Be a good neighbour

What to plant in your back yard to attract native birds?

http://halo.org.nz/if-birds-had-green-thumbs-what-would-they-plant/

Pushy pest plants make bad neighbours

We apologise for the appearance of this page - we hope to correct it soon.
If you want a printable version of the page, click here for a PDF
  • Weeds are the wrong plant in the wrong place.  They are usually fast growing.
  • They compete with other plants for space, light, water and food, and generally they win!
  • Weeds can smother the young native plants that support our wildlife.
Be a good neighbour to your good plants, your neighbours and your local bush reserve
Here are the weeds that currently cause problems around LRB and LSB. Help nip these weeds in the bud.

The weeds are rated from ****** for extremely intrusive to ** somewhat intrusive.

** This page is under development - please pass back feedback about control methods, scientific info and distribution in Le Roys and Little Shoal Bay reserves.  Send your comments to leroysbush@gmail.com **

Information in this page is collated from a variety of sources - in particular from the Auckland Regional Council's excellent Biosecurity web pages which allow anyone to search for a wide variety of weeds with information on the plants, their habitats, dispersion, impact on the environment, control methods and photos of the plant at various stages of growth - as well as links to similar species.

Pampas Grass (white or pink) ******

****** Very intrusive -  spreads seeds widely; plants grow very large.  Can invade yours and neighbouring gardens, open parkland and wetland. 
Common on some private land around reserve - spreading into reserve and wetland. Major project in LSB in 2009 to remove from wetland.
Basic control: dig out when small.
Emergency control: deadhead flowering stalks before they set seed (cut well down stalk or they will re-flower). Dig out whole plant later.
For full control details - click here: Pampas grass (common & purple) Cortaderia selloana, C. jubata

Do not confuse with: native toetoe.
Where reported: LRB1, LRB3,  LRB6 (TN2010Q1)
Wattle ******


****** Seriously invasive; spreads seeds widely which invade neighbours, bush and wetland
Common on some private land around reserve - spreading into reserve and wetland. Major project around LSB to remove from private land.
Basic control: pull out by hand when ground soft and when plant is at knee to thigh height.
Emergency control: cut off all flowering branches before they set seed. Remove whole plant later.
Full control details:
see Brush wattle (Paraserianthes lophantha)
Where reported: LRB1, LRB3 (TN2010Q1) LRB6 (KS2010Q1)
Ginger plant ******

(Two species:  Yellow ginger and Kahili ginger)


******  Spreads by seed
(< 100 seeds per head) and by rhizome and rhizome fragments.

Forms dense mat that takes over gardens and bush.

Widespread on private land around the reserves.
Basic control: Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all rhizome fragments from the site. Stalks may be mulched.
Emergency control: Cut back seedheads before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See Wild ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) and Yellow ginger (Hedychium flavescens)

Where reported: LRB1, LRB3, LRB5, LRB6 (TN2010Q1)
Blue morning glory ******


****** Very invasive; long runners spread widely climbing and smothering shrubs and trees.
Common on most private land around reserve - spreading into reserve and wetland.
Grows from stem fragments.
Basic control: pull out by hand getting all small roots that occur along the runners.
Emergency control: To prevent trees being smothered, cut runners at chest height and leave in tree.  Pull runners out of ground as for basic control. Do not leave any fragments on the ground.
Full control details: see Blue morning glory (Ipomoea indica)

Where reported: LRB0 (KS2010Q1)
Japanese honeysuckle ******


****** Very invasive; long runners spread widely climbing and smothering shrubs and trees.
Common on most private land around reserve - spreading into reserve; serious problem in wetland.
Basic control: pull out by hand getting all small roots that occur along the runners. Do not leave any fragments on the ground.
Emergency control: To prevent trees being smothered, cut runners at chest height and leave in tree.  Pull runners out of ground as for basic control.
Full control details: see Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)
or NRC Weed-and-pest-control Blue-morning-glory
Where reported: LRB1, LRB3, LRB6 (TN2010Q1)
Moth plant  ******

(aka: cruel plant, kapok vine)


****** Very invasive; long runners spread widely climbing and smothering shrubs and trees.  Pods spread thousands of seeds up to 30 km. Poisonous. Sap causes skin irritation and stains clothing.
Common on most private land around reserve - spreading into reserve and wetland.
Basic control: pull out by hand getting all small roots that occur along the runners. To prevent trees being strangled, cut runners just above ground and leave in tree.
Emergency control (autumn-winter):  Cut above ground level before flowers and pods form.  Pull runners out of ground as for basic control. Do not leave any fragments on the ground.
Full control details: see Moth plant (Araujia hortorum)

