Analysis of Y-DNA Markers
R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite Spreadsheet Yahoo Group: A group where people who are interested in R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites can receive notices of new materials appearing on this website and exchange e-mails re topics of interest.
Family Tree DNA Ashkenazi-Levite DNA Project (R1a1): The Family Tree DNA project directed specifically at R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites. The website provides marker values and SNPs for R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites.
Family Tree DNA R1a1a and Subclades Y-DNA Project: The Family Tree DNA project directed at all R1a1a men, including R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites. In addition to marker values and SNPs for R1a1a men, the website includes (1) a chart showing the time to an MRCA for all major branches of R1a1a (R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites are towards the right of the tree); (2) a draft tree for R1a1a identifying the SNPs believed to characterize each such major branch, along with information concerning various subgroups of R1a1a men and maps showing their geographic distribution; and (3) a web page including another chart showing the time to an MRCA for all major branches of R1a1a and distribution maps and descriptions of those branches.
Semargl: A search engine developed by Vladimir Tagankin allowing searches for: (1) STR matches to a man identified by kit number or surname; and (2) all R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites and their closest matches, men who are Z2122+ F1345* or Z2122+ F1345+ F2935+.
Kurdish DNA post with phylogenetic tree for R1a1a men who have tested to 111 markers: Includes about 25 R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites who have tested to 111 markers.
Background of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites
ISOGG tree for Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades: Most recent ISOGG tree showing SNPs defining each branch and sub-branch of Y-DNA haplogroup R.
YFull experimental tree: Full tree including all Y-DNA SNPs identified by the YFull team.
Eng.molgen.org discussion thread re Z2122 and Z2469-Z2478 / “Ashkenazi-Levite” branch: Discussions re new test results and theories re R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites.
Eng.molgen.org discussion thread re 2013 Rootsi Paper and Ashkenazi Levite R1a: Discussions re deep roots of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites, based upon genetics and history.
A. Klyosov & I. Rozhanskii, Haplogroup R1a as the Proto Indo-Europeans and the Legendary Aryans as Witnessed by the DNA of Their Current Descendants, Advances in Anthropology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1-13 (2012): An analysis of the origins of the R1a haplogroup.
D. Behar, et al., Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries, Am. J. Hum. Gen. 73:768-799 (2003): The leading article identifying the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite cluster.
E. Levy-Coffman, A Mosaic of People: The Jewish Story and a Reassessment of the DNA Evidence (2005): A general discussion of Y-DNA and mtDNA among Jewish populations, with historical background.
A. Nebel et al., Y Chromosome Evidence for a Founder Effect in Ashkenazi Jews, 13 European Journal of Human Genetics 388-91 (2004): Discussion of R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites.
S. Rootsi & D. Behar, et al., Phylogenetic Applications of Whole Y-Chromosome Sequences and the Near Eastern Origin of Ashkenazi Levites, Nature Communications 4, Article No. 2928 (2013): A comprehensive analysis of SNPs that are unique to R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites, including an explanation of how one such SNP, M582, indicates that the R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite progenitor likely originated in the Near East before the Diaspora.
I. Rozhanskii & A. Klyosov, Haplogroup R1a, Its Subclades and Branches in Europe during the Last 9,000 Years, Advances in Anthropology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 139-56 (2012): A comprehensive analysis of the time to a Most Recent Common Ancestor for 38 branches of the R1a subclade (R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites, included in the "South-Eastern Branch (Z93)," are discussed at pp. 5-7).
Anatoly Klyosov's January 30, 2014 blog Поговорим о ДНК-генеалогии евреев (Thoughts About Jewish DNA Genealogy), translated to English on this site with Professor Klyosov's permission: A comprehensive analysis of Jewish Y-DNA haplogroups R1a, J1, and J2, with discussion focused on R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites, along with a more general discussion of Jewish genetics.
