What's New

December 14, 2013: Site goes live and is announced to R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Yahoo group.

December 18, 2013: Site updated to include findings in S. Rootsi & D. Behar, et al., Phylogenetic Applications of Whole Y-Chromosome Sequences and the Near Eastern Origin of Ashkenazi Levites, Nature Communications 4, Article No. 2928 (2013).  

December 20, 2013: New page added on paper by S. Rootsi & D. Behar, et al.

December 24, 2013: New page added on Levite tombstones.

January 11, 2014: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheets, and the Fitch and Kitsch phylogenetic trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage.

January 14, 2014: New page added to provide information on Prague and Toledo tombstones translated by Meir G. Gover, along with information on 76 tombstones in the Ancient Jewish Cemetery of Toledo.

January 16, 2014: Pages revised to reflect Vladimir Tagankin's discovery of two SNPs, Y2742 and Y2744, that distinguish different branches of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite tree.

February 22, 2014: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheets, and the Fitch and Kitsch phylogenetic trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage.

March 30, 2014: English translation posted of Anatole Klyosov's January 30, 2014 article, Thoughts About Jewish DNA GenealogyNew page added to discuss the theory that R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites are descended from a man who entered the Jewish population 4,000 years ago, when Judaism was founded.

April 20, 2014: Substantial revisions made throughout website to reflect the initial receipt and analysis of SNP test results from full Y-DNA sequencing. SNP Analysis page updated to identify SNPs defining and dividing R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites and to post a schematic tree based upon Y-DNA SNPs. Website revised based upon new research showing that the proportion of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites in the Ashkenazi population is substantially higher than previously believed, and new STR and SNP analyses indicating that the proportion of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are descended from the Horowitz rabbinical family is likely less than previously estimated.

April 27, 2014: Article provided by Anatole Klyosov posted. Professor Klyosov's article provides an analysis of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites based upon their STR marker values and SNPs, along with some comments and criticism concerning statements posted here concerning the use of SNP analysis vis-à-vis STR analysis.

May 9, 2014: SNP Analysis page updated to add one new set of Big Y results and revised analysis based thereon.

May 26, 2014: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheets, and the Fitch and Kitsch phylogenetic trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage.

June 14, 2014: Y-DNA star trees added for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111 markers or to at least 67 markers. Instructions updated to provide information how to create Y-DNA star trees  using phylogenetic network software from Fluxus Technology Ltd.

June 28, 2014: Page added to provide links to articles discussing the issue whether autosomal and mtDNA data point to Ashkenazi origins in Khazaria, along with an open letter from Anatole Klyosov addressing two of those articles.

June 30, 2014: Additional discussion added to page discussing theory re Adiabene originsUpdated SNP tree posted.


July 12, 2014: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheets, and the Fitch and Kitsch phylogenetic trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Updated versions of Y-DNA star trees added for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111 markers, to at least 67 markers, or to at least 37 markers. Page providing test results for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite-specific SNPs revised to add new SNP results and additional STRs.

July 30, 2014: Page providing test results for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite-specific SNPs updated to provide information concerning recently received SNP results, to make predictions concerning the SNPs of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to at least 67 markers, and to present star trees for the groups of men who are predicted to be Y2630+ and Y2630-. Updated SNP tree posted to add newly received full Y-DNA results for a man who is Y2630-. Page on SNP-based calculation of time to an MRCA updated.

August 2, 2014: Page added to identify, by name, position, mutation, and companies reporting test results, those SNPs that characterize all R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites or branches of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites, as well as currently private SNPs. SNP Analysis page streamlined, with subpages added for historical information on discovery of SNPs and information concerning the men who have received full Y-DNA test results.


August 30, 2014: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch phylogenetic trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Updated versions of Y-DNA star trees added for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111 markers, to at least 67 markers, or to at least 37 markers. Updated versions of pages providing test results for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite-specific SNPsthe key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+, the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, and very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-. Page added to explain issues with STR-based calculations of the time to an MRCA shared by two men.


November 4, 2014: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, and the Y-Utility spreadsheet posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing test results for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite-specific SNPsthe key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+, the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, and very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-.


December 14, 2014: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing test results for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite-specific SNPs, predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+, the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, and very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-. New page added with the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-.

