Levi Strauss and His Family - New Information

The original Levi Strauss & Co. records both at the company and in San Francisco were destroyed in the fire after the earthquake of April 1906. Many interesting stories have since developed about why he traveled to San Francisco and what he did when he arrived.  Lynn Downey, historian at Levi Strauss & Co., has done extensive research on the subject.  Fortunately even more information about Levi’s family and more past census data has become available over the past several years which sheds a new and a clearer light on the man and on his family. This information explains more about his family in Germany and in New York, where he first lived in New York, how he came to San Francisco, and what he actually sold when he arrived. Now, this information is available to us all.

Levi Strauss, was born, Lob Strauss, in Buttenheim, Kingdom of Bavaria on Thursday 26 February 1829 as the second, and last, child to Hirsch Strauss and his second wife, Rebekka (Rebecca) Haas Strauss in their home at #83b Marktstrasse [today the address is #33]. The Strauss’ lived on the first floor (b) of the two story house. Another family lived on the second floor (a). The house where Levi and his siblings were born has been refurbished and as of 2000 is the Levi Strauss Museum. Tonja Roppelt, director of the Levi Strauss Museum in Buttenheim, has also done extensive research about Levi’s family.


Hirsch, a dry goods peddler, already had five children with his first wife Mathilde (nick-named Madel) Baumann (born 2 Feb. 1787): Jacob born 28 April 1812, Rosla born 10 Nov. 1813, Jonathan (called Jonas) born on 27 July 1815, Lippmann (later called Louis) born on 18 Dec. 1817, and Mathilde, nick named Meila, (later called Mary) 21 Nov. 1821. Madel Baumann Strauss lived for only 35 years and died of “emaciation” on 31 July 1822.


Jews began to settle in Buttenheim in the 17th century. A synagogue was built about 1740. In about 1810, Jews made up one-fifth of Buttenheim’s population. The Jewish cemetery was established in 1819. Anti-Semitic restrictive legislation and resultant poverty prompted Jews to begin to immigrate to the United States. The synagogue went out of use in 1892 and since has been converted into one of the local breweries. Jews were allowed to live in only one small part of the town. Jewish artisans, merchants, petty traders and cattle dealers, suffered under many restrictions and there were special taxes on their homes and businesses. The number of Jewish marriages was officially restricted. That meant that usually only the first born son or first born daughter in a family, when they married (religiously or not), was considered married with the rights according to the state of Bavaria. Any other child from that family, when married (religiously or not) was never considered officially married by the state and could not receive any state benefits. Jews were being attacked and killed in nearby cities. Lynn Downey wrote to me, “There were horrible anti-Jewish riots in Franconia in 1819. Jacob, Rosla, Jonas and Louis would all have been babies at the time, and it's very likely the family heard about them.”


The social turmoil of Europe in the 19th century also sent many intellectuals and scholars to the United States. In particular, supporters of the German Revolution of 1848--sometimes called "Forty-Eighters," brought their tradition of vigorous public debate and social activism to bear on the issues facing the U.S., including land reform, abolition, workers' rights, and women's suffrage.


Until the 1876 law in Germany that required “correct” spellings of names and official dates of birth and death, people who could write wrote on documents the names as they were said or as they were heard. Therefore, there are several different spellings of names and nick-names for the same person. Sometimes two or three people with the same first name were given different nick-names.


Hirsch Strauss became sick with tuberculosis. He died on 6 June 1846, at the age of 65. Both he and Madel are buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Buttenheim. After Hirsch’s death, Rebecca married Lippmann Strauss, Hirsch’s brother, and she and all the children moved into his home at 134 Marktstrasse (where Hirsch and Lippmann were born). Lippmann died of “emaciation” three months after, on 15 Sept. 1846. Rebecca inherited the house after he died.


Jacob Strauss and Rosla Strauss, Hirsch and Madel’s first two children immigrated to the US on their own. Jonathan (Jonas) age 21 and Lippmann (Louis) age 19 also immigrated to the United States on their own between August 1836 & July 1837. They all received US nationalization certificates (US citizenship). Jonas Strauss received his on 21 February 1846, 9 years after arriving. Jonas swore that “I Jonas Strauss Do declare, on oath, before the Marine Court of the City of New York, that I will support the constitution of the United States, and that I absolutely and entirely renounce, abjure, all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign Prince, Potentate, State or Sovereignty whatever, and particularly to Louis King of Bavaria of whom I was before a subject.”


