Ashkenazi Y-DNA Haplogroup J1

Based upon the methodology posted here and using the sample set described here, as of January 2019 it appears that there are 10 ancestral Y-DNA lines in haplogroup J1 in the Ashkenazi Jewish population: (1) J1-L816; (2)-(3) the J1-BY101 and J1-ZS4763 subclusters of J1-L823; (4) J1-S12192; (5)-(6) the J1-CTS4459 and J1-ZS4307 subclusters of J1-Z18297; (7) the J1-ZS10589 subcluster of J1-PF7263; (8) the J1-FGC5215 subcluster of J1-FGC5230; (9) J1-BY67; and (10) the J1-ZS1682 subcluster of J1-F450.  Trees for each of those clusters are posted below.

J1-L816
Upstream SNPs: 
M304>M267>CTS12238>Z2217>L620>PF4832>L136>P58>CTS9721>S4924>L818>L816
ISOGG Tree (2019): J1a2a1a2c1a1
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
L816: 1150 ybp (800-1,550 ybp @95%)
ZS2728: 1,050 ybp (800-1,400 ybp @95%)
ZS2736: 900 ybp (550-1,300 ybp @95%)
S4944: 1,000 ybp (550-1,650 ybp @95%)
Y81077: 800 ybp (400-1,250 ybp @95%) (J-81077 is at the same level at J-ZS2752)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
J1-L817-L816 (AB-033): 776-992 CE (@95%)

The J1-L816 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  (In the J1-L816 cluster, substantial branching commenced several centuries before the expansion out of the bottleneck.)

J1-L823 (J1-BY101 and J1-ZS4763 subclusters)
Upstream SNPs: 
M304>M267>CTS12238>Z2217>L620>PF4832>L136>>CTS9721>PF4678>Z1865>Z1853 >L862>PF4843>YSC0000235>PF4638>YSC0000234>L858>YSC0000076>FGC15940 >ZS1711>Z18216>ZS1706>L823
ISOGG Tree (2019): J1a2a1a2d2b2b2c4b2a1a1~
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
J-ZS1706: 4,200 ybp (3,200-5,400 ybp) (J-ZS1706 is one SNP upstream from J-L823)
(The Y-Full tree includes no branching below the J-ZS1706 level).
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
J1-YSC-L823-a (AB-031): 965-1330 CE (@95%)
J1-YSC-L823-b (AB-032): 681-1491 CE (@95%)

Branching is shown here starting at the J1-L823 level to indicate that the J1-BY201 and J1-ZS4763 branches share a direct male ancestor, who presumably lived in the Near East.

The J1-BY101 and J1-ZS4763 clusters follow the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with each having (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago. 

J1-S12192
Upstream SNPs: 
M304>M267>CTS12238>Z2217>L620>PF4832>L136>CTS9721>PF4678>Z1865>Z1853 >L862>PF4843>YSC0000235>PF4638>YSC0000234>ZS241>FGC13873>FGC13863>ZS227>ZS222>Z18271>S12192
ISOGG Tree (2019): J1a2a1a2d2b2b2c2b~
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
J-Y5400: 1,650 ybp (1,200-2,200 ybp @95%) (J-Y5400 is at the same level as S12192)
J-Y31161: 1,600 ybp (1,050-2,200 ybp) (J-Y31161 is at the same level as J-ZS2375)
J-Y81349: 600 ybp (325-900 ybp @95%) (J-Y81349 is at the same level as J-BY32846)
J-Y5399: 1,000 ybp (650-1,400 ybp @95%) (J-Y5399 is at the same level as J-BY268)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
J1-ZS227-S12192 (AB-022): 668-864 CE (@95%)

The J1-S12192 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  (In the J1-S12192 cluster, substantial branching commenced several centuries before the expansion out of the bottleneck.)

