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HUF-HINDU UNDIVIDED FAMILY

Hindu Undivided Family

Hindu undivided family (abbreviation: HUF) is a legal term related to the Hindu Marriage Act. Due to the development of Indian Legal System, of late, the female members are also given the right of share to the property in the HUF. In CIT v/s Veerappa Chettiar, 76 ITR 467 (SC), Supreme Court had occasion to decide on an issue whether after the death of all the female members in a HUF, the HUF would still exist.

A Hindu Joint Family or Joint Family is an extended family arrangement prevalent among Hindus of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of many generations living under the same roof. All the male members are blood relatives and all the women are either mothers, wives, unmarried daughters, or widowed relatives, all bound by the common [sapinda] relationship. The joint family status being the result of birth, possession of joint cord that knits the members of the family together is not property but the relationship. The family is headed by a patriarch, usually the oldest male called "[Karta]", who makes decisions on economic and social matters on behalf of the entire family. The patriarch's wife generally exerts control over the kitchen, child rearing and minor religious practices. All money goes to the common pool and all property is held jointly.The main disadvantage in joint famili is about the property and about the money.

There are several schools of Hindu Law, such as Mitakshara, the Dayabhaga, the Marumakkathayam, the Aliyasantana etc. Broadly, Mitakshara and Dayabhaga systems of laws are very common. Family ties are given more importance than marital ties. The arrangement provides a kind of social security in a familial atmosphere.

 

Contents

1.        Powers of Karta or manager regarding joint Family Property

2.         Powers of Manager

3.        Female Coparceners

4.        Liabilities of the members of a Joint Hindu Family

5.         Position of a Banker in extending credit facilities

6.         See also

7.        References

1.   Powers of Karta or manager regarding joint Family Property

In Ramdayal and others v. Bhanwarlal and others, AIR 1973 Raj. 173, the Rajasthan High Court held that regarding the transfer of joint family property by the manager, the principles of law are well settled and are as follows:

1.     The Manager of a joint Hindu Family has the power to alienate (transfer) for value the joint family property so as bind the interests of both adult and minor coparceners in the property, provided that the alienation is made for legal necessity (Apatkale) or for the benefit of the estate (Kutumbharte) or for Indispensable duties (dharmarthe) which are religious, pious, or charitable such as sradha, upananyana, and performance of other necessary sanskars. Payment of debts incurred for family business or other necessary purpose constitute a legal necessity.

2.     That the burden of proving legal necessity to support alienation is upon the alinee.

3.     That the alinee can succeed not only on proof of legal necessity but also on proof that the alinee made reasonable inquires and was satisfied as to the existence of the legal necessity.

It is sufficient it to say here that the Karta or the manager can create a charge against the joint family property, only if the loan for which the charge is created, is taken for a purpose necessary or beneficial to the family. The burden of proving legal necessity lies on the banker and the banker has not only to prove the legal necessity but also to prove that it made reasonable inquiries and was satisfied as to the existence of the legal necessity.

1. Kartha is the senior most male member of the family (Jandhyala Sreerama Surma v. Nimmagadda Krishnavenamma, AIR 1957 AP 434)

2. Only the Kartha has the right to manage the property and business of the HUF.

3. Kartha can enter into contract on behalf of the HUF and bind all the members to the extent of their share in the property/business

4. If the coparceners so desire, all the coparceners and Kartha may authorise any one or more adult coparceners to manage the business. Such a person (s) is/are known as “Manager(s)”

The last point was also upheld by the Supreme Court ( quoting from Mulla's Hindu Law ) in NarendraKumar Modi v. CIT (1976) ITR 109 (SC)

2.     Powers of Manager

The powers of a Manager are more extensive than those of a Karta. The manager of a joint Hindu Family has all the powers required for the purposes of carrying on the family business. He can contract debts for the purpose of the business, and pledge the credit and property of the family for the purpose of its ordinary business, but not for any speculative transactions. His actions must not be tainted with immorality. He can bind the members of the family including minors by means of Negotiable Instruments, executed in the name of the family firm. He can also compromise a dispute but he cannot embark on a new venture.

3.     Female Coparceners

The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act 2005 has given equal rights to male and female in the matters of inheritance as a result a daughter also acquires status of coparcener.

Some experts also believe that in absence of any male member or only/all male member(s) is/are minor even a female member can become Kartha / manager of HUF after 2005.

4.     Liabilities of the members of a Joint Hindu Family

It is generally presumed that money required for carrying on family business is a family necessity and that the business is carried on with the consent or acquiescence of all the members of the family. Thus, if debts are incurred by the Manager in the ordinary course of the family business, all the coparceners become liable. However, their liability is limited to the extent of their interest in the family property and not beyond that. No doubt, the adult coparceners become personally liable when they themselves are actually contracting parties along with the Manager, or if they ratify the contract entered into by the Manager, except in the case of a minor coparcener, who does not become personally liable unless the contract is ratified by him after attaining majority.

