Stress with suffixes

Some suffixes are stressed, some not.

 

With each suffix in the following sections, it will be indicated whether it is (stressed) or (not stressed).

 

Throughout this guide, the bold typeface, when given, will indicate which syllable in that word or sentence is stressed.

 

A number of suffixes have two (or more) entirely different meanings and uses, one being stressed, the other not. Examples:

 

suffix (or separately written suffix)

first meaning (stressed)

example

second meaning (not stressed)

example

-ler (2)

plural

yeşiller = the greens

to be (they “are")

yeşiller (they are green)

-de (2)

-de: in/or/at

arabada = in the car

too

araba da = the car, too

-me

noun form of a verb

oturma = the sitting

not

oturma = do not sit

-ki (1)

that of

benimki = that of me, mine

that (conjunction)

dedim ki ... = i said that ...

-sin (4)

let him/her/it ...

sın = let him open

"to be” for second person singular (you are)

sın = you are hungry

-in (4)

changes the meaning of a verb

bak = look, bakın = look around

yak = burn, yakın =complain

second form of imperative: polite and/or for multiple people

bak = look, bakın = please look

 -(y)le (2)

makes a verb from a noun

açık = open, clear.

açıkla = explain.

kutu = box (noun).

kutula = box (verb).

with

(conjugation letter: y)

evle = with the house.

kutuyla = with the box.

-(i)m + i, -mi

-(i)m : my

-i: state of name (accusative)

kapımı = my door

mi: suffix of question (written separately)

kamı? = is it a door?

-(y)eyim, -(y)im

let me do

yapayım = let me do (it)

kasayım = let me flex

i am ...

yapayım = i am artificial

kasayım = i am a safe

-(y)di (4), idi (1) (separate word) (*)

past tense with -di

yaz= he wrote / has written

noun + di(4), noun + idi (1) = he was / has been + noun

 

tense with to be + di (4) or idi (1) (separate word) = past composite tense (see sections below).

yazdı, yaz idi = it was summer.

yazıyordu, yazıyor idi = he was / has been writing (past continuous tense)

-(y)miş (4), imiş (1) (separate word) (*)

past tense with –miş

yazmış = he apparently wrote / has written

noun + miş (4), noun + imiş (1) = he was + noun

 

tense with to be + miş (4) or imiş (1) (separate word) = told past composite tense (see sections below).

yazmış, yaz imiş = apparently it was summer.

 

yazıyormuş, yazıyor imiş = apparently he was / has been writing (told past continuous tense)

 

(*) The conjugation letter “y” is appended when the preceding letter is a vowel. You will notice that the suffix itself (-di, -miş) does not start with a vowel, so there is no need to insert a “y” to prevent from two vowels coming together. –di/-miş are shortened versions of the original forms idi/imiş however, and the “y” was originally for the (now disappeared) forms: burada+y+ıdı, burada+y+ımış = he was (apparently) here. Note that the separate words idi and imiş are older forms; the prefix forms –di/-imiş are normally used.

 

Note:

  • In this guide stress will be shown on exactly the “suffix” to indicate the suffix itself. However in reality stress happens on syllables (regardless of the structure of the word). Example:

word

meaning

this guide shows

stress in reality

güle

gül-e = to the rose

güle

gü-le

Comments