Rosla’s husband, Isaak Lebermuth, was the sworn witness and supporter on Jonas’s document. The clerk probably first asked Isaak to state his name and the clerk wrote Isaak’s name down the way he thought he had heard it, or the way he was familiar to hearing it, so that part of the certificate reads, “‘Isaac Livermore’ being duly sworn, saith that he, this deponent, knows and is well acquainted with Jonas Strauss and that he, the said Jonas Strauss has resided within the United States five years at least, and within the State of New-York one year at least; and further, that during that time he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same.” It is witnessed & signed ‘Isaak Lebermuth.’


Louis Strauss became a US citizen, just seven and one-half months after Jonas, on 3 October 1846.  His sworn witness and supporter on his document that day was his older brother, Jonas Strauss.


In 1847 Rebecca applied for emigration as required by law. A proclamation was published in the Koniglich Bayerisches Intelligenzblatt fur Oberfranken, Number 52 [Royal Bavarian Gazette for Upper Franconia region 52] in [the city of] Bayreuth, 1 May 1847.  The date of the request for emigration was 15 April 1847 and it was requested of the Royal Regional Court, Bamberg v. Main, of the Kingdom of Bavaria.  Translated from German, it reads:


“The widow of the merchant Hirsch Strauss of Buttenheim, by the name of, Rebekka [Rebecca], with her three youngest children




want to emigrate to the United States.


Therefore a hearing is fixed for the 7th of May of this year at 9 in the morning. That is the time to file financial claims, if any, against the widow of Hirsch Strauss. Claims that have not been filed on that day will not be considered when the permit to emigrate is being issued.”



This publication was required for anyone who wanted to emigrate in the 19th century. People had to prove that they owned a certain amount of money which had to be enough for the expenses of the journey and for a start in the US. Usually the costs of the emigration amounted to the annual salary of a worker, quite a lot of money. They had to pay back any money that was claimed that they owed. They had to have a birth certificate, a character reference and young men furthermore had to prove that they had finished their military service. Many people, however, tried to avoid all this legal work and found ways to emigrate without being documented.


Sometime probably between April and September 1848, 2 years after her husband, Hirsch Strauss, died (1846) in Buttenheim, Rebecca Strauss, Levi’s mother, now age 47, was able to leave Bavaria, take the several week journey across the Atlantic and bring Levi, age 18 or just turned 19, then known by his original German name, Lob, his older half-sister, Melia (Mathilde, known as Mary in the US), age 26, and his older sister, Fanny (Bogela), age 24, to New York. When they arrived in New York, they joined Jonas Strauss and Louis Strauss who were then operating a dry goods business named Strauss & Brother located at 108 Liberty Street. Rebecca and Levi stayed with Jonas and his growing family. Louis lived there, too. Levi stayed for about 5 years. Rebecca stayed with Jonas & family for about 8 years before also traveling to San Francisco.


The 17 July 1850 US Federal Census of New York, Ward 7, District 1, lists the household of Jonas Strauss, age 34, Occupation: Dry Goods, and  includes his wife, Sophia, age 26, daughter, Matilda, age 4, son, Nathan, age 3, son, Henry, age 8 months, Rebecca Strauss [Levi’s mother], age 48, Lewis [Louis/Lippmann], pedler [peddler] of Dry Goods, age 31, Levy [Levi], pedler [peddler] of Dry Goods, age 21, & Caroline Murabean, age 26, probably a domestic servant. Note that Lob is now, for the first time, known as “Levy” [Levi], even though later, in 1853, he still signs his name as Loeb (English spelling for Lob). 


Levi was working with his brothers, Jonas and Louis, at Strauss and Brother.  In 1852/3, a New York City Directory lists the company as “J. Strauss & Brother” and after 1856 the New York City Directory lists the company as “J. Strauss Brother & Company.” Soon, imported items were also added to the company’s clothing and dry goods inventories.


Less than one year after she arrived, Melia (Mathilde), now known as Mary, age 27, married William Sahlein, age 29, probably in 1849. She lived with him in Massachusetts for about a year, then they moved to New York city. Fanny Strauss married David Stern in 1850 and lived with him in New York. Eventually Rebecca Strauss, Louis Strauss, Fanny Strauss and David Stern and their family, and William Sahlein all moved to San Francisco.


