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Klyosov's Analysis of STRs of R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites

Professor Anatole Klyosov has prepared the following haplotype trees and provided the following analysis concerning the sets of 111-marker and 67-marker STRs for R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites collected at this site as of August 30, 2014. An index to the numbers appearing in the haplotype trees appears below Professor Klyosov’s analysis. (The men designated as nos. 1-88 have tested to 111 markers, while the men designated as nos. 89-214 have tested to 67 marker; men nos. 1-33 have DYS650<20, while men nos. 34-88 have DYS650=20.) 

Professor Klyosov reports: 

As I have expected, the haplotype tree happened to be pretty informative. Here is a 111-marker haplotype tree for the 89 individuals:



As one can see, the tree is clearly split into two parts, one on the left and one on the right. The left part consists of 40 haplotypes, and it is younger, which is seen from its tighter and shorter “structure.” The right part contains 49 haplotypes; it is “looser” (“fluffier”), hence, an older one. 

It turned out that the “younger” (left) part includes almost all haplotypes identified as SNP YP264/265 (Nos. 43, 44, 46, 55, 57, 60, 62, 67, 68, 69, 74, 78, and 84). Two haplotypes, Nos. 60 and 68, sitting on the base of the wheel, also belong to the left-hand part; they are in fact the base haplotypes, identical to each other and to the base haplotype of the left part. There are only two haplotypes of YP264/265 that sit on the right; they are Nos. 72 (kit 249519) and 77 (kit 296941), and the reason is simple: they randomly mutated in DYS459b from “11,” typical for YP264/265 (on the left side) to “10,” typical for the older, right side branch. 

Let’s see, more specifically, what is “young” and “old” with respect to the two branches. All 40 haplotypes of the left branch contain 188 mutations from its base haplotype 

13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30—14 9 11 11 11 24 14 20 30 12 12 15 15—11 11 19 23 14 16 19 20 35 38 14 11—11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 14 8 14 23 21 12 12 11 13 10 11 12 13 – 32 15 9 17 12 27 27 19 12 12 12 12 10 9 12 11 10 11 11 30 12 12 25 13 9 10 20 15 20 11 23 15 12 15 25 12 23 19 10 15 17 9 11 11              

which gives 188/40/0.198 = 24 conditional generations (of 25 years each), or 600 ± 75 years to their common ancestor. If we include to that set two “outliers” (Nos. 72 and 77), which we know belong to YP264/265, this adds 7 more mutations from the above base haplotype, and gives 195/42/0.198 = 23 conditional generations, that is, 575 ± 70 years to the common ancestor, which is within the margin of error. 

The right-hand side, older branch, has the base haplotype as follows: 

13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30—14 9 10 11 11 24 14 20 30 12 12 15 15—11 11 19 23 14 16 19 20 35 38 14 11—11 8 17 17 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 14 8 14 23 21 12 12 11 13 10 11 12 13 – 32 15 9 17 12 27 27 19 12 12 12 12 10 9 12 11 10 11 11 30 12 12 25 13 9 10 20 15 19 11 23 15 12 15 25 12 23 19 10 15 17 9 11 11              

It has three different alleles in DYS459b, DYS537, and DYS650, compared with the “younger” branch. Those different alleles cannot be used as “diagnostic” ones, since they are not absolutely stable, and vary in some haplotypes of the branch. However, the common ancestor of the branch has them in his haplotype. That common ancestor lived 333/49/0.198 = 34 à 35 conditional generations, that is, 875 ± 100 years ago. 

This figure would be applicable to the branch if haplotypes Nos. 72 and 77 indeed belonged to the branch (for example, if their typing as YP264/265 was incorrect). If we assume (not without a reason) that these two haplotypes should be subtracted from the older branch, we should subtract 8 mutations from the count, and obtain 325/47/0.198 = 35 à 36 conditional generations, that is 900 ± 100 years before present. 

Three mutations between the two base haplotypes is equivalent to 3/0.198 = 15 generations, that is approximately 375 years between their common ancestors, and THEIR common ancestor lived (375+900+575)/2 = 925 years ago. This is the “age” of the older branch itself, within the margin of error. 