5.     Position of a Banker in extending credit facilities

A banker dealing with Hindu undivided families will have to be cautious while extending credit facilities to HUF because certain laws and customers relating to succession and transfer of rights among Hindus, put serious obstacles in the way of the Banker’s providing financial accommodation on the security of what is ordinarily considered to be normal and reliable bank security.

HUF can be governed either by Mitakshara Laws or by Dayabhaga Laws. All the HUF to the exception of West Bengal are governed by Mitakshara Law. West Bengal follows the Dayabhaga system. Let us take an example of a HUF governed by the Mitakshara law wherein all the members acquire a right in the ancestral property by birth and the accrual of that right dates from conception of the child who by legal fiction becomes the member of HUF. So that there is always the danger of having transaction impugned by even a person who at the date of the transaction was not born. In order to charge a joint family estate, it is necessary that all the members of the family should join the execution of the deed, or should give their consent, or that the deed should be made by the head of the family in his capacity as karta or manager.

The powers of the karta are, however, limited and charge created by him is binding on the family property, only if the loan for which the charge is created, is taken for a purpose necessary or beneficial to the family, or is in discharge of a lawful antecedent debt due from the family. This is also called as vyavaharika debt. ["Vyavahar" means conduct. In this context, it means good conduct]. In the event of a suit being filed by a banker, who has granted a loan on the security of the joint family estate, the burden of proof that, before he granted the loan, the banker had satisfied himself that the loan was taken for purposes beneficial to the family, lies on the banker. To avoid this and several other difficulties, some banks require a Hindu customer desiring to open an account, to furnish a statement to the effect that the money deposited in a fixed deposit, current or savings bank account is the personal or self-acquired property of himself or himself and not that of a joint Hindu family. The manager of a trading Hindu family may be such a person as the family appoints or who holds out as its accredited representative. He need not be the Karta, for there can be more than one Manager, particularly if the business is carried on at different places

==HUF as a partner in a partnership firm==HUF is a joint family consists of all  lineally descended from a common ancestor. Hence, HUF is a group of members of the same family.The "father", or the "senior member" of the family called "Karta", ordinarily manages the property belonging to Joint Family. Hence, the status of HUF cannot be termed as person. The partnership is a relationship between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all. Hence, to become a partner in a partnership firm, the partner should be a natural person or recognized as person by the law (Company - by virtue of Companies Act 1956). Since, HUF is not a "person", but only group of persons belonging to the same family and carrying on the family business, HUF cannot be a partner in a partnership firm.The Supreme Court of India held (AIR-1930-PC-300 & AIR1956-SC-854) - HUF is an association of persons is "not a person" within the meaning of expression in the Partnership Act. "… it is now well settled that HUF cannot enter into contract of partnership with another person or persons."The Supreme Court of India, in another case M/s Rasiklal & Co Vs Commissioner of held that "…………. an HUF directly or indirectly cannot become a partner of a firm because the firm is an association of individuals." "…….in law, an HUF can never be a partner of partnership firm."HUF is person under Section 2(31) (ii) of Income Tax Act 1961. [1]The section reads like: (2)(31)  “person” includes" i)an individual,(ii) a Hindu undivided family, (iii)a company,iv) a firm, (v) an association of persons or a body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, (vi)  a local authority, and (vii)  every artificial juridical person, not falling within any of the preceding sub-clauses.Under the Indian Partnership Act, partnership is defined under Section 4 as “a relationship between persons who have agreed to share profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.” Now the question is whether a HUF can be treated as a person under the law. Unlike a company, a HUF has no separate existence from its members. A Company as a separate entity can enforce its rights, whereas, a HUF, has to be necessarily represented by a Kartha or an adult member for enforcing any of its rights. A HUF cannot be treated as a person.Though under the Income Tax Act, a person includes a HUF also, the Supreme Court in the case of Dulichand Laxminarayanan vs. Commissioner of Income Tax (AIR 1956 SC 354) has clearly held that the said definition cannot be imported to Section 4 of the Partnership Act and a firm cannot enter into partnership with a HUF. Further, in Rashiklal & co vs. Commissioner of IT, Orissa (9AIR 1998 SC 401) it was held that a HUF directly or indirectly cannot become a partner of a firm because firm is an association of individuals. Hence on the strength of the above rulings, it may be stated that a HUF cannot be a partner in a partnership firm.However, in CIT Vs. Seth Govindram Sugar Mills [(1965) 57 ITR 510 SC] The Supreme Court has held that a Kartha of a HUF or an adult member of the family in their individual capacity can enter into a partnership as a representative of the family. In such cases, it is the individual who is becoming a partner and not the HUF.

6.   References

§  Tannan's "Banking Law and Practice in India" 20th Edn, Vol 1, Pages 284 to 286.

§  Hindu Law : Principles and precedents - N.R.Raghavachariar Vol 1, MLJ Office.

 

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