On 25 January 1851, Levi applied for his nationalization certificate (US Citizenship) and on 31 January 1853 he officially became an American citizen: “I do solemnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the United States; and that I do absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiances and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state or sovereignty whatever; and particularly to the King of Bavaria.” This document is signed in NY on 31 January 1853 by Loeb Strauss [the English spelling of Lob].


The certificate is supported, witnessed and signed by Louis Strauss, his half-brother, who states that he lives at “165 Houston St. being duly sworn, says, that he is well acquainted with the above named applicant, and that the said applicant has resided within the United States, for the continued term of five years at least next preceding the present time, and within the State of New York one year at least immediately preceding this application; and that during that time he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same. Sworn in open Court this 31 day of January 1853 [signed] Louis Strauss.” 165 Houston St. is now the same address in the New York Directory as listed for the residence of Jonas Strauss and the same address listed for J. Strauss & Brother Dry Goods.


At this time, January 1853, Jonas Strauss, 37, was married, had a growing family of several

young children plus an established thriving New York dry goods business that was doing well. Eventually he and his wife, Sophia, had ten children. Jonas had no interest in leaving New York.

Louis Strauss, who turned 35 one month before January 1853, was single and was the “Brother” of J. Strauss & Brother. It was easier for him to travel. In fact, he did. Both the New York and the San Francisco directories show that between 1855 & 1880 he moved back and forth between J. Strauss & Brother (J. Strauss Brother & Co) in New York and Levi Strauss & Co. in San Francisco. 


Levi Strauss was now 23, one month before being 24, years of age, 13.5 years younger than Jonas, and also single. He was probably anxious to try something new. Two months later, in March of 1853, Levi Strauss was in San Francisco.


How did he get to San Francisco so fast? What did he do when he arrived? As soon as the next San Francisco directory was printed (information probably gathered during late 1853 and printed for 1854), Levi is, for the first time, listed in a San Francisco Directory as “Strauss, Levi, dry goods & clothing, 90 Sacramento.” How had he established himself so quickly?


According to Lynn Downey, Levi probably traveled by way of Central America or what is now Panama; first by ship from New York to Panama, then across land and lakes in Panama where there was yellow fever and other hazards, and then by ship to San Francisco. February and March are in the “dry season” in Panama; the dry season was the best time to transverse the Isthmus of Panama. Such a trip took about 4 - 8 weeks. Some people did not complete or even survive the trip. Travelers could not take excess supplies on such a journey. Personal luggage was kept at a minimum. The trip around Cape Horn by ship, the other choice, took 6 months or longer.  Crossing the country overland took much longer and was much more dangerous.


Beginning just a few months after Levi arrived in San Francisco, shipments of merchandise arrived for him from J. Strauss & Brother in New York. The ship loads of merchandise which he received in San Francisco had to be sent on the 6 month journey around the Cape of Good Hope. These shipments continued to arrive for many years. The research of Lynn Downey documents that Levi most likely came West without any merchandise, but instead he probably came with a “letter of introduction” from J. Strauss & Brother to several retail stores in the area. Levi did not sell canvas. He did not make pants from canvas. He sold dry goods and clothing.


The 1856-7 San Francisco Bishop Directory listing by Levi Strauss, himself, states, “Strauss, Levy

Importer & dealer in clothing & dry goods 63 + 65 Sac’o, res 17 Minna.  Established March 1853.” Now, he is not only selling clothing and dry goods, he is selling imported items, too.


Levi was able to quickly get his merchandise into stores. The shipments from New York kept coming. In 1858, only 5 years after he arrived in SF, Levi Strauss had a very large selection of merchandise for sale. One invoice from an early customer, Hardie and Kennedy of Foresthill, CA (near Sacramento), listed what they purchased on one order for their store. The heading of the invoice stated, “San Francisco  Febr 25Th 1858, Mers. Hardie and Kennedy Bought of LEVI STRAUSS, Clothing, Dry Goods, Fancy Goods, Embroideries, Boots, Shoes, &c. 63 & 65 Sacramento Sreet, bwt. Battery and Front.” The list included: “168 pair of men’s and ladies hose or stockings, 80 shirts, some checked and some flannel and 16 side stripe cassimere [medium weight wool] pants.” The total cost of the order was “$1621.05.”1 This is equal to $45 thousand dollars in 2012 dollars.


