de: suffix or separate word?

As described in previous sections:




grammatical description



example (stress shown in bold)

"-de” (2)


state of the noun

in, on, at


masada = on the table

de (2)

separate word

and, too

and, too, also


masa da = the table, too



  • There is no reason the 2nd “de” should be written as a separate word. It could have been considered as a suffix. It is only written as a separate word to distinguish it from the 1st “de". When spoken, they are easily distinguised, because the 1st “de” is stressed and the 2nd “de” is not.
  • 2nd “de” can also mean “and then” or “so that", expressing a consequence or time order.
    • Sor da öğren = ask and (as a result) learn.
    • Git de saçını kestir = go and have your hair cut
    • Gel de gör = come and (you will) see.


More examples (stress shown in bold) :

  • Masada da oturduk = we also sat at the table.
  • Bu masada da oturduk = we also sat at this table ("this” grabs the stress).
  • Bende de yok = I don't have (it) either. (Literally: it does not exist at/with me, either.)
  • Adada da ışıklar yandı = The lights on the island went on, too.