Approaches to Teaching
There are several approaches to teaching writing that are presented
by (Raimes, 1983) as follows:
a-The Controlled-to-Free Approach
In the 1950s and early 1960, the audio-lingual method dominated second-language
learning This method emphasized speech and writing served to achieve mastery
of grammatical and syntactic forms. Hence teachers developed and used techniques
to enable student to achieve this mastery. The controlled-to-free approach
in is sequential: students are first given sentence exercises, then paragraphs
to copy or manipulate grammatically by changing questions to statements,
present to past, or plural to singular. They might also change words to
clauses or combine sentences. With these controlled compositions, it is
relatively easy to for students write and yet avoid errors, which makes
error correction easy. Students are allowed to try some free composition
after they have reached an intermediate level of proficiency. As such,
this approach stress on grammar, syntax, and mechanics. It emphasizes accuracy
rather than fluency or originality.
b-The Free-Writing Approach
This approach stresses writing quantity rather than quality. Teachers
who use this approach assign vast amounts of free writing on given topics
with only minimal correction. The emphasis in this approach is on content
and fluency rather than on accuracy and form. Once ideas are down on the
page, grammatical accuracy and organization follow. Thus, teachers may
begin their classes by asking students to write freely on any topic without
worrying about grammar and spelling for five or ten minutes. The teachers
does not correct these pieces of free writing. They simply read them and
may comment on the ideas the writer expressed. Alternatively, some students
may volunteer to read their own writing aloud to the class. Concern for
“audience” and “content” are seen as important in this approach.
c-The Paragraph-Pattern Approach
Instead of accuracy of grammar or fluency of content, the Paragraph-Pattern-Approach
stresses on organization. Students copy paragraphs and imitate model passages.
They put scrambled sentences into paragraph order. They identify general
and specific statements and choose to invent an appropriate topic sentence
or insert or delete sentences. This approach is based on the principle
that in different cultures people construct and organize communication
with each other in different ways.
d-The Grammar-Syntax-Organization Approach
This approach stresses on simultaneous work on more than one composition
feature. Teachers who follow this approach maintain that writing can not
be seen as composed of separate skills which are learned sequentially.
Therefore, student should be trained to pay attention to organization while
they also work on the necessary grammar and syntax. This approach links
the purpose of writing to the forms that are needed to convey message.
e-The Communicative Approach
This approach stresses the purpose of writing and the audience for
it. Student writers are encouraged to behave like writers in real life
and ask themselves the crucial questions about purpose and audience:
Why am I writing this?
Who will read it?
Traditionally, the teacher alone has been the audience for student
writing. But some feel that writers do their best when writing is truly
a communicative act, with a writer writing for a real reader. As such,
the readership may be extended to classmate and pen pals.
f-The Process Approach
Recently, the teaching of writing has moved away from a concentration
on written product to an emphasis on the process of writing. Thus, writers
How do I write this?
How do I get started?
In this approach, students are trained to generate ideas for writing,
think of the purpose and audience, write multiple drafts in order to present
written products that communicate their own ideas. Teachers who use this
approach give students time to tray ideas and feedback on the content of
what they write in their drafts. As such, writing becomes a process of
discovery for the students as they discover new ideas and new language
forms to express them. Furthermore, learning to write is seen as a developmental
process that helps students to write as professional authors do, choosing
their own topics and genres, and writing from their own experiences or
observations. A writing process approach requires that teachers give students
greater responsibility for, and ownership of, their own learning. Students
make decisions about genre and choice of topics, and collaborate as they
During the writing process, students engage in pre-writing, planning,
drafting, and post-writing activities. However, as the writing process
is recursive in nature, they do not necessarily engage in these activities
in that order.
The production of a clear and communicative piece of writing requires
attention to the elements of writing tabulated below. Put check mark in
the appropriate columns to indicate whether the different approaches address
the elements of writing based on what you have read.
|Controlled- to Free
of Contents: 30 Ideas for Teaching Writing
shared events of students' lives to inspire writing.
email dialogue between students from different schools who are reading the same
to improve relations among students.
writers draw rich chunks of writing from endless sprawl.
words relevant to students' lives to help them build vocabulary.
analyze text by asking them to imagine dialogue between authors.
language and use group brainstorming to help students create poetry.
to reflect on and write about their writing.
writing workshops by presenting yourself as a model.
10. Get students
to focus on their writing by holding off on grading.
11. Use casual
talk about students' lives to generate writing.
12. Give students
a chance to write to an audience for real purpose.
13. Practice and
play with revision techniques.
with adult reading/writing buddies.
"tension" to move students beyond fluency.
descriptive writing by focusing on the sounds of words.
written response to peers' writing.
19. Make grammar
20. Ask students
to experiment with sentence length.
21. Help students
ask questions about their writing.
students to find active verbs.
students to make a persuasive written argument in support of a final grade.
writing in social issues important to students.
"framing device" as an aid to cohesion in writing.
26. Use real
world examples to reinforce writing conventions.
Think like a
classroom writing to take a page from yearbook writing.
29. Use home
language on the road to Standard English.
multi-genre writing in the context of community service.
ทักษะการเขียนถือเป็นทักษะขั้นสูงของการเรียนภาษา เป็นทักษะที่ยากที่สุดสำหรับการเรียนการสอนเพื่อที่จะบรรลุวัตถุประสงค์ได้ ทักษะการเขียนเป็นทักษะที่รวมทุกๆทักษะ เพื่อมาใช้ในทักษะการเขียน เป็นทักษะที่คนเรียนภาษาจะไม่ถนัดเลย หรือทางการเขียน เพราะทักษะการเขียนจะต้องให้ถูกตามโครงหลักไวยกรณ์ ซึ่งถือเป็นเรื่องที่ยากมาก การเขียนที่ต้องอาศัยความรู้ด้านไวยกรณ์ ไวยกรณ์ถือเป็นเรื่องที่ยาก ถ้าผู้เรียนภาษาไม่เข้าในใจในเรื่องไวยกรณ์จะมีโอกาสน้อยมากที่ผู้เรียนจะสามารถเขียน และผ่านทักษะการเขียนได้ ทักษะการเขียนจำเป็นจะต้องอาศัยฝึกฝนบ่อยๆ ให้มากกว่าทักษะอื่น การที่ผู้เรียนจะบรรลุทักษะการเขียนผู้จะต้องให้สนใจและมีความพยายาม