VENUS


                                       2012 JUNE 5 TRANSIT OF VENUS SERIES PHOTO FROM NASA
 
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                  2012 JUNE 5   VENUS TRANSIT PHOTO GALLERY FROM  SPACEWEATHER.COM
 
 
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<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">Transit Of Venus</font><br>Raymond Stinson<br>Jun 11 2:08am<br>Pierce College; Tacoma, Wa

Transit Of Venus
Raymond Stinson
Jun 11 2:08am
Pierce College; Tacoma, Wa

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">Transit Of Venus</font><br>Larry Cadieux<br>Jun 10 9:36pm<br>Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

Transit Of Venus
Larry Cadieux
Jun 10 9:36pm
Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">Transit Of Venus</font><br>Richard Martin<br>Jun 10 9:16pm<br>Rouyn-Noranda (Quebec) Canada

Transit Of Venus
Richard Martin
Jun 10 9:16pm
Rouyn-Noranda (Quebec) Canada

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">Venus Transit</font><br>Geoff Horner<br>Jun 10 9:04pm<br>Near Beaver Dam, AZ

Venus Transit
Geoff Horner
Jun 10 9:04pm
Near Beaver Dam, AZ

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">Transit Of Venus 2012</font><br>Sebastian Lukaszyk<br>Jun 10 8:39pm<br>Gungahlin, Canberra, Australia

Transit Of Venus 2012
Sebastian Lukaszyk
Jun 10 8:39pm
Gungahlin, Canberra, Australia

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">ISS Triple Flyby</font><br>mark humpage<br>Jun 10 10:18am<br>Lutterworth, UK

ISS Triple Flyby
mark humpage
Jun 10 10:18am
Lutterworth, UK

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">Sunspots</font><br>Tarmo Tanilsoo<br>Jun 10 10:03am<br>Laguja, Estonia

Sunspots
Tarmo Tanilsoo
Jun 10 10:03am
Laguja, Estonia

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">Irdium Flare</font><br>Matt Lessick<br>Jun 10 9:11am<br>Richmond, VA

Irdium Flare
Matt Lessick
Jun 10 9:11am
Richmond, VA

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">Irdium Flare</font><br>Matt Lessick<br>Jun 10 9:07am<br>Richmond, VA

Irdium Flare
Matt Lessick
Jun 10 9:07am
Richmond, VA

<font class="tempImageTitleThumbText">H-alpha Sun</font><br>Cai-Uso Wohler<br>Jun 10 8:13am<br>Bispingen, Germany

H-alpha Sun
Cai-Uso Wohler
Jun 10 8:13am
Bispingen, Germany

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 August 16, 2010:  For the next few months, Venus will be softly resplendent in the evening sky, a treat for stargazers – but looks can be deceiving.
Venus Climate Orbiter (Evening Star, 200px)
"Evening Star." Venus shines over Costa da Caparica, Portugal. Credit: Miguel Claro.

Consider this: The Venusian surface is hot enough to melt lead. The planet's 96% carbon dioxide atmosphere is thick and steamy with a corrosive mist of sulfuric acid floating through it. The terrain is forbidding, strewn with craters and volcanic calderas – and bone dry.

Takeshi Imamura can't wait to get there.

Imamura is the project scientist for Akatsuki, a Japanese mission also called the Venus Climate Orbiter. The spacecraft is approaching Venus and will enter orbit on December 7, 2010. Imamura believes a close-up look at Venus could teach us a lot about our own planet.

"In so many ways, Venus is similar to Earth. It has about the same mass, is approximately the same distance from the sun, and is made of the same basic materials," says Imamura. "Yet the two worlds ended up so different. We want to know why."

Although a parade of U.S. and Soviet spacecraft has visited Venus since 1961, no one yet knows how it became Earth's "evil twin." Did it suffer from a case of global warming run amok – or something else? When Akatsuki reaches Venus in December, it will begin to solve some of the mysteries hidden in the thick Venusian atmosphere.

