Legal Materials on Tibet, Third Edition

Tibet Justice Center's Legal Materials is a one-stop resource for legal materials on Tibet. This compilation of legal documents includes United Nations resolutions and reports; important laws, treaties, statements, and papers from Tibet and China; laws, resolutions, and memoranda of other countries; and reports from non-governmental organizations.  We also include a new Key Documents Collection of the most notable of these materials, as well as a historical collection entitled Images From an Independent Tibet.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Key Documents Collection
  • United Nations
  • Tibet
  • China
  • United States
  • Great Britain/United Kingdom
  • Nepal
  • Australia
  • European Parliament
  • Germany
  • Other Governmental Bodies
  • Governmental & Nongovernmental Organizations
  • Other Relevant Treaties, Resolutions, Conventions, and Decisions
  • Images From an Independent Tibet
  • Acknowledgements

 
Key Documents Collection 
  1. Sino-Tibetan Treaty, 821/823 A.D. 
  2. Proclamation of Independence Issued by His Holiness the Dalai Lama XIII (1913)
  3. Treaty of Friendship and Alliance Between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet (1913) 
  4. Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, at Simla (1914) 
  5. Memorandum of British Foreign Secretary to Chinese Foreign Minister ("Eden Memorandum") (1943) stating Britain's position on Tibet's de facto independence
  6. Canada: Declassified Canadian Government File on Tibet, 1944 - 1969 including memorandum from the Secretary of State for External Affairs stating that Tibet is "qualified for recognition as an independent state," dated November 21, 1950 (p. 10).
  7. Nine Point Communiqué From Tibet to China (1946) stating Tibet's formal position vis-a-vis China
  8. Appeal by His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet to the United Nations (1950)
  9. United States: State Department, Office of the Historian: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949, Vol. IX, Status of Tibet: Consideration of Policy of the United States in View of Tibetan Claim of Independence and Danger to Tibet From Communist-Dominated China
  10. ICJ Report on Tibet and China (excerpt) (1960), addressing the questions of genocide and the status of Tibet
  11. United Nations G.A. Resolution 1723 (XVI) on Tibet (1961), calling for the Tibetan people's right to self-determination
  12. United States: Congressional Resolution S. Con. Res 41 (1991) - expressing the sense of Congress that Tibet is an occupied country true representatives are the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government-in-exile
  13. United States: P.L. 107-228, the Tibetan Policy Act of 2002, codifying U.S. policy on Tibet
  14. Spain: National Court: Writ of Acceptance, Universal Jurisdication Case Alleging Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity, and Torture in Tibet (2006)
  15. United Nations: Joint Statement of UN Human Rights Experts on Tibet (2008) (Chinese version here)
  16. United States: State Department Human Rights Report: Tibet (2008)
  17. United States: Congressional-Executive Commission on China: Tibet Report (2008)
  18. United States: Congressional Research Service: The Tibetan Policy Act of 2002: Background and Implementation (2009)
  19. United States: State Department: Report on Tibet Negotiations (2009)
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United Nations
  1. Appeal by His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet to the United Nations (1950)
  2. United Nations G.A. Resolution 1353 (XIV) on Tibet (1959)
  3. United Nations G.A. Resolution 1723 (XVI) on Tibet (1961), calling for the Tibetan people's right to self-determination
  4. United Nations G.A. Resolution 2079 (XX) on Tibet (1965)
  5. Commission on Human Rights: Sub-Commission Resolution 1991/10: Situation in Tibet
  6. Secretary-General's Report: Situation in Tibet, E/CN.4/1992/37
  7. Report: Special Rapporteur on Torture, E/CN.4/1995/34 (excerpt)
  8. Report: Working Group on Enforced Disappearances, E/CN.4/1995/36 (excerpt)
  9. Report: Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions, E/CN.4/1995/61 (excerpt)
  10. Report: Special Rapporteur on Religious Intolerance, E/CN.4/1995/91 (excerpt)
  11. Report: Special Rapporteur on Religious Intolerance, Addendum, E/CN.4/1995/91/Add.1 (excerpt)
  12. Report: Committee against Torture, A/51/44 (1996) (excerpt)
  13. Concluding Observations of the UN Committee On Racial Discrimination 1996 (excerpt)
  14. Concluding Observations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (1996) (excerpt)
  15. Report: Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions, E/CN.4/1996/4 (excerpt)
  16. Report: Special Rapporteur on Torture, E/CN.4/1996/35 (excerpt) 
  17. Report: Special Rapporteur on Torture, Addendum, E/CN.4/1996/35/Add.1 (excerpt)
  18. Report: Working Group on Enforced Disappearances, E/CN.4/1996/38 (excerpt)
  19. Report: Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, E/CN.4/1996/40 (excerpt) 
  20. Report: Special Rapporteur on Religious Intolerance, E/CN.4/1996/95 (excerpt)
  21. Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC/C/CHN/CO/2 (2005)
  22. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Ambeyi Ligabo - Summary of cases transmitted to Governments and replies received, A/HRC/4/27/Add.1 (2007)
  23. Concluding Observations of the Committee Against Torture, CAT/C/CHN/CO/4 (2008)
  24. Joint Statement of UN Human Rights Experts on Tibet (2008) (Chinese version here)
  25. Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discriminiation, CERD/C/CHN/CO/10-13 (2009)