Where reported: LRB1, LRB5, LRB6 (TN2010Q1)
Climbing asparagus ******


****** Very invasive; hard to remove; runners wind around shrub and tree trunks sometimes strangling the host. .
Common on most private land around reserve - spreading into reserve and around wetland.
Basic control: pull out small plants by hand getting all small roots.
Emergency control: Cut back before it seeds. Do not leave any fragments on the ground.
Full control details: see Climbing asparagus (Asparagus scandens)

Where reported: LRB1, LRB6 (TN2010Q1)
Bamboo *****


***** Suckering bamboo is highly invasive; can spread to neighbours and into the reserve
Found on some private land around reserve - spreading into reserve and wetland.
Basic control: dig trench around perimeter to stop spreading
Emergency control: cut off at ground level and cover with corrugated iron so no light gets in.
Full control details:
see Bamboo (Phyllostachys species) Also known as: Bambusa species, Pseudosasa species
Where reported: LRB6 (TN2010Q1)
Woolly nightshade ******

(Aka:  tobacco weed, flannel leaf, kerosene plant)


****** Containment weed!
Spread easily by birds. Very invasive. 

Berries toxic. Forms pure colonies, crowding out other plants. Dust from plant irritates skin, eyes, nose, throat.
Common on some private land around reserve - spreading into reserve and wetland.

Basic control: Pull out plants when knee high - make sure you get all roots.
Emergency control: cut back before flowers go to seed.
Full control details:
see Woolly nightshade (Solanum mauritianum)
Where reported: LRB1, LRB3, LRB5 (TN2010Q1)
Tree privet ******

(aka: hedge privet, broad leaf privet)



****** Replaces mid canopy trees (taraire, towai, pohutukawa) & completely dominates areas of forest if unhindered.  Leaves & fruit poisonous, perfume contributes to asthma.
Common on private land around reserve - spreading into reserve and wetland.

Basic control: Pull out when small
Emergency control: cut off flowering branches before they set seed; remove tree later.
Full control details:
see Tree privet (Ligustrum lucidum )
Chinese privet ***

(aka: small leaved privet)


******  Chinese privet displaces forest shrub tier & marginal shrubs in alluvial forests. Leaves & fruit poisonous, perfume contributes to asthma. Common on private land around reserve.

Basic control: Pull out when small
Emergency control: cut off flowering branches before they set seed; remove tree later.
Full control details:
see Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense)
Crack willow ******

(Branchlets break off easily with an audible ‘crack’)


****** Aggressive willow, forming dense stands  totally excluding native vegetation and blocking waterways. Regrows from small fragments. This willow was overgrowing the Little Shoal Bay wetland until 2009 when finally a control programme removed most of the remaing trees.

Basic control: Start at top of catchment. Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and branch fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Do NOT cut back or break off - any fragments will regrow. Report any emerging plants to Council.
Full control details: All parts of the plant must be removed or poisoned.  See Crack willow (Salix fragilis)

Gray willow *****

(Aka: pussy willow, shrub willow, sallow)


***** Spreads by seed (wind dispersal).

Blocks waterways & modifies wetlands.

Present on private land to south-west of wetland.
Basic control: Start at top of catchment. Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and branch fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  Grey willow (Salix cinerea)

Jasmine *****



*****  Main spread via garden escapees or dumped garden refuse. Very rapid growth from stem fragments. Seed dispersal by birds.

Forms impenetrable groundcover, smothers all vegetation to mid-canopy level. Suppresses regeneration.

Basic control: Start at top of catchment. Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and branch fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  Jasmine (Jasminum polyanthum)

Monkey Apple

(Aka: Acmena, Lilly-pilly)


***** Spreads by seed (bird dispersal) - commonly appear in Le Roys Bush by seed dispersal

Able to establish under low light conditions & hold a permanent place in forest canopy. Will outgrow native trees in light gaps. Can become dominant seedlings under pigeon roosts.

If you like to feed kereru (native pigeons), please grow puriri, titoki, nikau, karaka, kohuhu, pigeonwood NOT weed plants!
Basic control:
Pull out small seedlings when ground soft.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See Monkey apple (Syzygium smithii)

Loquat



***** Spreads by seed (bird dispersal) - commonly appear in Le Roys Bush by seed dispersal
 

Infests light forest & shrublands to replace some mid-tier species. Can become dominant seedlings under pigeon roosts.