Judging from the SNPs of the older branch, it belongs to Y2630 (kit 144477, No. 53) and Y2619 (such as kit 196865, No. 18, and kit 195398, No. 17), all in the “older” branch on the right-hand side of the tree. It seems that the upper sub-branch on the right belongs to Y2630, and the separate, larger sub-branch (from Nos. 16 through 17) belong to the upstream Y2619; however, we need more Y2630 and Y2619 typing to verify this hypothesis. 

The 67-marker haplotype tree is less resolved compared with the 111-marker tree; however, it contains more haplotypes (214 haplotypes): 

(A linear version of this haplotype tree is posted as a file at the bottom of this page; click on it to expand it.) 

If one considers the whole Ashkenazi Levite dataset, without trying to resolve it to branches, then the Kilin-Klyosov Calculator gives the following TMRCA values: 

All 379 haplotypes (111-, 67- and 37-marker): 893 ± 103 years, which should be rounded to 890 ± 100 years to the common ancestor. 

214 haplotypes (67- and 37-marker): 917 ± 117 years, which should be rounded to 920 ± 120 years to the common ancestor.                

All these figures are within the margin of error, along with the 900 ± 100 years calculated for the older branch of Ashkenazi Levites. 

It seems that around 900 years ago an R1a Levite became the ancestor of a future, rather vast population of R1a Jewish people. He had SNP Y2619 and/or Y2630. Around 575 years ago (in about the 15th century), one of his descendants, who already had three mutations in his 111-marker haplotype (in DYS459b, DYS537, and DYS650), and had a new SNP YP264/265, became an ancestor of almost an equally large population of Ashkenazi, many (or most) of whom continued to be Levites.

It seems that the above is a good example of how DNA genealogy operates with data.

