Ashkenazi Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b

Based upon the methodology posted here and using the sample set described here, as of January 2019 it appears that there are nine ancestral Y-DNA lines in haplogroup R1b in the Ashkenazi Jewish population: (1) R1b-FGC20759; (2) R1b-A11711; (3) R1b-Y19862; (4) R1b-FGC8580; (5) R1b-L4; (6) R1b-Z18106; (7) R1b-FGC21047; (8) R1b-FGC14600; and (9) R1b-408.  Trees for each of those clusters are posted below.

R1b-FGC20759
Upstream SNPs: 
M207>M173>M343>L754>L389>P297>M269>L23>L51>P310>L151>P312>DF27>ZZ12_1>FGC20747>FGC20764>FGC20767>FGC20770>BY27771>FGC20761>FGC20753> FGC20759
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1a1b1a1a2a (DF27)
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
R-V3476: 1,150 ybp (850-1,500 ybp @95%) (R-V3476 is at the same level as R-FGC20759)
R-FGC20816: 850 ybp (500-1,200 ybp @95%)
R-FGC20765: 850 ybp (475-1,200 ybp @95%)
R-Y31658: 900 ybp (500-1,550 ybp @95%)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-DF27-FGC20761 (AB-077): 766-1330 CE (@95%)

The R1b-FGC20759 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.   

R1b-A11711
Upstream SNPs: 
M207>M173>M343>L754>L389>P297>M269>PF7562>PF7563>Y31335>A11711
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1a1b2a1b
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
R-A11720: 1,350 ybp (850-1,850 ybp @95%) (R-A11720 is at the same level as R-A11711)
R-A15807: 1,000 ybp (650-1,350 ybp @95%)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-M269-PF7558 (AB-071): 725-1038 CE (@95%)

The R1b-A11711 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  

R1b-Y19862
Upstream SNPs: 
M207>M173>M343>L754>L389>P297>M269>L23>Z2103>M12149>Y4362>Y4364>Y4366 >BY13830>BY3293>Y19860>Y19847>Y19869>Y19862
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1a1b1b (R-M12149, nine SNPs upstream from R-Y19862)
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
R-Y19852: 800 ybp (550-1,000 ybp @95%) (R-Y19852 is at the same level as R-Y19862)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-Z2103-Y19847 (AB-072): 804-1252 CE (@95%)

Based upon the age of R1b-Y19862 and the lack of upstream clustering with men in the sample set, it appears, pending further information, that R1b-Y19862 may have entered the Ashkenazi population in the early part of the last millenium.

Note, however, that although R1b is largely Western European, the R1b-Z2103 branch to which R1b-Y19852 belongs is, according to the Eupedia distribution map of haplogroup R1b-ht35 (L23, L11, L51 & Z2103), very common in the Near East.  Thus, despite the common impression that R1b is predominantly a Western European Y-DNA haplogroup, R1b-Y19852 may well have origins in the Near East.  If the closest upstream matches for men in the R1b-Y19852 cluster have Near Eastern origins, that would tend to suggest that R1b-Y19852 has Near Eastern origins even though that cluster does not follow the pattern discussed above.

R1b-FGC8580
Upstream SNPs: 
M207>M173>M343>L754>L389>P297>M269>L23>L51>P310>L151>U106>Z2265> BY30097>Z381>Z301>L48>L47>Z159>S6924>S3251>FGC8563>FGC8576>FGC8590  >FGC8579>FGC8601>FGC8587>BY3316>FGC8580
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b1b4e1a2c (R-FGC8587, two SNPs upstream from R-FGC8580)
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
R-Y5051: 1,450 ybp (1,000-1,950 ybp @95%) (R-Y5051 is at the same level as R-FGC8580)
R-A689: 750 ybp (425-1,150 ybp @95%) (R-A689 is at the same level as R-Z9487)
R-FGC8591: 1,200 ybp (700-1,750 ybp @95%)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-U106-Ivanhoe: 415-700 CE (@95%)

The R1b-FGC8580 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  

R1b-L4
Upstream SNPs: 
M207>M173>M343>L754>L389>P297>M269>L23>L51>P310>L151>P312>U152>Z56> BY3544>S1523>BY807>BY1531>L4
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1a1b1a1a2b3a
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
R-L4: 1,450 ybp (850-2,100 ybp @95%)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-U152-L4-a (AB-075): 1074-1695 CE (@95%)
R1b-U152-L4-b (AB-076): 958-1545 CE (@95%)

The R1b-L4 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  

R1b-Z18106
Upstream SNPs: 
M207>M173>M343>L754>L389>P297>M269>L23>L51>P310>L151>P312>Z290>L21>DF13>Z39589>Z251>S11556>S9294>BY3229>BY3231>BY43237>FGC11986>Z18106
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a1e (Z251)
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
R-FGC11986: 3,700 ybp (3,100-4,200 ybp @95%) (R-FGC11986 is one level upstream from R-Z18106)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-L21-Z18106 (AB-078): 1043-1478 CE (@95%)

Based upon the age of R1b-Z18106 and the lack of upstream clustering with men in the sample set, it appears, pending further information, that R1b-Z18106 may have entered the Ashkenazi population in the early part of the last millennium.