"By comparing Venus's unique meteorology to Earth's, we'll learn more about the universal principles of meteorology and improve the climate models we use to predict our planet's future."

Particularly puzzling is Venus's "super-rotation."  Fierce, blistering winds propel an atmosphere filled with storms and sulfuric acid clouds in a churning maelstrom around Venus at over 220 miles per hour, 60 times faster than the planet itself rotates.

Venus  Climate Orbiter (Venus, 550px)
The acid clouds of Venus, photographed by the ESA's Venus Express spacecraft. [more]

"Venus's atmosphere is in perpetual motion, as if a living thing," says Imamura.

Within this swirling cauldron are other Venusian riddles to be solved: What is the origin of the 12-mile thick layer of sulfuric acid clouds that shrouds the planet? And how does Venus' lightning crackle through this strange brew?

Akatsuki, bristling with cameras, will circle the exotic planet's equator in an elliptical orbit for at least 2 years, monitoring the atmosphere at different altitudes using various wavelengths (IR, UV, and visible). With this data and data from the spacecraft's radio dish, scientists will reconstruct a 3D model of the atmosphere's structure and dynamics.

Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO at Venus, 200px)
An artist's concept of Akatsuki at Venus. Credit: Akihiro Ikeshita

"The spacecraft's orbit will match the circulation of Venus's clouds, allowing the instruments to monitor cloud movement from directly above for 20 hours at a time. We'll assemble the images to produce a cloud motion time-lapse movie, much like a weather forecaster on television might show you of Earth."

The instruments will also scrutinize the planet's surface for volcanic activity that could be contributing to the sulfur contents of the atmosphere. "If any active volcanoes are spouting hot lava on Venus, one of our infrared cameras will detect the thermal emission," says Imamura.

In addition, Akatsuki's Lightning and Airglow Camera will hunt for lightning in order to settle a longstanding debate. "On Earth, the standard theory of lightning requires water ice particles on which positive or negative charges are induced via collisions," explains Imamura. "But there are no ice particles in Venus's hot, dry atmosphere--so how does Venusian lightning get started? It may be that charge separation can occur in sulfuric acid clouds--or perhaps some unknown solid particles exist in the atmosphere and play an important role."

Imamura can scarcely contain his curiosity. "As a young boy I loved to watch clouds, stars, oceans, rocks, and creatures. I wanted to understand why they look and behave as they do. Now I am curious in the same way about Venus. Nature is so full of mysteries!"

Beginning in December, some of Venus's mysteries will be revealed. Stay tuned.


Author: Dauna Coulter | Editor: Dr. Tony Phillips | Credit: Science@NASA

More Information

Venus Climate Orbiter (Akatsuki) -- JAXA home page

Akatsuki is the Japanese word for "dawn."

The European Space Agency's Venus Express is already circling Venus in a polar orbit, performing a global investigation of the Venusian atmosphere and of the plasma environment. This spacecraft is using spectrometers to examine the atmosphere's chemistry. "Together, these two spacecraft will yield more information than either spacecraft could produce alone," says Imamura. "For example, we'll be able to trace the circulations of chemicals in Venus's atmosphere that determine its chemical state."


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Article Below is from www.UniverseToday.com

May 18th, 2010  - UPDATE - LAUNCH WAS SUCCESSFUL

Japan to Launch Venus Orbiter and Solar Sail Missions

Written by Nancy Atkinson

Akatsuki and IKAROS on the launch pad Taken on May 17, 2010, about 24 hours before the planned launch of Akatsuki and IKAROS toward Venus. They are stacked aboard an H-IIA rocket. Credit: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.