* * *
Index to Men Identified in Professor Klyosov's Haplotype Trees

No.SurnameKit No.Most Distant AncestorCountry
1Mordecai G.9602 Lithuania
2Phillips40651Moses Phillips, b. abt 1787, London, EnglandEngland
3Leventhal53126Gilbert (Gershon) Leventhal (Levitan)Lithuania
4SchiffN107659Yekutiel Zusia ha levy Schiff, b. 1850 and d. 1922Moldova
5Wexler241703Salamon Wexler (@1768 - @1845), Klobuck, PolandPoland
6Rowe4916Robert Rowe, b Washington,DC, 1909 
7Howards21282 Unknown Origin
8Atkins39003Leiser Eitingon, b.c.1870, Orsha,BelarusBelarus
9Wald66131Wald, Alter (Berhometh, Bukovina (Austria-Hungary) 
10Navasky68589Kaunas, LithuaniaUnknown Origin
11Finn90933Moshe Pazernov b. before 1750 Vilkomir, LithuaniaUnknown Origin
12Fern103076need earliest known ancestor infoPoland
13Graff107789Emil Graff, b.1873, Miskolc, Hungary(Levite)Hungary
14Berd135285 Ukraine
15Buchstaber c/o Smith135721Mors BuchstaberUkraine
16Pitzele174958Israel Pitzele, b. 1725 d.1780Poland
17Levin195398Zerach Halevi 
18Martin196865Alfred Shelby Martin, b. 1931, Philadelphia, PAUnknown Origin
19Davies200249Elias Davis/Davies 1825 - 1897Hungary
20Brown207748Father? Unknown adopted (Mother Lena Wile b.1894)Unknown Origin
21Grinshteyn219949Akiva Greenshteyn (b.1909), born Odessa, RussiaRussia
22Muller227160Hermann Muller, 1854-1927 
23Barnett233761Lazarus (Eleazer) Barnett, b 1816 and d 1876 
24Mazabow242077Jacob Elias Mazabowski b. Circa 1876 (Mitoi)Latvia
25Ross250988Morris Louis Baker, 1905-1989 
26Pitzele270533Israel Pitzele, b. 1725 d. 1780 
27Anonymous 2013271084Im Anonymous 2013 
28Shepard279622ShapiroRussia
29Elvin319586Levin 
30Paradise333636John (Johann) Paradise (Paradies) b. 1847 d. 1930 
31BeyfusE8895Gobz or Gotz Philip Beyfus 1788-26 February 1845 aGermany
32ChristmannN103033JP Christmann*1726 Silesia -1798Germany
33BenaronZ5E9UOsovsky, AaronUkraine
34Hammerman1155Elijah Hammerman Halevi b. 1842Ukraine
35Heffler2805Szlomem Hoefler, b. bef. 1855, Zvyniach, UkraineUkraine
36O'Neill6422Hyman Zweigbaum, b.c.1850, UkraineUkraine
37Illing9076Rabbi Itzhak ha-Levi Hamburger Horowitz, 1715-17 
38 16112Mordichi Chazanoff, b. 1885 and d. 1952Unknown Origin
39Greenwald22380GREENWALD, Jacob b. ca 1700 of Börrstadt, PfalzGermany
40Greenwald22536GREENWALD, Jacob b. ca 1700 of Börrstadt, PfalzGermany
41Iserson43703Tzena Buzinover (Buzin) b. Abt 1827 
42Taylor55964John Thomas Taylor 1844-1925, North Carolina, USAUnknown Origin
43Goldsmith65218Aron Yochvedovitch, BelarusRussian Federation
44Hill68355Shmuel 'Shmelke' Halevi Ish-Horowitz 1615-1696Poland
45Cornbleet95663Asher-Zelik KorenblitUkraine
46Lee110775 Unknown Origin
47Levin114167Mordechai Levin, b. ca. 1766, lived Kholopenichi,Belarus
48Dorsay116142Ralsky - Grodno, BelarusBelarus
49Barry119779Philip (Fischel) Bary, b1839 Brody, d26Sep1911, NYUkraine
50Weiser131076weiser levi 1820-1890Hungary
51Page139431Wolf Pagurek, b. 1810 Rakow, PolandPoland
52Dobkin139973Laiba Dobkin dod 1904,Slonim, BelarusBelarus
53Mansbach144477Jehuda Mansbach d. 1930 Judlowa, PolandPoland
54Levine150511 Unknown Origin
55Horwood156060Shimson Ha Levi HorowitzBorn 1841 or 1842died JulyLithuania
56Levy161789Isaac Levy ( -1695), SpainSpain
57Sayers167413Nathan SAEVITZ, b c 1879, Romny, UkraineUkraine
58Klein171380Israel Klein, Russian FederationRussian Federation
59Roth177379  
60Garbarz Gover190924Mejer Halevi Garbarz Horwic, b.C1750 Sokolow Pod.Poland
61Underwood191096Charles Wheeler Underwood, b. 1879, AlabamaUnknown Origin
62Aaronson211571Mordecai Aronzon, b.1882 d.1919 Verbovets, PodoliUkraine
63Reinhold212016Anton Pollak b 1846 TapioBicske, Hungary; d 1884 WHungary
64O'Neill218089  
65Ungar222925Israel Meyer Ungar, b. abt. 1830-1840Hungary