If you like to feed kereru (native pigeons), please grow puriri, titoki, nikau, karaka, kohuhu, pigeonwood NOT weed plants!   (If your children beg to have a loquat, explain why it is better to grow non-invasive fruit trees).
Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica)

Beggars ticks

(Aka: Bidens frondosa)


*** Spreads by seed (wind dispersal).

Blocks waterways & modifies wetlands.

Present on private land to south-west of wetland.
Basic control: Remove entire plant and send to landfill. Plants are easy to pull out but take care not to spread any seeds.
Emergency control: Pull out before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: TBC

Mistflower

(Aka: river eupatorium)


*** Seed spread by wind and water. Mistflower is an aggressive ground cover species that forms dense mats of growth on forest floors and along stream sides.


Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and branch fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See Mistflower (Ageratina riparia)

Ivy

(Aka: Common or English Ivy)


**** Seeds dispersed by birds. Vegetative spread from stem fragments, garden refuse.


Carpets forest floor & trees, climbing to top of tallest trees.
Basic control: Pull out all runners starting at outer edge of infestation - removing all root and branch fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Pull fragments from round base of trees and pull as much out of ground as possible.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  English ivy (Hedera helix ssp. helix )

Arum lily



***

Seeds mainly spread by birds.  Local spread by rhizomes & dumping of garden cuttings.

Smothers ground, preventing regeneration of native flora. All parts of the plant poisonous to humans, pets and livestock.

Present on private land to round bush and wetland.
Basic control: Slash tops and dig out tubers. Leaves and stems can be mulched, tubers must be sent to landfill or deep buried.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See Arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)





Elaeagnus ******

(Aka: )


******  Spiny tangled branches smother bush to mid-canopy level. Spread by seed and plant fragments.

.

Present on private land around the reserves.
Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and branch fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  Elaeagnus (Elaeagnus x reflexa)

Palm grass

(Aka: bristlegrass)


*** Spreads by seed and rhizome dumping.
Don't let is get started - it is

very hard to eradicate.

Present on private land around reserve.
Basic control: Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all rhizome  fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Dig out small clumps.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See 
Palm grass (Setaria palmifolia)
Queen of the Night  ******

(Aka: )


****** Spreads by seed and plant fragments - commonly appear in Le Roys Bush by seed dispersal.  
Dense infestations exclude virtually all other vegetationPresent on private land around the reserves.  Some people like the smell of the blossom. Others find it irritating.
Basic control: Start at top of catchment. Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and branch fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before seeds form.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See Queen of the Night (Cestrum nocturnum)
Bear's breeches

(Aka: bears foot)


**** Spreads by seed and plant fragments. 

Dense infestations exclude virtually all other vegetation.

Present on private land around reserves.
Basic control: Start at top of catchment. Dig out plants - removing all root and seed heads from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  Bear's breeches(Acanthus mollis)
Where reported: LRB3 (TN2010Q1)
Bangalow palm



**** Spreads by seed (birds, water, gravity).

.

Present on private land around the reserves.Seedlings are appearing in reserve.
Basic control: Start at top of catchment. Pull out small seedlings when ground soft.  Do not confuse with native nikau.
Emergency control: Cut back before berries form.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See Bangalow palm (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana )  
Madeira vine

(Aka: mignonette vine )


**** Spreads locally by aerial tubers & rhizome fragments.

Forms dense long-lived infestations that smother native plants & dominate at medium to high canopy level. Weight of tubers can topple small trees.

Present on private land around reserves.
Basic control:  Pull out roots & rake up aerial tubers. Parts can be placed in black plastic bags/sheets and left to cook in sun. All tubers must be cooked, or very deeply buried. Do not dump in waterbodies, as they sprout wherever they land.
Emergency control: As for basic.
Full control details: See  Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia)
Smilax

(Aka: bridal creeper )


***** Seeds spread via birds, animals, machinery. Dumped tubers in garden refuse

Out-competes other vegetation by forming pure colonies. Forms canopy over plants 2-3m high, even in shade. Serious threat to native plant communities. Particular threat to pohutukawa & kowhai.