When did Fanny Strauss and David Stern come to San Francisco? Before or after Levi? That question was not answered until I did research on my own family. Even Levi Strauss & Co. had no firm data. Remember that the records at Levi Strauss & Co. were destroyed by the fire after the earthquake of 1906. Now we know. Fanny Strauss and David Stern had 8 children. Their first child, Jacob was born in New York in 1851. Their second child, Caroline, was also born in New York in 1853. Henry, their third child was born in “California” [San Francisco] in late 1855 or early 1856. All the rest of their children, Sigmund, Louis, Harriet (Hattie), Abraham and Lillian were also born in California [San Francisco].2 This information strongly suggests that the Stern family traveled to San Francisco sometime between late-1854 and mid-1855.  David Stern is first listed in the San Francisco City Directories in 1856, which matches well with the above data. In San Francisco, he joined with Levi Strauss and helped build the business. Over time, he probably took care of the day to day business matters while Levi made the “connections.” In 1860, the name of the business became “Levi Strauss & Co.”


Rebecca, Fanny’s and Levi’s mother, now age 54-55, probably traveled across the Isthmus of Panama to San Francisco with David and Fanny and her 2 grandchildren. Data to support this is not yet available. The other two options for travel from New York to San Francisco were taking the 6 month ship journey around Cape Horn, or traveling by train for the first 1000 miles and then across the Great Plains and over the mountain ranges of the country in a 10 foot long by 3 1/2 foot wide covered wagon for the next 2000 miles, a grueling and dangerous trip of at least 6 and usually many more months.


How did Rosla, Mary, Fanny & Rebecca get their US citizenship papers?  Prior to the Married Women's Act of 22 September 1922, also known as the Cable Act, unmarried women who immigrated to the US were seldom individually naturalized and a married woman automatically became naturalized under her husband's papers.


In a New York City Directory of 1860, there is a listing for “Levi Strauss, merchant, 108 Liberty St., home California.”  108 Liberty St., New York is still the same listing as J. Strauss Brother & Co. and as Jonas Strauss. Mary Strauss Sahlein died in New York on 10 March 1867 at the age of 46.  Her husband, William Sahlein, was working as a buyer and manager at J. Strauss Brother & Co. at the time. 


In 1874, William suddenly traveled to San Francisco, probably to replace David Stern [Fanny’s husband] at Levi Strauss & Co. who may have been in poor health at the time and unable to work. David Stern died soon after, on 2 January 1875, at the age of 54. Nathan Strauss, a son of Jonas Strauss, who had gone to San Francisco earlier to live with Levi and to work with Levi Strauss & Co., came back to New York to take the position left by William Sahlein at J. Strauss Brother & Co. This all happened less than two years after Levi Strauss & Co. received the patent for and was manufacturing the new riveted waist pants (see below).


In 1875, the “New City Annual Directory of San Francisco” complied by D. M. Bishop & Co. lists “Strauss, Levi & Co. (Levi, Louis and Jonas Strauss & William Sahlein) wholesale clothing and dry goods, 14 Battery St.” Levi Strauss & Co. was doing very well at this time. Levi’s residence is listed as 317 Powell St. Louis Strauss’s residence is also listed as 317 Powell St. and Jonas Strauss is listed as “res NY,” [living in New York]. Therefore, it appears that J. Strauss Brother & Co. in NY and Levi Strauss & Co. in SF coexisted, shared products and were owned by the same people.


Another finding is the will of Jonas Strauss, my great, great, grandfather, who died in New York on Thursday, 5 November 1885 at age 70. His will was dated 5 Sept 1883 and the first of four executers is “Levi Strauss of San Francisco.” The obituary page of the New York Times on 7 November 1885 reported, “Jonas Strauss, who died Thursday was the head of the dry goods firm of J. Strauss, Brother & Co., of 88 West Broadway, in this city, and was a partner in the house of Levi Strauss & Co., San Francisco, both firms consisting of the same persons … Jonas remained here and shipped goods to his brothers via Cape Horn.”