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Tibet
  1. Sino-Tibetan Treaty, 821/823 A.D. 
  2. Peace Treaty Between Ladakh and Tibet at Tingmosgang (1684) 
  3. Ladakhi Letter of Agreement (1842) 
  4. Agreement Between Tibet and Kashmir (1852) 
  5. Treaty Between Nepal and Tibet (1856), stating that Nepal will "render assistance to Tibet, as far as possible, if she is invaded by a foreign power"
  6. Treaty Between Tibet and Nepal (1856) 
  7. Convention Between Great Britain and Thibet (1904)
  8. Agreement Between Great Britain, China and Tibet Amending Trade Regulations of 1893 (1908) 
  9. Agreement Between the Chinese and Tibetans (August 1912) 
  10. Agreement of the Chinese and Tibetans (December 1912) 
  11. Proclamation of Independence Issued by His Holiness the Dalai Lama XIII (1913)
  12. Treaty of Friendship and Alliance Between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet (1913) 
  13. Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, at Simla (1914) 
  14. Anglo-Tibetan Declaration (1914) 
  15. Anglo-Tibetan Trade Regulations (1914) 
  16. Agreement for the Restoration of Peaceful Relations Between China and Tibet (1918) 
  17. Supplementary Agreement Regarding Mutual Withdrawal of Troops and Cessation of Hostilities Between Chinese and Tibetans (1918)
  18. Nine Point Communiqué From Tibet to China (1946) stating Tibet's formal position vis-a-vis China
  19. Asian Relations Conference (1947), speeches of the chief Tibetan delegate and Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
  20. Letter from Tibetan Government to New Communist Government in China (1949)
  21. Telegram from Tibetan Government to British Government (1949)
  22. Tibetan Appeal to the United Nations (1950)
  23. Seventeen-Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (1951) 
  24. Constitution of Tibet (1963)
  25. Five Point Peace Plan (1987)
  26. Strasbourg Proposal (1988)
  27. Strasbourg Proposal: No Longer Binding (1991)
  28. Charter of the Tibetans-in-Exile (1991)
  29. Letter of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Deng Xiaoping (1992) with Annotation
  30. Future Polity of Tibet (Address by His Holiness the Dalai Lama) (1994)
  31. "Height of Darkness: Chinese Colonialism on the World's Roof: Tibetan Response to Beijing's White Paper of 8 Nov 2001 (2001)
  32. Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People (2008)
  33. Final Statement of the Special General Meeting of the Tibetan People (2008)
  34. Collected March 10 Statements of His Holiness the Dalai Lama
      