Present on private land around reserve.
Basic control: Grub out plants. Do not compost debris, tubers will resprout.
Emergency control: Cut back runners knee height above ground before fruit forms. Grub out plants. Full control by spring/early summer.  
Full control details: See 
Smilax (Asparagus asparagoides)
Angel's Trumpet

(Aka: datura )


***** Spreads from cuttings & garden debris. 

The plant is poisonous to humans.

Present on waste land around edge of reserve.
Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and branch fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  Angel's Trumpet (Brugmansia candida)
Convolvulus

(Aka:  bindweed, field bindweed )


** Spreads by rhizomes and seed. 

Smothers low growing vegetation.

Present around reserve margins and wetland.
Basic control: Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and seed fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.
Full control details: See  Convolvulus (Convolvulus arvensis)
Tuber ladder fern

(Aka: Chinese ladder fern,  tuber sword fern,  Boston fern)


*** Wind borne spores. Spreads vegetatively from tubers & runners.

Forms dense masses, crowding out other vegetation, becoming the dominant species.

Present on private land around reserves.
Basic control: Dig out taking care to remove all tubers from the site.
Emergency control: As for basic control.
Full control details: See  Tuber ladder fern (Nephrolepis cordifolia)

Note: The native, N. flexuosa, has narrower drooping fronds, and  lacks tubers. It is not common around Auckland.
Banana passionfruit

(Aka: )


**** Spreads by seed. Smothers shrubs and trees.
Present on private land around reserve.
Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root and fruit fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See Banana passionfruit (Passiflora  Tarminiana)





Plectranthus


*** Spreads from vigorous sprawling runners.

Forms thick dense mats smothering native seedlings & suppressing regeneration.

Common in reserve and on private land around reserve.
Not to be confused with parataniwha.
Basic control: Rake or slash plants. Dry debris before disposal. Do not compost Plectranthus as stem fragments may grow.
Emergency control: Cover with weedmat.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  Plectranthus (Plectranthus ciliatus)
Where reported: LRB3 (TN2010Q1)
Pine (various species)

(Aka: radiate pine, wilding pine, Monterey pine, maritime pine, Scots pine, ponderosa pine, Corsican pine )


*** Spreads by cone seed.

Sours and shades soil preventing regeneration of natives.

Present on some private land around wetland.
Basic control: Pull or dig out small seedlings and trees
Emergency control: Cut back before cones ripen.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  Pine

Montbretia



** Seeds spread by water and animals .Also from corms and garden debris.

Covers large areas of open streamside. Displaces natives such as kiokio & streamside herb communities.

Present widely across the reserve and private property
Basic control: Pull or dig out plants. Target areas that could infest streams & follow up to prevent reinfestation (work down stream). Replant with dense groundcover where appropriate.
Full control details: See  Montbretia (Crocosmia X crocosmiiflora)
Tradescantia
(Aka: Wandering willie; Wandering Dew; Wandering jew)


** Present widely across the reserve and private property.  Succulent stems break off & root easily & are dispersed by water, animals, & people, & machinery. Spreads by creeping.
Present widely around  reserve fringes and on private property
Basic control: Pull out runners - taking care to get as many roots out as possible. "Cook" in black plastic bags or feed to chooks.
Full control details: Difficult to eradicate - see  Tradescantia (Tradescantia fluminensis)
Gorse

** Rapidly forms dense impenetrable infestations that compete vigorously with native regrowth.
While gorse is sometimes promoted as a nurse crop for native bush regeneration on farmland, it is just a pest in the reserve.

Present on Rods Island and on some private property around wetland and in Highbury
Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root fragments from the site.
Emergency control: Cut back before flowers go to seed.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See Gorse (Ulex spp.)
Black Nightshade

Photographer: Jeremy Rolfe (www.nzpcn.org.nz)

** Present widely around  reserve fringes and on private property

Note - a related native Small flowered nightshade
is also present in Le Roys.



Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root fragments from the site.   

Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum)
Phoenix Palm
(Aka: Canary Island palm, Canary Island date palm)


**

Prolific seeder that has potential to colonise a wide range of habitats. Dries out watertable. Spikes on base of fronds are a health hazard.

Seeds dispersed by birds & locally by seed fall.

Present around  reserve on private property.


Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root fragments from the site. 
Full control details: See Phoenix palm (Phoenix canariensis)
Kikuyu


** Almost completely inhibits regeneration by smothering seedlings & other low growing plants.
Present widely around  reserve fringes and on private property
Basic control:  Pull out plants when ground soft - removing all root fragments from the site. 
Long term control around bush areas:  plant shrubs and trees densely - kikuyu will not survive in the shade.
Full control details: See Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum)
Japanese spindle tree


**

Bird dispersed seeds.