Bad weather postponed a scheduled multi-mission launch of an H-IIA rocket from Japan early Tuesday, which includes the first Japanese probe to Venus and an experimental solar sail. The next launch attempt for the "Akatsuki" Venus Climate Orbiter and an the solar sail called IKAROS will be Thursday, May 20, at 21:58 UTC (May 20 at 5:58 EDT) – which is May 21 at 6:58 in Japan. Akatsuki is Japan's first mission to Venus, and it will work closely with the ESA's Venus Express, already at Venus. Also called Planet C, the box-shaped orbiter should arrive at Venus in December and observe the planet from an elliptical orbit, from a distance of between 300 and 80,000 kilometers (186 to 49,600 miles), looking for — among other things — signs of lightning and active volcanoes.

IKAROS - solar sail from Japan. Image: JAXA


Another other payload is the solar sail, or "space yacht" IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation of the Sun). This 320kg, 1.8m-wide, disc-shaped spacecraft will deploy an ultra-thin, ultra-light, 14 meter sail that will propel the structure from the radiation pressure from sunlight hitting it.

"The purpose of IKAROS is to demonstrate the technology of the Solar Power Sail," said Osamu Mori, project leader of IKAROS. "Simply put, the solar sail is a 'space yacht.' A yacht moves forward on water, pushed by wind captured in its sails. A solar sail is propelled by sunlight instead of wind, so it's a dream spaceship – it doesn't require an engine or fuel. Part of IKAROS's sail is covered by a solar cell made of an ultra-thin film, which generates electricity from sunlight."

So far, solar sails have only been tested, but never flown successfully. It is hoped IKAROS will be the world's first solar-powered sail, and that the structure will sail towards Venus, following Akatsuki.

The experimental sail is thinner than a human hair, is also equipped with thin-film solar cells to generate electricity, creating what JAXA calls "a hybrid technology of electricity and pressure."

To control the path of IKAROS, engineers will change the angle at which sunlight particles bounce off the sail.

If you are a member of The Planetary Society, your name will be heading to Venus on both Akatsuki and IKAROS. The Planetary Society, a long-time proponent of solar sail technology, and Japan's space exploration center, JSPEC/JAXA, have an agreement to collaborate and cooperate on public outreach and on technical information and results from IKAROS, which will help TPS plan for its upcoming launch of its own solar sail vehicle, LightSail-1, which they hope to launch in early 2011.

Emily Lakdawalla at the Planetary Blog has more details about the two missions and TPS's involvement.

The H-IIA will also carry four other small satellites, developed by Japanese universities and other institutions. They include:

The 2-pound Negai CubeSat, developed by Soka University of Japan. Negai will test an information processing system during a three-week mission.

The WASEDA-SAT2, developed by Waseda University. The 2.6-pound spacecraft will conduct technology experiments in orbit.

The 3.3-pound KSAT spacecraft developed by Kagoshima University will conduct Earth observation experiments.

The 46-pound UNITEC-1 satellite from the Japanese University Space Engineering Consortium will test computer technologies and broadcast radio waves from deep space for decoding by amateur radio operators.

The rocket will launch from Japan's Tanegashima Space Center in southern Japan.

For more information on IKAROS, read this interview with the project leader, Osamu Mori

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http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/cms/dn17534/dn17534-1_600.jpg

Mysterious Bright Spot Found on Venus

A strange spot emerged on Venus last week, and astronomers are not sure what caused it. They hope future observations will reveal whether volcanic activity, turbulence in the planet's atmosphere, or charged particles from the sun are to blame.

Amateur astronomer Frank Melillo of Holtsville, New York, first spotted the new feature, which is brighter than its surroundings at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the planet's southern hemisphere on  July 19. That same day, an amateur observer in Australia found a dark spot on Jupiter that had been caused by a meteoroid impact.

The Venus spot was confirmed by other observers, and images from Europe's Venus Express, the only spacecraft in orbit around the planet, later revealed that the spot had appeared at least four days before Melillo saw it.

Observations show that the spot had already spread out somewhat by the end of last week, and astronomers are awaiting more recent observations from Venus Express.

