The original Turkish, as well as the contemporary one, uses the following suffix to express additionality.



-de (2) (not stressed)


Meaning: too, also, as well, as well as


It points at the preceding word.


However, even though this is a vowel-harmonising suffix, it is written separately to distinguish it from the “state of the name” suffix “-de” (in/on/at). In spoken language, “-de” expressing “and” is not stressed, “-de” expressing “in/on/at” is stressed.



  • Ben de okuyorum: I am reading, too (also I)
  • Ben okuyorum da: I am reading, too (also reading)
  • Ben de, sen de: Both me and you.
  • Okuyorum da, yazıyorum da: i'm both reading and writing.
  • Onun da arabasını dün gördüm: i saw his car yesterday: his, too
  • Onun arabasını da dün gördüm: the car, too
  • Onun arabasını dün de gördüm: yesterday, too
  • Onun arabasını dün gördüm de: saw, too.