February 16, 2015: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; and (5) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-. Posted updated versions of pages providing (1) STR mutation frequencies generally and STR deviation frequencies among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites; and (2) ranked deviations in STR marker values among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites.

April 18, 2015: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; and (5) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-. Posted updated versions of pages providing (1) STR mutation frequencies generally and STR deviation frequencies among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites; and (2) ranked deviations in STR marker values among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites. Posted instructions on obtaining samples without test kit.

June 27, 2015: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; and (5) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-. Posted updated versions of pages providing (1) STR mutation frequencies generally and STR deviation frequencies among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites; and (2) ranked deviations in STR marker values among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites

September 19, 2015: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; and (5) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-. Posted separate page with currently unclustered R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, based upon patterns of STR marker values

December 19, 2015: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; (5) the key STR marker values for the currently unclustered R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, based upon patterns of STR marker values; and (6) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-.  

January 23, 2016: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees (except the 37-marker Fitch tree) posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; (5) the key STR marker values for the currently unclustered R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, based upon patterns of STR marker values; and (6) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-.  

April 24, 2016: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees (except the 37-marker Fitch tree) posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; (5) the key STR marker values for the currently unclustered R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, based upon patterns of STR marker values; and (6) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-.  

May 28, 2016: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the Fitch and Kitsch trees (except the 37-marker Fitch tree) posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage. Posted updated versions of pages providing: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; (5) the key STR marker values for the currently unclustered R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, based upon patterns of STR marker values; and (6) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-.  Posted updated versions of pages providing (1) STR mutation frequencies generally and STR deviation frequencies among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites; and (2) ranked deviations in STR marker values among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites.

July 12, 2016: Posted: (1) SNP tree for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites and their closest matches identified on FTDNA's match pages; and (2) revised R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, adding FTDNA-reported SNPs, Big Y-reported SNPs, and tentative predictions for SNPs (posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage).

July 23, 2016: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the 67- and 111-marker Fitch and Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage.  Posted five new pages to incorporate results of full Y-DNA testing: (1) actual and predicted SNPs for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites, along with star trees for all R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites; (2) key STR marker values for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have done full Y-DNA testing; (3) key STR marker values and star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (4) key STR marker values and star treesfor R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be FGC18222+; and (5) key STR marker values and star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2619*.  Posted updated star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111, 67, or 37 markersRemoved seven pages: (1) predicted SNPs for R1a1a, Ashkenazi Levites along with star trees for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites predicted to be Y2630+ and those predicted to be Y2630-; (2) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (3) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; (4) the key STR marker values for the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are not currently predicted to be Y2630+ or Y2630-; (5) the key STR marker values for the currently unclustered R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-, based upon patterns of STR marker values; and (6) very tentative groupings into subclusters of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630-; and (7) test results for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite-specific SNPs.

November 27, 2016: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, and the 37-, 67-, and 111-marker Fitch and Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage.  Posted updated versions of the following pages: (1) actual and predicted SNPs for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites, along with star trees for all R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites; (2) key STR marker values for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have done full Y-DNA testing; (3) key STR marker values and star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (4) key STR marker values and star treesfor R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be FGC18222+; (5) key STR marker values and star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2619*; and (6) updated star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111, 67, or 37 markers.

February 11, 2017: Updated versions of the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Sortable Spreadsheet, the Steps to Matches spreadsheet to be used in sorting the Sortable Spreadsheet, the Y-Utility spreadsheet, the 67- and 111-marker Fitch trees, and the 37-, 67-, and 111-marker Kitsch trees posted on the Y-DNA Analysis webpage.  Posted updated versions of the following pages: (1) actual and predicted SNPs for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites, along with star trees for all R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites; (2) key STR marker values for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have done full Y-DNA testing; (3) key STR marker values and star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2630+; (4) key STR marker values and star treesfor R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be FGC18222+; (5) key STR marker values and star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who are predicted to be Y2619*; and (6) updated star trees for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111, 67, or 37 markers. Posted updated versions of pages providing (1) STR mutation frequencies generally and STR deviation frequencies among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites; and (2) ranked deviations in STR marker values among R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites. Added page with list of Aleppo Levites prepared by Meir Gover.


Jehudah Mansbach

Jehudah Mansbach (@1850-1930)
Photograph taken in @1875 in Poland
(according to Mansbach lore, Jehudah
is wearing a false beard to make
himself appear older)