More recently found information includes lists of merchandise lost at sea. A recently found claim is against Great Britain. An entry reads: “Ship Commonwealth of New York; 1,275 6/95 tons burden. George S. McClellan, master. Nehemiah P. Mann, Nehemiah P. Mann, Jr., Adrian J. Mann, of Boston; … [etc.] owners. Sailed – [March] 19, 1863, from New York, bound for San Francisco, laden with general cargo and Government stores; was captured, plundered, and burned April 17, 1863, by the Florida, thirty miles south of the equator in longitude 30 degrees west [off the coast of Brazil]. Total claims filed, $367,617 88.”3 This is equal to $6,683,961.45 in 2012 dollars. Plus (one of the larger claims) an entry, “J. Strauss Bros. & Co., New York. Loss on cargo …… $15,952 40.”3 This is equal to $290,043.64 in 2012 dollars. And “Losses by the Florida” [damage done by the Confederate Steam-Ship Florida] which includes the entry; “J. Strauss Bros.& Co. a. Townsend Scudder, attorney, statement of facts; b. Affidavit of Jonas Strauss as to the truth of the statement; c. bill of lading; d. Invoices of clothing; e. Certificate of naturalization of Louis Strauss; f. Certificate of naturalization of David Stern; g. Certificate of naturalization of Jacob Strauss; h. Certificate of naturalization of William Sahlein; i. Certificate of naturalization of Jonas Strauss.”3  Note that David Stern married to Fanny Strauss and working in San Francisco at Levi Strauss & Co., is listed here as being associated with J. Strauss Bros. & Co. of New York, Jonas Strauss, Louis Strauss, etc.  [Why were the claims against Great Britain? Because during the Civil War, Great Britain built the CSS Florida which supported the Confederacy, interfered with Union Shipping and destroyed Union Ships.]


Levi was active in the business and cultural life of San Francisco. He contributed to many charities and actively supported the Jewish community. About ten years after Levi arrived in San Francisco, the Jewish residents of the city began collecting money to build a synagogue on Sutter Street for Congregation Temple Emanu-El. Levi Strauss and David Stern donated money to the cause and in 1864 the synagogue was constructed. They became members of Congregation Emanu-El, a congregation that still exists today on the corner of Lake and Arguello Streets. Levi Strauss and another Bavarian of Jewish faith, Louis Sloss, donated a real gold medal to the temple each year, to be awarded to the student with the best grades in the Sabbath school.


Levi was a contributor to the Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home, the Eureka Benevolent Society, the Hebrew Board of Relief, the Home for Aged Israelites, the Roman Catholic and Protestant Orphan Asylums, and the Temple Emanu-El Sisterhood. He was a member of Congregation Emanu-El. He also helped the Eureka Benevolent Society together with Congregation Emanu-El raise money to create a Jewish cemetery in Colma. Levi provided the funds for twenty-eight scholarships at the University of California, Berkeley and donated money to the California School for the Deaf, nearby (now named the Clark Kerr Campus of UCB).  His will included a bequest to maintain the cemetery in Buttenheim where his father, Hirsch, and other relatives were buried. He became one of the San Francisco’s greatest philanthropists.


Levi had very good products and he had a very trusting and very social personality. He was well liked and he expanded his reach quickly throughout California.  Levi advertised that he imported a variety of goods. He had a large supply of bolts of imported fabrics, fancy goods and dry goods which he sold in the new market in The West. Some examples of fancy goods are fancy handkerchiefs, embroideries, ribbons, silks, laces, hat pins, and hat feathers. Some examples of dry goods are shirts, collars, blouses, corsets, gloves, pantaloons, pants, scissors, buttons, material used for sewing, shoes and boots. It was the many small but growing retail stores that helped outfit not only the miners of the Gold Rush but also the local people and the new families that began to populate the Western regions. Stores as far away as Nevada and Hawaii carried his merchandise.


Jacob Davis a tailor in Reno Nevada bought fabric from Levi Strauss & Co.  Jacob was born in 1831 as Jacob Youphes of Jewish faith in Riga, then Russia, now Latvia. He came to America in 1854 at age 23 and eventually traveled west, but found it hard to make a living and support his family of 6 children. After several moves through California, Nevada and Canada, he landed in Reno, Nevada in 1868 at the age of 37 years and worked as a tailor making horse blankets, tents and wagon covers.  He put rivets at stress points to support the stitching. According to Jacob’s descendants, sometime in 1870 a woman came to him and complained that the pockets of her husband’s work pants kept tearing. Jacob decided to try putting rivets into the corners of the pockets and found that it added strength. Other tailors in the area soon copied the practice.  In 1872 Jacob wrote to Levi Strauss in San Francisco and suggested that they apply for a patent. That original letter was among the items destroyed at Levi Strauss & Co. in the fire after the earthquake of 1906.