J1-Z18297 (J1-CTS4459 and J1-ZS4307 subclusters)
Upstream SNPs: 
M304>M267>CTS12238>Z2217>L620>PF4832>L136>CTS9721>PF4678>Z1865>Z1853 >L862>Z18297
ISOGG Tree (2019): J1a2a1a2d2b2a~
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
J-Y15152: 5,600 ybp (4,900-6,300 ybp @ 95%) (J-Y15152 is at the same level as J-Z18297)
J-FGC20891: 4,400 ybp (3,400-5,400 ybp @95%) (J-FGC20891 is an alternative name for J-ZS2589, which is two steps downstream from J-Z18292)
J-Z18293: 4,400 ybp (3,400-5,400 ybp @95%) (J-Z18292 does not appear to be on the YFull tree)
J-ZS4336: 5600 ybp (4,900-6,300 ybp @95%) (J-ZS4336 is at the same level as J-ZS4307)
J-Y6384: 1,350 ybp (950-1,800 ybp @95%) (J-Y6384 is at the same level as J-ZS4292)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
J1-Z18297-M4320a, b (AB-030, AB-119): 564-1071 CE
J1-Z18297-ZS8615 (AB-036): 1153-1393 CE
J1-Z18297-1733 (AB-099): 215 BCE - 729 CE
J1-Z18297-FGC27989 (AB-150): 181-1480 CE
J1-Z18297-Z (AB166): 136-1466 CE

Branching is shown here going back to the J1-Z18297 level to show that there has been substantial branching going back more than 2,000 years, presumably reflecting shared  direct male ancestors who lived in the Near East.  Note that the J1-Z18292 and J1-BY48750 clusters do not include any men in the sample set, which suggests that those two lines are not Ashkenazi.  By contrast, the J1-CTS4459 and J1-ZS4307 clusters include multiple branches that include a substantial proportion of men from the sample set, which indicates that those clusters were Jewish at the time of their shared direct male ancestor.

The J1-CTS4459 and J1-ZS4307 clusters follow the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with each having (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago. 

J1-PF7263 (J1-ZS10589 subcluster)
Upstream SNPs: 
M304>M267>CTS12238>Z2217>L620>PF4832>L136>PF7264>PF7263
ISOGG Tree (2019): J1a2a1a1b~
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
J-ZS4416: 3,400 ybp (2,400-4,400 ybp @95%) (J-ZS4416 is at the same level as J-PF7263)
J-ZS10589: 3,400 ybp (2,400-4,400 ybp)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
J-PF7263-b (AB-038): 357-1415 CE
J-PF7263-a (AB-039): 577-1267 CE

Only the J1-ZS10589 cluster includes men in the sample set.  (The J1-PF7263 men in the sample set presumably belong to the J1-ZS10589 cluster.)

The J1-ZS10589 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE (in this case, earlier than that), as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  (Note that the J1-ZS10568 branch out of the J1-ZS10589 level leaves behind a J1-ZS10589* branch, and that, as a result, the tree above shows branching below the J1-ZS10589 level even though it shows only a single SNP one level downstream from J1-ZS10589.) 

J1-FGC5230 (J1-FGC5215 subcluster)
Upstream SNPs: 
M304>M267>CTS12238>Z2217>L620>PF4832>L136>CTS9721>PF4678>Z1865>Z1853 >L862>PF4843>YSC0000235>PF4638>YSC0000234>L858>Z640>FGC5230
ISOGG Tree (2019): J1a2a1a2d2b2b2c4c3~
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
J-FGC5230: 3,700 ybp (2,700-4,700 ybp @95%)
J-Y875: 950 ybp (500-1,600 ybp) (J-Y875 is at the same level as J-FGC5206): 
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
J1-Z640-FGC5206 (AB-034): 1156-1443 CE
J1-Z640-2nd (AB-113): 960-1798 CE

Note that the sample set includes men in only one of the three subclusters of the J1-FGC5206 cluster -- J1-FGC5215, but not J1-FGC59084 and J1-FGC57174.  Further information is needed to evaluate this issue, especially due to the small sample size.

The J1-FGC5215 subcluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  

J1-BY67
Upstream SNPs: 
M304>M267>CTS12238>Z2217>L620>PF4832>L136>CTS9721>PF4678>Z1865>Z1853 >L862>PF4843>YSC0000235>PF4638>YSC0000234>ZS241>FGC13873>FGC13863 >ZS227>ZS222>Z18271>Z18290>BY67
ISOGG Tree (2019): J1a2a1a2d2b2b2c2c1~
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
J-Z18289: 1,300 ybp (750-2,000 ybp @95%) (J-Z18289 is on the same level as BY67)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
?