R1b-FGC21047
Upstream SNPs: 
M207>M173>M343>L754>V88>FGC21056>FGC21027>FGC21009>FGC21039>FGC21003 >FGC21005>FGC20980>FGC21047
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1b2a2b1a
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
R-FGC21047: 275 ybp (75-550 ybp @95%)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-V88-FGC20980 (AB-069): 811-1187 CE (@95%)

Based upon the age of R1b-FGC21047 and the lack of upstream clustering with men in the sample set, it appears, pending further information, that R1b-FGC21047 may have entered the Ashkenazi population in the early part of the last millenium.

R1b-FGC14600
Upstream SNPs: 
M207>M173>M343>L754>L389>P297>M269>L23>Z2103>M12149>Y13369>L584  >PF7580>Y19434>FGC14598>FGC14595>FGC14600
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1a1b1b1 (L584)
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
550 ybp (375-800 ybp @95%)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-Z103-FGC14595 (AB-070): 1172-1640 CE

Based upon the age of R1b-FGC14600 and the lack of upstream clustering with men in the sample set, it appears, pending further information, that R1b-FGC14600 may have entered the Ashkenazi population in the early part of the last millenium.

Note, however, that although R1b is largely Western European, the R1b-Z2103 branch to which R1b-FGC14600 belongs is, according to the Eupedia distribution map of haplogroup R1b-ht35 (L23, L11, L51 & Z2103), very common in the Near East.  Thus, despite the common impression that R1b is predominantly a Western European Y-DNA haplogroup, R1b-FGC14600 may well have origins in the Near East.  If the closest upstream matches for men in the R1b-FGC14600 cluster have Near Eastern origins, that would tend to suggest that R1b-FGC14600 has Near Eastern origins even though that cluster does not follow the pattern discussed above.

R1b-L408
Upstream SNPs:
M207>M173>M343>L754>L389>P297>M269>L51>PF7589>P310>L151>P312>U152>L2 >ZZ48_1>BY3477>BY3486>L408
ISOGG Tree (2019): R1b1a1b1a1a2b1
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
L2: 4,400 ybp (3,500-5,300 ybp @95%) (R-L2 is four levels above R-L408)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
R1b-U152-L408 (AB-079): 1286-1551 CE (@95%)

Based upon the age of R1b-L408 and the lack of upstream clustering with men in the sample set, it appears, pending further information, that R1b-L408 may have entered the Ashkenazi population in the early part of the last millenium.

Y-DNA SNPs Not Appearing on Trees Posted Above
In addition to the SNPs posted above, there are a number of SNPs identified through the methodology used on this website that do not appear in any of the trees posted above.  In some cases, primarily with regard to SNPs reported by Family Tree DNA based upon the results of Big Y testing or Geno 2.0 testing, the reported SNPs are ancestral to the SNPs set forth in one or more of the trees above; if the tested man is Ashkenazi on his direct male line, Big Y testing would likely determine that he belongs to one of the clusters set forth above.  In other instances, it is possible that SNPs identify a small and/or undertested Ashkenazi cluster; further testing or information may identify such clusters.   Often, because the methodology used herein to identify potential Ashkenazi SNPs is overinclusive (especially for the 50 cM cohort but also, on occasion, for the 80 cM and 100 cM cohorts), SNPs set forth below do not reflect Ashkenazi (or Jewish) ancestry on the direct male line.  Finally, there are some SNPs (identified with "N/A") that do not appear on FTDNA's Y-DNA haplotree at all.

Upstream SNPs.  The following SNPs in the table above (identified in red) are upstream from SNPs found in one or more Ashkenazi Y-DNA clusters: BY3229, DF13, DF27, L151, L2, L21, L23, L47, L48, L584, M12149, M269, M343, P312, PF7562, PF7563, U106, U152, V88, Z159, Z2103, Z251, and Z56.  

If men who are reported based upon STR or Geno 2.0 testing as having these SNPs are of Ashkenazi descent on their direct male line, there is a high probability that such men belong to one of those Ashkenazi Y-DNA clusters.  However, a large proportion of the men reported as having these terminal SNPs are not of Ashkenazi descent on their direct male lines.

Downstream SNPs that may reflect an Ashkenazi Y-DNA line.  The following terminal SNPs in the table above (identified in blue) do not appear in the Ashkenazi Y-DNA trees posted above, but may reflect an Ashkenazi Y-DNA line: A5376, A7982, BY16148, BY187600, BY33711, BY342, BY38925, FGC36759, FGC36897, FGC46544, Y143997, Y32763, Y86521, and Y88378.

Other SNPs.  With the exception of the SNPs that are not on FTDNA's Y-DNA Haplotree (identified with "N/A"), it is unlikely that men reported as having terminal SNPs other than the upstream SNPs identified above are of Ashkenazi descent on their direct male lines. 

Other Reported Terminal SNPs in Haplogroup R.
  In addition to the SNPs identified above, the dataset includes one SNP (R-M173) (identified in red) which is ancestral to haplogroup R as a whole, and seven SNPs not identified by the materials consulted for this analysis as belonging to haplogroup R1a, R1b, or R2.

Upstream SNP.  R-M173 (identified in red) is upstream from R1a, R1b, and R2.  If men who are reported as R-M173 are of Ashkenazi descent on their direct male line, there is a high probability that such men belong to one of the Ashkenazi Y-DNA clusters in haplogroup R.

Other SNPs.  Based on the available information, R-BY39369 may belong to one of the Ashkenazi Y-DNA clusters in haplogroup R.  With the exception of that SNP, it is unlikely that men with the terminal SNPs identified with "N/A" are of Ashkenazi descent on their direct male lines.