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  1. Sino-Tibetan Treaty, 821/823 A.D. 
  2. Agreement Between the Chinese and Tibetans (August 1912) 
  3. Agreement of the Chinese and Tibetans (December 1912) 
  4. Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, at Simla (1914) 
  5. Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic (1931), promising Tibetans, Mongolians, etc. the "right to complete separation from China, and to the formation of an independent state" (Art. 14)
  6. Seventeen-Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (1951) 
  7. Sino-Indian Trade Agreement over Tibetan Border (1954)
  8. Constitution of the People's Republic of China (1982) 
  9. People's Republic of China National Regional Autonomy Law (1984, revised in 2001 and re-named the Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law)
  10. Martial Law Decree of the People's Govt. of the Tibet Autonomous Region (1989) 
  11. Basic Law of Hong Kong (1990)
  12. Chinese State Council White Paper on Human Rights (excerpt) (1991)
  13. Chinese State Council White Paper on "Tibet: Its Ownership and Human Rights Situation" (1992)
  14. Third Forum on Work on Tibet (1994)
  15. Chinese State Council White Paper on Human Rights (excerpt) (1995) 
  16. Rules for Monks and Nuns in Monasteries (1997)
  17. Leaked Document on "Tibet-Related External Propaganda and Tibetology Work in the New Era" (2000)
  18. [Fourth Work Forum on Tibet (2001)]
  19. Chinese State Council White Paper: "Regional Ethnic Autonomy in Tibet" (2004)
  20. Chinese State Council White Paper: "Regional Autonomy for Ethnic Minorities in China" (2005)
  21. State Religious Affairs Bureau Order Number Five (2007) regulating reincarnation procedures
  22. Chinese State Council White Paper: "Fifty Years of Democratic Reform in Tibet (2009)

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United States
  1. State Department, Office of the Historian: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1949, Vol. IX, (Status of Tibet: Consideration of Policy of the United States in View of Tibetan Claim of Independence and Danger to Tibet From Communist-Dominated China)
  2. Memorandum on Tibet From State Department to British Embassy (1950)
  3. State Department, Office of the Historian: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976, Vol. XXVII (Questions Pertaining to Tibet)
  4. Memorandum and Transcript of U.S.-China Summit in Beijing (1975), including transcript of comments by Nixon and Kissinger
  5. Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1988-89 (excerpt) (1987) 
  6. Congressional Resolution S. Con. Res. 129 (1988)
  7. Congressional Resolution S. Res. 82 (1989)
  8. Congressional Resolution S. Con. Res. 75: Congratulations to Dalai Lama for Nobel Peace Prize (1989)
  9. Congressional Concurrent Resolution (1991)
  10. Congressional Resolution S. Con. Res 41 (1991), expressing the sense of Congress that Tibet is an occupied country whose true representatives are the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government-in-exile
  11. Senate Resolution 271 (March 1992)
  12. Congressional Record 119: Staff Trip Report (August 1992) 
  13. Executive Order Conditioning Most Favored Nation Trade Status (1993)
  14. Most Favored Nation Waiver Authority (1993)
  15. Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1994-95 (excerpt) (1993) 
  16. Congressional Resolution S. Res. 169 (1995)
  17. Congressional Resolution S. J. Res. 43 (1995)
  18. Congressional Resolution H.R. 1561 (1996) State Department Authorization Bill (excerpt) 
  19. Congressional Resolution S. Res. 19 (1997)
  20. Congressional Resolution S. Con. Res. 103 (1999), expressing the sense of the Congress in support of the recommendations of the International Commission of Jurists on Tibet and on United States policy with regard to Tibet
  21. Congressional Resolution S. Res 60 (2000), recognizing the plight of the Tibetan people on the forty-first anniversary of Tibet's 1959 uprising and calling for serious negotiations between China and the Dalai Lama to achieve a peaceful solution to the situation in Tibet
  22. Congressional Resolution H. Res 357 (2002) expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the recognition of the authorities of Tibet who are currently exiled in Dharamsala, India, as the legitimate representatives of Tibet
  23. P.L. 107-228, the Tibetan Policy Act of 2002, codifying U.S. policy on Tibet
  24. Congressional Research Service: Tibet, China, and the 107th Congress: Issues for U.S. Policy (2002)
  25. Congressional Resolution H. Res. 157 (2003), expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding several individuals who are being held as prisoners of conscience by the Chinese Government for their involvement in efforts to end the Chinese occupation of Tibet.
  26. H. Res. 359; S. RES. 212 (2003), welcoming His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama and recognizing his commitment to non-violence, human rights, freedom, and democracy
  27. Congressional Resolution S.Res 483 (2004), regarding the detention of Tibetan political prisoners by the Government of China
  28. P.L. 108-287, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama Gold Medal Act (2006)
  29. Congressional Research Service: Tibet: Problems, Prospects, and U.S. Policy (2008)
  30. State Department Human Rights Report: Tibet (2008)
  31. Congressional-Executive Commission on China: Tibet Report (2008)
  32. Congressional Research Service: The Tibetan Policy Act of 2002: Background and Implementation (2009)
  33. State Department: Report on Tibet Negotiations (2009)
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Great Britain/United Kingdom
 