Intersection of Genetic and Paper Genealogy
E. Gelles, The Jewish Journey: A Passage Through European History (I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. 2016): Dr. Gelles masterfully traces more than a thousand years of Jewish European history through a series of interwoven essays that focus on important Jewish communities and prominent families, many of which Dr. Gelles connects to his own ancestral lines. Through an interdisciplinary approach combining history, anthropology, and traditional genealogical research with the emerging field of genetic genealogy, Dr. Gelles has created a valuable work that will be enjoyed by anyone with an interest in Jewish European history. Dr. Gelles' book will be of special interest to readers seeking insight as to how their DNA test results may evidence their own links to these communities and families, bridging the gaps in the paper trail that prevent the majority of Ashkenazi Jews from tracing their ancestry back to the 18th and earlier centuries.
D. Wiener, The Weiner Family History in Germany from 1400: Dennis Wiener's website provides a link to download his e-book tracing his ancestry back 600 years. Dennis explains how he, through Y-DNA STR testing and Big Y testing, was able to confirm a suspected relationship and to trace his direct male (R1a1a Ashkenazi Levite) line back to Oettingen, Bavaria.
The Levitical Horowitz Rabbinical Family Alliances Project: Web page on geni.com with links to Horowitz genealogical information, including biographies, geni profiles, Horowitz family trees, and related information
E. Gelles, Family Connections: Gelles -- Horowitz -- Chajes, A Genealogical Study, Shaker Publishing BV, The Netherlands (2008) (ISBN 978 90 423 0338 6), chapter 2 & tables 9-16: Discussion of Horowitz rabbinical lineage through Brody, Ukraine
S. Gurevich, Gurevich, Gurovich, Gurvich, Gorvich, Gurvitz, Horowitz and Others: History of a Great Family (Haifa, 1999, ISBN 965-222-971-7): History of Horowitz rabbinical family
Traditional Horowitz Ancestors and Relatives in Spain
Andree Aelion Brooks, Doña Gracia Nasi and her Significance for Jewish History
Moses Avigdor Chaikin, The Celebrities of the Jews: A Glance at the Historical Circumstances of the Jewish People from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Day (in two parts; Part I: 70-1290: See pp. 123-24 for a discussion of Zerachya ha-Levi, traditional ancestor of the Horowitz family.
Samuel Kurinsky, The daCostas: A Remarkable Sephardic Family
Herman Prins Salomon & Aron di Leone, Mendes, Benveniste, de Luna, Micas, Nasci: The State of the Art (1532-1558), The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 88, No. 3/4 (Jan. - Apr. 1998), pp. 135-211
The Dona Gracia Project: Commemorating a Remarkable Jewish Woman
Wikipedia, Aaron ben Joseph ha-Levi
Wikipedia, Zerachiah ha-Levi of Girona
Ancestors of Other Known R1a1a Ashkenazi Levites
Yitzchok Levine, Moses Raphael Levy – Wealthy Colonial Jewish Merchant
The History of the Jews in Spain, with Specific References to Girona, Traditional Ancestral Home of the Horowitz Rabbinical Family
Caminos de Sefarad: Red de Juderias of Espana (Routes of Sefarad): Interactive maps and chronologies for the Jews of Spain.
Enrique Mirambell Belloc, Los Judios Gerundenses en el Momento de la Expulsion (Jews in Girona During the Time of the Expulsion)
Robert Ignatius Burns, Jews in the Notarial Culture: Latinate Wills in Mediterranean Spain, 1250-1350
Reed Digital Collection: images of gravestones of Sephardic families that settled in the Netherlands (searchable)
Diariojudio.com: List of more than 5,000 Sephardic surnames.
Anusim.weebly.com: Website about the Anusim, with a list of surnames.
Religious Roles of the Levites
The Exodus is Not Fiction: Interview with Richard Elliott Friedman, Reform Judaism (Spring 2014): Discussion of hypothesis that the Levites were the group that left Egypt in the Exodus.
We welcome suggestions for resources to add to this page.