The patent application was at first rejected. It was too similar to other patents using rivets to hold fabric together such as on boots during the civil war. After several amendments and some word changes, on 20 May 1873, Levi Strauss & Co. of San Francisco and Jacob Davis of Reno, Nevada received patent no. 139,121 from the U.S. Patent Office for an “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings.” That day is considered to be the official "birthday" of blue jeans.  


Levi hired Jacob and Jacob moved his family to San Francisco where he was put in charge of overseeing the production of “copper riveted waist overalls” at the Levi Strauss & Co. in San Francisco. Sometime during 1873, the first riveted clothing was made and sold in San Francisco (the exact date was lost along with the destroyed company records). The first waist overalls came in two styles, indigo blue denim and brown cotton "duck." Unlike denim, the duck material never became soft and comfortable so it was eventually dropped from the line. Waist pants had one back pocket with the Arcuate stitching design (double arches), a watch pocket, a cinch, suspender buttons and also a rivet in the crotch. The famous 501® jean – known at the time simply as “XX” – was soon a best seller, as were the other riveted products Levi and Jacob added to their new manufactured lines.   


William Sahlein stayed in San Francisco and continued to work at Levi Strauss & Co. On 25 July 1875 Fanny Strauss Stern married William Sahlein and they lived together in San Francisco until William died in 1881. Three years later, Fanny Strauss Stern Sahlein died on 8 January 1884. During this time there was a Levi Strauss & Co. office in New York at 88 W. Broadway, the same address as listed for J. Strauss Brother & Co.  Jonas Strauss died in New York on Thursday, November 5, 1885 at age 70. Sophia Strauss died in New York on Monday, 23 February 1891 at age 74. Nathan Strauss, the son of Jonas and Sophia continued to run the 2 New York companies at the same address until his death.


On 16 December 1890, Levi incorporated Levi Strauss and Co. with the State of California. He kept 55 percent of the shares for himself and divided the rest among his four nephews, sons of David and Fanny Stern, Jacob, Louis, Abraham and Sigmund Stern. Jacob became president, Sigmund became first vice president, Louis became second vice president and Abraham became the treasurer of the company. These four nephews become the full owners of the company after Levi’s death.  Jacob Stern, David and Fanny Strauss Stern’s first child, also continued the connection to my side of the family. He married Rosa Sahlein, the daughter of William Sahlein and Mary Strauss (formerly known as Melia or Mathilde, the younger sister of Jonas Strauss).


During the week of 22 September 1902 Levi began to complain of ill health due to his heart condition, but by Friday evening the 26th, he felt well enough to attend the family dinner at the home on Leavenworth Street in which he lived with his nephew’s, Jacob and Rosa Sahlein Stern’s, family. According to the 28 September 1902 edition of the San Francisco Call, Sunday, he “was as light-hearted and as joyful as he ever had been.” He went to bed and later awakened briefly in the night. The nurse in attendance asked how he felt. He responded, "Oh, about as comfortable as I can under the circumstances.” He died during the night. His death was discovered on the morning of 27 Saturday Sept. 1902.


Many questions still remain. Such as in Levi’s obituary in the San Francisco Call, 28 September 1902, it states that “He spent 5 years in Louisville, Ky., and other parts of the South in the mercantile business.” When was that? There was not much time when he was not documented to be in New York. Much more data is needed to complete the entire picture. Hopefully, with more research, a clearer accurate story will soon emerge.




References not mentioned above:


1. Images of America, Levi Strauss & Co. by Lynn Downey, Arcadia Publishing Co. Page 12.


2. Census of San Francisco 1870, page 22, schedule 1, visitation 156: Inhabitants in 2nd Prest. 8th Ward, San Francisco, in the County of San Francisco, State of California, enumerated by me on the 11th day of June 1870. .… Buel, Ass’t Marshal.”


3. Correspondence Concerning Claims Against Great Britain: Transmitted to the Senate of the United States, Vol. 7. U.S. Government Printing Office 1871. Pages CX, CXIII, & CXX.