66Lipsie223394Simon Lipshitz from Kruz, Lithuania born about 1847 
67Garbarz Gover225854Mejer Halevi Garbarz Horwic, b.C1750 Sokolow Pod.Poland
68Garbarz Gover225855Mejer Halevi Garbarz Horwic, b.C1750 Sokolow Pod.Poland
69Horowitz231989Gershko Zvi Horowitz, b 1805Moldova
70Gajduschek237576Shlomo Halevi Gajduschek b1809 Verpelét d1890 Eger 
71Spector248865Yonkel Velvel Vodovoz (or Arbit), @1856-1913Moldova
72Horowitz249519Isaac "Hamburger" Horowitz (1715-1767)Poland
73Heiden250723John Marvin Benjamin, b. circa 1880Unknown Origin
74Horwitz 251286Zorach Halev Horowitz b 1749 resided Gory,BelarusBelarus
75Brown266609Itsik BroilowskiRussian Federation
76Wilson288077Salomon Gerrit Gershon Levie-Grin d1741 Amsterdam 
77Leiferman296941Avrum Meyer (h'Levi) Leiferman c1840-1914. UkraineUkraine
78Singer304899Meyer Itzhak Halevi Zynger b. 1836 
79Walker323808Robert Walker b. abt. 1770 
80 324541  
81Israel331758ADOPTED 
82Anonymous K333816Anonymous K 
83TannisN114654Blums c. 1870 
84LazarusN11758Pejsach Halevi Lejzerowicz, b 1833, Uchanie, LublinPoland
85CohenN22757kagan, kahn, CohenLatvia
86HorowitzN28585Moshe Ha Levi Horowitz (Zuckerstein) Jerusalem/Rus 
87SeidmanN4618Jacob Noah Seidman 1891-1964Poland
88MansbachZZZ67Z2Jacob "the Scribe" Mansbach (@1800-1825) 
89LeventhalN31221LeventhalBelarus
90Gann291Shloma Gen, ca 1800, LithuaniaLithuania
91Berger1723Moshe (HaLevy) Berger, Uzhgorod, UkraineUkraine
92 2803 Switzerland
93Straus Jr.5410Moises lazarus ca 1770-1798,Rheinland-Pfalz/RhinelGermany
94 9508 Unknown Origin
95Shamberg18479Asher Dov Halevy 1800 Jalowka, PolandPoland
96Bazes20195Jeruchim Bazes, circa 1750, Krakow, PolandPoland
97Wheeler32364Hyman Knopf, of Melitz, Galicia, PolandPoland
98Siegel43643William Siegel, b.c 1860, Kupiskis, LithuaniaLithuania
99Sacharin44958Zev Sacharin,19th c. Konela ( Skolevka-YustinogradUnknown Origin
100Sinclair49666Zusman Schulsinger, PolandPoland
101 50772 Ukraine
102Kleiger51684Kleiger, Ashkenazi LeviteRussian Federation
103 52166 Germany
104Levinge54140Nathan Boris Lev.... France, RussiaFrance, Russia
105 59998 Unknown Origin
106Sylvan60886  
107Greenberg63501Hirchel David Greenberg, PolandPoland
108Gershoff67344Morris Gershoff 1865-1924Russian Federation
109Barkai70594Moses Finchelstein, b.c.1800, Targu Neamt, RomaniaRomania
110Vitkes70609Gessel Vitkes c1830 to cc1880 
111Loewy71175Marcus Loewi,b. 1779, Kopec, Bohemia, Aus. EmpireCzech Republic
112 72824  
113Troupp75909Leiba Trupp, b. abt 1775Latvia
114Dolgow81579DolgowBelarus
115Neiman83466Yehoshua Zev Ha Levi b c1853, RussiaLithuania
116Rottman84918Marcus b 1882Romania
117 93021  
118Berkowitz94362Unknown BerkowitzLithuania
119Sandelman94868  
120Winarsky99563Tzvi Dov HaLevi Winarsky d. circa 1895 KievUkraine
121Segal103648Segal, Pearlstein UkraineUnknown Origin
122Kraft105153--; 1895; Parichi, Minsk, BelarusBelarus
123Amavisca106298 Unknown Origin
124Epstein109092Nehemiah Epstein, 1790-1883, Slonim, Poland; LeviPoland
125Brewer109921Abraham Brewer, 1750 - 1824 
126Bernstein111155Yankel BernsteinBelarus
127Schischa112261Zanvil Schischa, b.1800; Mattersdorf, HungaryHungary
128 115494  
129Rzepka118564PolandPoland
130 119944Raseiniai, LithuaniaLithuania
131Neumann122719Natan Nata Neuman b.c. 1820, Szobranc, Hun. (SobraHungary
132Reizes125522Melekh Reitzes, AustriaAustria
133Feldberg127668Isaac Feldberg, Maków Mazowiecki, Poland (Lomza)Poland
134 130105 Hungary
135Marx133746Wolf Marx,1745, Grosseicholzheim, GermanyGermany
136Gordon139616Yossel Halevi Gordon b 1871 Minsk, BelarusBelarus
137Frost143183 Ukraine
138Pryanikov143734Elyash Pryanikov b.1800,Druya, Disna uyezd, VilnaBelarus
139Benn144944 Poland
140Emdin145355David Emdin 
