Harmony rules on consonants

Just like vowels, consonants are also divided into two groups:

  • 8 hard consonants: ç, f, h, k, p, s, ş, t (similar to the Dutch rule: 't kopschip)
  • 13 soft consonants: all others: b, c, d, g, ğ, j, l, m, n, r, v, y, z.


With some suffixes, if the first letter of a suffix is a soft consonant, it is converted to a hard consonant when following a hard consonant. This is not relevant for consonants which cannot end a word: b, c, d, g (described in a rule above).



  • -di: gel+di (l and d both soft consonants), kes+ti (s and t both hard consonants).

Bhosphorus, İstanbul