The J1-BY67 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  

J1-F450 (J1-ZS1682 subcluster)
Upstream SNPs: 
M304>M267>CTS12238>Z2217>L620>PF4832>L136>CTS9721>PF4678>Z1865>Z1853 >L862>PF4843>YSC0000235>PF4638>YSC0000234>L858>YSC0000076>FGC15940 >FGC15938>PF7267>BY102>ZS1675>F450
ISOGG Tree (2019): J1a2a1a2d2b2b2c4b2b1a1~
TMRCA (YFull Tree)
J-ZS1680: 3,300 ybp (2,600-4,100 ybp @95%) (J-ZS1680 is on the same level as J-PF7267, three levels above J-F450)
TMRCA (JewishDNA.net)
J1-YSC76-F450-ZS6955 (AB-028): 1228-1651 CE
J1-YSC76-F450-ZS1660 (AB-035): 891-1283 CE

Note that the J1-F450 men in the sample set presumably belong to to one of the Ashkenazi subclusters below J1-ZS1682.

The J1-ZS1682 cluster follows the same pattern as many of the larger Ashkenazi clusters, with (1) a shared direct male ancestor dating back to about the second half of the first millenium CE, as evidenced by initial branching during that time frame; and (2) substantial branching within those subbranches that presumably dates back to the time when the Ashkenazi population began its massive expansion out of a small bottlenecked population, about 700 to 1,000 years ago.  

Y-DNA SNPs Not Appearing on Trees Posted Above
In addition to the SNPs posted above, there are a number of SNPs identified through the methodology used on this website that do not appear in any of the trees posted above.  In some cases, primarily with regard to SNPs reported by Family Tree DNA based upon the results of Big Y testing or Geno 2.0 testing, the reported SNPs are ancestral to the SNPs set forth in one or more of the trees above; if the tested man is Ashkenazi on his direct male line, Big Y testing would likely determine that he belongs to one of the clusters set forth above.  In other instances, it is possible that SNPs identify a small and/or undertested Ashkenazi cluster; further testing or information may identify such clusters.  Often, because the methodology used herein to identify potential Ashkenazi SNPs is overinclusive (especially for the 50 cM cohort but also, on occasion, for the 80 cM and 100 cM cohorts), SNPs set forth below do not reflect Ashkenazi (or Jewish) ancestry on the direct male line.  Finally, there are some SNPs (identified with "N/A") that do not appear on FTDNA's Y-DNA haplotree at all.


Upstream SNPs.  The following SNPs in the table above (identified in red) are upstream from SNPs found in one or more Ashkenazi Y-DNA clusters: CTS11238, L136, L858, L862, M267, P58, PF4678, PF4832, YSC0000076, YSC0000234, Z18271, Z640, and ZS227.  

If men who are reported based upon STR or Geno 2.0 testing as having these SNPs are of Ashkenazi descent on their direct male line, there is a high probability that such men belong to one of those Ashkenazi Y-DNA clusters.  However, a large proportion of the men reported as having these terminal SNPs are not of Ashkenazi descent on their direct male lines.

Downstream SNPs that may reflect an Ashkenazi Y-DNA line.  The following terminal SNPs in the table above (identified in blue) do not appear in the Ashkenazi Y-DNA trees posted above, but may reflect an Ashkenazi Y-DNA line: FGC8712, YP2274, ZS2117,  ZS2434, ZS5740, and ZS6486.

Other SNPs.  With the exception of the SNPs that are not on FTDNA's Y-DNA Haplotree (identified with "N/A"), it is unlikely that men reported as having terminal SNPs other than the upstream SNPs identified above are of Ashkenazi descent on their direct male lines. 

Other Reported Terminal SNPs in Haplogroup J.  In addition to the SNPs identified above, the dataset includes one SNP (J-M304) which is ancestral to haplogroup J as a whole, and one SNP not identified by the materials consulted for this analysis as belonging to haplogroup J1 or J2.