141Korostyshevskiy146514Shaya (Шая) Korostyshevskiy, 1850s, Malin, UkraineUkraine
142Livne153074 Poland
143Dorf154287Kalman Dorf b.24 Nov 1842 Rozdol,UkraineUkraine
144Wachtel156774Sussmann WACHTEL 1792 Gehaus, Thuringen 
145Barkoff157105Ijcek Berghoff, b.c. 1810, Suceava, RomaniaRomania
146Taylor158039John Thomas Taylor (1844 NC-1925 TN) 
147Faust161036Mosiek Faust, born c. 1798Poland
148Levit161621  
149Steinberg161748Menahem Mendel Sztejnberg, Siedlce-Poland1897-1847Poland
150Meltzer166888Lazer Shmuliov Sklut-Melzer, 1871-1946, Volozhin 
151Siegel168008Avraham Tzevi Siegel b c1867 d 1918 Denver, CO 
152Heller172793  
153Miller173395William Robert Miller, b. December 9th, 1930Unknown Origin
154Kowalsky175107Itsik Kovalsky, Utena Lithuania abt. 1775Lithuania
155Troop178080need oldest known paternal ancestor infoUnknown Origin
156 185770  
157Landau192603Shmuel Landau, Brailov, UkraineUkraine
158 196045  
159 200713  
160Bliss208320need earliest known paternal ancestor info 
161Kritz211075need earliest known ancestor infoUnknown Origin
162SACKS213421 Jurbarkas, Lithuania 
163 213566 Austria
164Czerwick220657Franciszek Czerwik, b.c. 1796, Bargly, Poland 
165 225076 Russian Federation
166Peister228407 Unknown Origin
167Stanley233086Henry Stanley b.c1858 d. 1946 
168Stone236744Benjamin SteinmanRussian Federation
169Hilson237542Simon HilsonLatvia
170Boekman237547Moses Eliazar Boekman b.1780 and d.1843Netherlands
171Bines245126Eugene (Gedalia) Bines, b.1922 and d. 2008 
172Gilman251578Chaim Ha Levi GittlemanPoland
173Gowen252349Bach, Unknown 
174Orkin/Arkin258825Michael Orkin/Arkin, b. 1860 and d. ? 
175Lee269786Simon LevyLithuania
176Culmann279725Emanuel Culmann, d. 13 July 1864 
177Sigal281126Henich sin Iancu Sigal (@1840-1912), BotosaniRomania
178 284342  
179Rockstein292919Moses Ruckenstein b abt 1830 
180Dubnik317372Mendel Dubnik 
181Meikler/Maykler319467Berko Meikler/Maykler b.circa 1840;Bolavus 
182Isaacs324546Isaacs, Malerman 
183Bernstein325899  
184Seigle352736Israel Segal, b. 1869 
185Baum38A75David Baum 
186Livne54MJ8  
187ComisarowAUHCHRaseiniai, LithuaniaLithuania
188ChadwickB2024Frank FischerGermany
189AlexanderE6436  
190KleinH44EB  
191MossM8HV2Mastosky 
192KleinN10434Max Klein, 1907-1995, Trnava, Slovacia (was AustraSlovakia
193PrimasN107281PrimasRussian Federation
194 N113205 Ukraine
195DinbergN16087Elia Trupin, b. bef. 1800, Dinaburg, LatviaLatvia
196QuevyN166944  
197SiegelN21505SJ Siegel 
198DrelichN25993Gershon Drillich b. c. 1775 
199KuninN35379Abram Sversjin, 1895,Gomel, Mogilevka, BelarusRussian Federation
200SegilN55713Segal/Segil Tryskiai, Siauliai,Kaunas, Lith. c1790Lithuania
201ZwiebackN60182Leopold Zwieback, b. abt 1813Hungary
202GenickN74148GenickUkraine
203RothenbergN77297Elias Benjamin Rothenberg, 1854Ukraine
204OlitskyN79500  
205LeightonN81676Arthur Leidert, 9 November 1875 - 10 April 1939, PGermany
206OlschanskyN82629Isador Olschansky, 1900 RussiaRussian Federation
207StarN89251need earliest known paternal ancestor infoUnknown Origin
208DeanN98347James Leigh (Levy)Scotland
209LevinsohnPNJS2 Jurbarkas, Lithuania 
210ShawPQW6RMattersdorf, Hungary 
211Van RaalteRTK44 Raalte, Netherlands 
212BrousseZZZ67Z1  
213LevitZZZ67Z2  
214MeyersZZZ67Z3  

A linear version of Professor Klyosov's 67-marker haplotype tree is attached as a file at the bottom of this page; click on it to expand it.


Article © 2014 by Anatole A. Klyosov.

Thanks to Meir G. Gover for his assistance in facilitating this article.

Click here to read the e-mails exchanged between Professor Klyosov and Jeff Wexler concerning, among other things, the use of a small number of STRs to predict SNPs among R1a-Y2619 Ashkenazi Levites.
ą
jeffwexler@ca.rr.com,
Aug 30, 2014, 9:50 PM