elementos principales que intervienen en el proceso de cambio desde una visión estereotipada de la lengua y la cultura metas hacia una más realista. Con estos objetivos, en mayo de 2014, desarrollamos y realizamos un cuestionario a 156 alumnos de español en la Universidad de Lisboa (Portugal), así como una serie de entrevistas de investigación a 27 alumnos portugueses, para confirmar si realmente el proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera transforma sus ideas preconcebidas sobre la lengua y la cultura españolas. Basándonos en los resultados obtenidos, sugerimos que los prejuicios y las actitudes lingüísticas ejercen una profunda influencia en el ritmo y el nivel de dominio de la lengua meta alcanzado por los alumnos.

Dechen Zangmo (Paro, Bhutan) / Rachel Burke (Newcastle, Australia) / John Mitchell O’Toole (Newcastle, Australia) / Heather Sharp (Newcastle, Australia):


The role of English as the global lingua franca and its centrality to economic and social expansion in the twenty-first century has led to increased government emphasis on fostering the language in contexts where it has no official status. Frequently initiatives to increase English competence in these so-called ‘expanding circle’ nations – a term coined by Kachru (1992) in association with his concentric circles model of the global uptake of English – take the form of aid-funded projects with methodological innovation based on educational paradigms originating in contexts where English is a primary language. This paper examines one such collaboration; a partnership between the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Kingdom of Bhutan, which led to Bhutan’s adoption of the Process Writing Approach (PWA). Specifically, we utilise Hofstede’s (1980) framework of cultural dimensions to compare the ideological underpinnings of the PWA with the values and practices of traditional Bhutanese education.

II. Book Review

Heinz-Helmut Lüger (Koblenz-Landau, Germany):

Thomas Tinnefeld (Saarbrücken, Germany):


Heinz-Helmut Lüger (Koblenz-Landau, Germany):