 
  1. Chefoo Convention (1876)
  2. Convention Relating to Burmah and Thibet (1886) 
  3. Convention Between Great Britain and China Relating to Sikkim and Tibet (1890)
  4. Convention Between Great Britain and Thibet (1904)
  5. Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet (1906) 
  6. Convention Between Great Britain and Russia (1907)
  7. Agreement Between Great Britain, China and Tibet Amending Trade Regulations of 1893 (1908)
  8. Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, at Simla (1914) 
  9. Anglo-Tibetan Declaration (1914) 
  10. Anglo-Tibetan Trade Regulations (1914) 
  11. Memorandum of British Foreign Secretary to Chinese Foreign Minister ("Eden Memorandum") (1943) stating Britain's position on Tibet's de facto independence
  12. Commonwealth Relations Office Message to Tibetan Government (1950)
  13. Written Ministerial Statement by David Miliband, reversing Britain's previous policy on Tibet (2008)
     
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Nepal 
  1. Treaty Between Nepal and Tibet (1856), stating that Nepal will "render assistance to Tibet, as far as possible, if she is invaded by a foreign power"
  2. Treaty Between Tibet and Nepal (1856) 
  3. Nepal's United Nations Membership Application (1949), citing its treaties with Tibet as proof of Nepal's status as a sovereign state
  4. Agreement to Maintain Friendly Relations Between China and Nepal and on Trade and Intercourse Between the Tibet Region of China and Nepal (1956), establishing diplomatic relations between Nepal and the People's Republic of China and annulling the 1856 Nepal-Tibet treaty
  5. Agreement Between Nepal and China on Trade and Other Related Matters Between Nepal and The Tibet Autonomous Region of China (2002)

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Australia
  1. Australian Senate Resolution on Tibet (1990) 
  2. Australian Senate Resolution on Tibet (1994) 
  3. Australian Senate Resolution on Tibet (1995) 
  4. Australian Senate Resolution on Tibet (1996)
  5. Australian Senate Resolution on Tibet (1997)

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European Parliament
  1. European Parliament Resolution on Tibet (1987) 
  2. Council of Europe Written Declaration No. 173 on the Situation in Tibet (1988) 
  3. European Parliament Resolution on Human Rights in Tibet (1989) 
  4. European Parliament Resolution on Human Rights in China and Tibet (1991) 
  5. European Parliament Motion on Tibet (1992)
  6. European Parliament Resolution on Repression in Tibet (June 1993)
  7. European Parliament Resolution on Detention of Tibetans (September 1993) 
  8. European Parliament Resolution on 4th World Conference on Women (1995) 
  9. European Parliament Resolution on the Disappearance of Panchen Lama (1995)
  10. European Parliament Resolution on the Panchen Lama and Religious Freedom in Tibet (1995)
  11. European Parliament Resolution on Human Rights in China and Tibet (April, 1996)
  12. European Parliament Resolution on Human Rights in Tibet (May, 1996)
  13. European Parliament Resolution on Human Rights in Tibet (1997)
  14. European Parliament Resolution on Minority Rights and Death Penalty in China (2009), including statement on "results-oriented dialogue" on Tibet

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Germany
  1. Report to German Parliament on Tibet (1987)
  2. West German Parliament Resolution on Tibet (1987)
  3. German Parliament Resolution on Tibet (1996)

