The Western Ghats are not true mountains, but are the faulted edge of the Deccan Plateau



Wayanad District, in the north-east of Kerala , IndiaTemple festival with elephants would be a memorable experience

I was born and brought up at the Beautiful Coastal Kerala, but I was fascinated by the Mountains of Western Ghats since from my Child hood daysMountain ranges in Kerala consisting of the highland area of the Western GhatsWayanad Kerala India,  

GeologyThe Western Ghats are not true mountains, but are the faulted edge of the Deccan Plateau. They are believed to have been formed during the break-up of the super continent of Gondwana some 150 million years ago. Geophysicists Barron and Harrison from the University of Miami advocate the theory that the west coast of India came into being somewhere around 100 to 80 mya after it broke away from Madagascar. After the break-up, the western coast of India would have appeared as an abrupt cliff some 1,000 meters in height.   

Soon after its detachment, the peninsular region of the I, ndian plate drifted over the Réunion hotspot, a volcanic hotspot in the Earth's lithosphere near the present day location of Réunion. A huge eruption here some 65 mya is thought to have laid down the Deccan Traps, a vast bed of basalt lava that covers parts of central India. These volcanic upthrusts led to the formation of the northern third of the Western Ghats. These dome-shaped uplifts expose underlying 200 mya rocks observed in some parts such as the Nilgiri Hills.[5]

Basalt is the predominant rock found in the hills reaching a depth of 3 km (2 mi). Other rock types found are charnockitesgranite gneiss,khondalitesleptynites, metamorphic gneisses with detached occurrences of crystalline limestoneiron oredolerites and anorthosites. Residual laterite and bauxite ores are also found in the southern hills.

Mountains. Western Ghats extend from the Satpura Range in the north, go south past Goa, through Karnataka and into Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The major hill range starting from the north is the Sahyadhri (the benevolent mountains) range. This range is home to many hill stations likeMatheran,Lonavala-KhandalaMahabaleshwarPanchgani,Amboli Ghat, Kudremukh and Kodagu. The range is called Sahyadri in northernMaharashtra and Sahya Parvatam in Kerala. The Biligirirangans southeast of Mysore in Karnataka, meet the Shevaroys (Servarayan range) and Tirumala range farther east, linking the Western Ghats to the Eastern Ghats. In the south the range is known as the Nilagiri malai inTamil NaduSmaller ranges, including the Cardamom Hills and the Nilgiri Hills, are in northwestern Tamil Nadu. The Nilgiri Hills are home to the hill stationOotacamund. In the southern part of the range in the Anaimalai Hills, in western Tamil Nadu and Kerala, Ana Mudi 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) is the highest peak in Western Ghats. Chembra Peak 2,100 metres (6,890 ft), Banasura Peak 2,073 metres (6,801 ft), Vellarimala 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) and Agasthya mala 1,868 metres (6,129 ft) are also in Kerala. Doddabetta is 2,637 metres (8,652 ft). Mullayanagiri is the highest peak in Karnataka 1,950 metres (6,398 ft). The Western Ghats in Kerala is home to many tea and coffee plantations. The major gaps in the range are the Goa Gap, between the Maharashtra and Karnataka sections, and the Palghat Gap on the Tamil Nadu/Kerala border between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills. Most of the highest mountains of the Westrn ghats are in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Coldest points in western ghat are in Eravikulam national Park in Kerala.
The northern portion of the narrow coastal plain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is known as the Konkan Coast or simplyKonkan,the central portion is called Kanara and the southern portion is called Malabar region or the Malabar Coast. The foothill region east of the Ghats in Maharashtra is known as Desh, while the eastern foothills of the central Karnataka state is known as Malenadu.[6] The largest city within the mountains is the city of Pune (Poona), in the Desh region on the eastern edge of the range. The Biligirirangan Hills lies at the confluence of the Western and Eastern Ghats. The mountains intercept the rain-bearing westerly monsoon winds, and are consequently an area of high rainfall, particularly on their western side. The dense forests also contribute to the precipitation of the area by acting as a substrate for condensation of moist rising orographic winds from the sea, and releasing much of the moisture back into the air via transpiration, allowing it to later condense and fall again as rain.

 western ghats mountains Kerala
 Western ghats mountains Kerala
 

 
 

Western ghats Kerala

 

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Peaks.Salher(Maharashtra), Kalsubai (Maharashtra), Mahableshwar (Maharashtra), Sonsogor (Goa),Mullayanagiri (Karnataka), Doddabetta (Tamil Nadu) , Anai Mudi (Kerala),Chembra Peak(Kerala).  Rivers  The Western Ghats form one of the three watersheds of India, feeding the perennial rivers of India. Important rivers include the GodavariKrishna, andKaveri. These rivers flow to the east and drain out into the Bay of Bengal. The west flowing rivers, that drain into the Arabian Sea, are fast-moving, owing to the short distance travelled and steeper gradient. Important rivers include the Mandovi and Zuari. Many of these rivers feed the backwaters of Kerala and Maharashtra. Rivers that flow eastwards of the Ghats drain into the Bay of Bengal. These are comparatively slower moving and eventually merge into larger rivers such as the Kaveri and Krishna. The larger tributaries include the Tunga RiverBhadra riverBhima RiverMalaprabha River,Ghataprabha RiverHemavathi riverKabini River. In addition there are several smaller rivers such as the Chittar RiverManimuthar RiverKallayi River,Kundali RiverPachaiyar RiverPennar RiverPeriyar and the Kallayi River.Fast running rivers and steep slopes have provided sites for many large hydro-electric projects. There are about major 50 dams along the length of the Western Ghats with the earliest project up in 1900 near Khopoli in Maharashtra. Most notable of these projects are the Koyna Dam in Maharashtra, the Parambikulam Dam in Kerala, and the Linganmakki Dam in Karnataka. The reservoir behind the Koyna Dam, the Shivajisagar Lake, has a length of 50 km (31 mi) and depth of 80 m (262 ft). It is the largest hydroelectric project in Maharashtra, generating 960 MW of electric power. During the monsoon season, numerous streams fed by incessant rain drain off the mountain sides leading to numerous and often spectacular waterfalls. Among the most well known is theJog FallsKunchikal FallsSivasamudram Falls, and Unchalli Falls. The Jog Falls is the highest natural waterfall in South Asia and is listed among the 1001 natural wonders of the world.[12] Talakaveri wildlife sanctuary is a critical watershed and the source of the river Kaveri. This region has dense evergreen and semi-evergreen vegetation, with shola-grassland in areas of higher elevation. The steep terrain of the area has resulted in scenic waterfalls along its many mountain streams. Sharavathi and Someshvara Wildlife sanctuaries in Shimoga district are the source of the Tungabhadra River system.