การสอนทักษะการเขียน



Approaches to Teaching Writing

There are several approaches to teaching writing that are presented by (Raimes, 1983) as follows:

a-The Controlled-to-Free Approach

In the 1950s and early 1960, the audio-lingual method dominated second-language learning This method emphasized speech and writing served to achieve mastery of grammatical and syntactic forms. Hence teachers developed and used techniques to enable student to achieve this mastery. The controlled-to-free approach in is sequential: students are first given sentence exercises, then paragraphs to copy or manipulate grammatically by changing questions to statements, present to past, or plural to singular. They might also change words to clauses or combine sentences. With these controlled compositions, it is relatively easy to for students write and yet avoid errors, which makes error correction easy. Students are allowed to try some free composition after they have reached an intermediate level of proficiency. As such, this approach stress on grammar, syntax, and mechanics. It emphasizes accuracy rather than fluency or originality.

b-The Free-Writing Approach

This approach stresses writing quantity rather than quality. Teachers who use this approach assign vast amounts of free writing on given topics with only minimal correction. The emphasis in this approach is on content and fluency rather than on accuracy and form. Once ideas are down on the page, grammatical accuracy and organization follow. Thus, teachers may begin their classes by asking students to write freely on any topic without worrying about grammar and spelling for five or ten minutes. The teachers does not correct these pieces of free writing. They simply read them and may comment on the ideas the writer expressed. Alternatively, some students may volunteer to read their own writing aloud to the class. Concern for “audience” and “content” are seen as important in this approach.

c-The Paragraph-Pattern Approach

Instead of accuracy of grammar or fluency of content, the Paragraph-Pattern-Approach stresses on organization. Students copy paragraphs and imitate model passages. They put scrambled sentences into paragraph order. They identify general and specific statements and choose to invent an appropriate topic sentence or insert or delete sentences. This approach is based on the principle that in different cultures people construct and organize communication with each other in different ways.

d-The Grammar-Syntax-Organization Approach

This approach stresses on simultaneous work on more than one composition feature. Teachers who follow this approach maintain that writing can not be seen as composed of separate skills which are learned sequentially. Therefore, student should be trained to pay attention to organization while they also work on the necessary grammar and syntax. This approach links the purpose of writing to the forms that are needed to convey message.

e-The Communicative Approach

This approach stresses the purpose of writing and the audience for it. Student writers are encouraged to behave like writers in real life and ask themselves the crucial questions about purpose and audience:

Why am I writing this?
Who will read it?

Traditionally, the teacher alone has been the audience for student writing. But some feel that writers do their best when writing is truly a communicative act, with a writer writing for a real reader. As such, the readership may be extended to classmate and pen pals.

f-The Process Approach

Recently, the teaching of writing has moved away from a concentration on written product to an emphasis on the process of writing. Thus, writers ask themselves:

How do I write this?
How do I get started?

In this approach, students are trained to generate ideas for writing, think of the purpose and audience, write multiple drafts in order to present written products that communicate their own ideas. Teachers who use this approach give students time to tray ideas and feedback on the content of what they write in their drafts. As such, writing becomes a process of discovery for the students as they discover new ideas and new language forms to express them. Furthermore, learning to write is seen as a developmental process that helps students to write as professional authors do, choosing their own topics and genres, and writing from their own experiences or observations. A writing process approach requires that teachers give students greater responsibility for, and ownership of, their own learning. Students make decisions about genre and choice of topics, and collaborate as they write.

During the writing process, students engage in pre-writing, planning, drafting, and post-writing activities. However, as the writing process is recursive in nature, they do not necessarily engage in these activities in that order.

Task 2:

The production of a clear and communicative piece of writing requires attention to the elements of writing tabulated below. Put check mark in the appropriate columns to indicate whether the different approaches address the elements of writing based on what you have read.


Content Process Audience Word choice Organization Mechanics Grammar/
Syntax
Controlled- to Free . . . . . . .
Free-Writing . . . . . . .
Paragraph-
Pattern
. . . . . . .
Grammar-Syntax-
Organization
. . . . . . .
Communicative . . . . . . .

 

Table of Contents: 30 Ideas for Teaching Writing

1.     Use the shared events of students' lives to inspire writing.

2.     Establish an email dialogue between students from different schools who are reading the same book.

3.     Use writing to improve relations among students.

4.     Help student writers draw rich chunks of writing from endless sprawl.

5.     Work with words relevant to students' lives to help them build vocabulary.

6.     Help students analyze text by asking them to imagine dialogue between authors.

7.     Spotlight language and use group brainstorming to help students create poetry.

8.     Ask students to reflect on and write about their writing.

9.     Ease into writing workshops by presenting yourself as a model.

10. Get students to focus on their writing by holding off on grading.

11. Use casual talk about students' lives to generate writing.

12.  Give students a chance to write to an audience for real purpose.

13.    Practice and play with revision techniques.

14.   Pair students with adult reading/writing buddies.

15.    Teach "tension" to move students beyond fluency.

16.  Encourage descriptive writing by focusing on the sounds of words.

17.  Require written response to peers' writing.

18. Make writing reflection tangible.

19. Make grammar instruction dynamic.

20. Ask students to experiment with sentence length.

21. Help students ask questions about their writing.

22.  Challenge students to find active verbs.

23.  Require students to make a persuasive written argument in support of a final grade.

24.  Ground writing in social issues important to students.

25. Encourage the "framing device" as an aid to cohesion in writing.

26.   Use real world examples to reinforce writing conventions.

27.   Think like a football coach.

28.  Allow classroom writing to take a page from yearbook writing.

29.     Use home language on the road to Standard English.

30.   Introduce multi-genre writing in the context of community service.


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http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/922


http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/922
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