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Other Governments and Governmental Bodies
  1. Canada: Declassified Canadian Government File on Tibet, 1944 - 1969 including memorandum from the Secretary of State for External Affairs stating that Tibet is "qualified for recognition as an independent state," dated November 21, 1950 (p. 10).
  2. Italian Parliament Commission of Foreign Affairs Motion on Tibet (1989)
  3. Basque Autonomous Country Parliament Resolution on Tibet (1995)
  4. Report of Austrian Delegation of Legal Experts to China and Tibet (1992)
  5. Parliament of Liechtenstein - Resolution to Welcome Dalai Lama (1996)
  6. Belgium House of Representatives Resolution on Tibet (1994)
  7. Belgium Chamber of Representatives Resolution on Tibet (1996)
  8. Chamber of Deputies of Luxembourg Resolution (1996)
  9. Two Hundred French Parliamentarians Appeal for Tibet (1996)
  10. Nordic Saami Parliaments Statement on Tibet (1996)
  11. Canadian Senate Resolution, Motion Respecting Human Rights in China and Tibet (1995) 
  12. Spain: National Court: Writ of Acceptance, Universal Jurisdication Case Alleging Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity, and Torture in Tibet (2006) 

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Governmental & Nongovernmental Organizations
  1. ICJ Report on the Question of Tibet and the Rule of Law (excerpt) (1959) 
  2. ICJ Report on Tibet and China (excerpt) (1960), addressing the questions of genocide and the status of Tibet
  3. International Convention on Tibet and Peace in South Asia (1989) 
  4. Excerpt from International Hearings on Tibet and Human Rights, Bonn (1989) 
  5. Nobel Peace Prize Citation of Dalai Lama (1989)
  6. Liberal International Congress on Tibet, Luzern (1991) 
  7. Permanent Tribunal of People's Verdict on Tibet (1992)
  8. Conference of International Lawyers Statement (1993)
  9. Delhi Convention of Parliamentarians Resolution (1994)
  10. Second World Parliamentarians Convention Resolution on Tibet (1995)
  11. International Parliamentarians Union's 12+ Group Memorandum on Tibet (1996) 
  12. The World Conservation Congress (IUCN) Resolution (1996)
  13. Harvard University: Legal Standards and Autonomy Options for Minorities in China: The Tibetan Case (2004)
  14. East-West Center: China's Policy on Tibet's Autonomy (2004)
  15. East-West Center: Beijing's Tibet Policy: Securing Sovereignty and Legitimacy (2004)
  16. Minority Rights Group International: China: Minority Exclusion, Marginalization and Rising Tensions (2007)
  17. Gongmeng Law Research Center (公盟): An Investigative Report Into the Social and Economic Causes of the 3.14 Incident in Tibetan Areas (2008)   (Chinese version here)

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Other Relevant Treaties, Resolutions, Conventions, and Decisions

  1. Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States (1933)
  2. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)  
  3. United Nations G.A. Resolution 1514 (XV) on Independence for Colonized Peoples (1960) 
  4. United Nations G.A. Resolution 1541 (V) on principles guiding the exercise of self-determination (1960)
  5. United Nations G.A. Resolution 2625 (XXV) Declaration on principles of international law concerning friendly relations and co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations (1970)
  6. International Court of Justice: Western Sahara Advisory Opinion (1975) 
  7. United Nations: Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Conference of Human Rights, A/CONF.157/23 (1993)
  8. Canada: Reference re Secession of Quebec, [1998] 2 S.C.R. 217 (1998)

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The Tibet Album. "Monks blowing radung , Potala in distance

Acknowledgments

Tibet Justice Center thanks the following individuals for contributing to this collection: Bernie Assaly, Erica Bley, Nima R.T. Binara, Hadley Brown, Sevilla Claydon, Kara Frame, Paul Fredrick, Richard Harrington, Eva Herzer, Meg Larkin, Theresa Lea, Rachel Lostumbo, John Maier, Janice Mantell, Kim Morris, Lynn Myers, Robert Rosoff, Tseten Samdup, Christine Schneider, Phintso Thonden, Threshold Foundation, Meagan Tucker, Beth Winters, Julia Zinsmeister .

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Legal Materials on Tibet, Third Edition; Tibet Justice Center; 2009