Garden escapee that invades forest margins.

Present widely around  reserve fringes and on private property
Basic control:  Pull out small seedlings when ground soft - removing all root fragments from the site.  
Full control details: See Japanese spindle tree (Euonymus japonicus)
Boneseed



Chrysanthemoides monilifera
A new weed has been found - this is likely to be either Mugwort or Canadian fleabane

[Tentative identification by biosecurity@arc.govt.nz]


** Spreading on open land around wetland [28Mar10]
Easy to hand pull.

Mugwort is smellier and stickier – when the leaves are crushed
Canadian fleabane (Conyza bilbaona )
or
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris  http://www.horizons.govt.nz/assets/publications/managing-our-environment/publications-pest-plants-and-animals/Mugwort.pdf)
Sellaginella

(Aka: african club moss )


** A small carpet from fern-like ground cover. Stems creep along the ground rooting at every node. 
German Ivy



** Spreads by seed (wind dispersal).

Forms dense infestations that can smother host species.

Present around some edges of Le Roys.
Basic control: Hand pull or dig out small plants and seedlings 
Emergency control: Cut back before flowering.  Undertake full control asap.
Full control details: See  German ivy (Delairea odorata)

Scotch thistle

http://en.wikipedia.org/


** Biennial. A rosette of leaves is formed in the first year of growth and a flower-bearing stem is formed in the second year.
Present in some open ground around the reserves and on private property.
Basic control: Hand pull or grub out rosettes and small plants (use gloves for handpulling)
Full control details: See  Scotch thistle (Cirsium vulgare)
Chinese fan palm
(Aka: Chinese windmill palm)


** Widely planted as an ornamental species, it appears drought and cold tolerant, and has the potential to pose a threat to native bush and riparian areas. Basic control: Hand pull or dig out small plants and seedlings 
Full control details: Chinese fan palm (Trachycarpus fortunei)
Agapanthus


**

Forms dense mats especially on coastline. Can exclude all other vegetation.
Spread by seeds and garden waste dumping.

Basic control: Hand pull or dig out small plants  
Full control details: Agapanthus (large leaved cultivars) (Agapanthus praecox)
Giant reed (aka elephant grass)


*** Displaces all surrounding vegetation. Changes habitat by shading & impeding drainage.
Present on some private land around reserve.
Basic control: cut off at ground level and dispose of cuttings carefully.
Emergency control:
cut off at ground level and cover with corrugated iron so no light gets in.
Full control details: see Giant reed (Arundo donax)
Blackberry


*** Develops dense canopy cover in short time. Dominates native flora in swamps.

Spreads via suckering stems. Seeds spread by birds & waterways.

Present on Rods Island and on some private property
Basic control: Dig out small plants 
Emergency control: cut off flowers or fruit before seeding occurs.

Full control details: Blackberry (Rubus fruiticosus agg.)
Bartlettina


*** TBC.

TBC


Basic control: TBC
Emergency control:
TBC
Full control details:
Bartlettina sordida
Where reported: LRB1 (TN2010Q1)
Bindweeds


*** TBC.

TBC


Basic control: TBC
Emergency control: TBC
Full control details: Calystegia spp.
Where reported: LRB1 (TN2010Q1)
Sweet Pear Shrub


*** TBC

TBC


Basic control: TBC
Emergency control:
TBC
Full control details: Polygala myrtifolia
Where reported: LRB1 (2010Q1)
Cestrum, Green


*** TBC

TBC


Basic control: TBC
Emergency control:
TBC
Full control details: Cestrum parqui
Where reported: LRB1 (TN2010Q1)
Purple Nutsedge


*** TBC

TBC


Basic control: TBC
Emergency control:
TBC
Full control details: Cyperus rotundus
Where reported: LRB1 (TN2010Q1)
Elephant's Ear


*** TBC

TBC


Basic control: TBC
Emergency control:
TBC
Full control details: Alocasia brisbanensis

Where reported: LRB3 (TN2010Q1)
Aralia


*** TBC

TBC


Basic control: TBC
Emergency control:
TBC
Full control details: Fatsia japonica

Where reported: LRB6 (TN2010Q1)

** This page is under development. It was last updated on 10 May 2010 with the weeds recorded in the Te Ngahere report for 2010 Q1. **
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