The spot is bright at ultraviolet wavelengths, which may argue against a meteoroid impact as a cause. That's because rocky bodies, with the exception of objects very rich in water ice, should cause an impact site to darken at ultraviolet wavelengths as it fills with debris that absorbs such light, says Sanjay Limaye of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a member of the Venus Express team.

Powerful eruption?

Another possibility is that a gust of charged particles from the sun could have created the glow by energising a patch of the upper atmosphere. Alternatively, waves in the atmosphere, which trigger turbulence and are thought to carry material up and down, could have concentrated bright material to create the spot.

A volcanic eruption is another suspect. Venus boasts the most volcanoes of any planet in the solar system, and nearly 90% of its surface is covered by basaltic lava flows, although no 'smoking gun' has yet been found for current volcanic activity. But an eruption would have had to be very powerful to punch through a dense layer in Venus' atmosphere to create the spot some 65 to 70 kilometres above the planet's surface.

"It's fair to say something unusual happened on Venus. Unfortunately, we don't know what happened," Limaye told New Scientist.

Volcanic gases

Two spectrometers on board Venus Express might help reveal the culprit. One directly measures the spectrum of light emanating from the planet, while the other can measure trace constituents in the atmosphere by measuring how gases there absorb sunlight.

These instruments could reveal changes in the size distribution of particles in the atmosphere and higher concentrations of molecules, such as sulphur dioxide, that could suggest a volcanic eruption.

If a volcano is to blame, proving it will be difficult. Even if Venus Express finds higher-than-average levels of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere, the observation could be explained by non-volcanic processes, cautions Limaye. Sunlight can break down sulphuric acid in Venus's clouds to create sulphur dioxide, which may not be evenly circulated in the planet's atmosphere.

Mystery world

This is not the first time astronomers have spotted bright features in Venus's atmosphere. Bright spots have been seen from Earth for decades, although they have not been clearly explained, Limaye says.

The most recent dramatic brightening occurred in January 2007, when areas in both the northern and southern hemispheres of the planet brightened. Because it is localised in a spot, this new feature looks different, but it is equally mysterious.

"This shows how much we don't know about Venus," Limaye says. In some ways, Venus is a simpler planet than Earth – it has no oceans and because of its nearly vertical spin axis, practically no seasons, he adds. But planetary scientists still do not understand what causes the planet's atmosphere to rotate 60 times faster than the planet itself.

           

Venus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia






Venus  Astronomical symbol of Venus
Venus
Venus in real color
Designations
Pronunciation /ˈviːnəs/  ( listen)
Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 108,942,109 km
0.728 231 28 AU
Perihelion 107,476,259 km
0.718 432 70 AU
Semi-major axis 108,208,930 km
0.723 332 AU
Eccentricity 0.006 8
Orbital period 224.700 69 day
0.615 197 0 yr
Synodic period 583.92 days[1]
Average orbital speed 35.02 km/s
Inclination 3.394 71° to Ecliptic
3.86° to Sun’s equator
2.19° to Invariable plane[2]
Longitude of ascending node 76.670 69°
Argument of perihelion 54.852 29°
Satellites None
Physical characteristics
Mean radius 6,051.8 ± 1.0 km[3]
0.949 9 Earths
Flattening < 0.000 2[3]
Surface area 4.60 × 108 km²
0.902 Earths
Volume 9.38 × 1011 km³
0.857 Earths
Mass 4.868 5 × 1024 kg
0.815 Earths
Mean density 5.204 g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 8.87 m/s2
0.904 g
Escape velocity 10.46 km/s
Sidereal rotation
period
243.018 5 day
Equatorial rotation velocity 6.52 km/h (1.81 m/s)
Axial tilt 177.3°[1]
North pole right ascension 18 h 11 min 2 s
272.76°[4]
North pole declination 67.16°
Albedo 0.65 (geometric) or 0.75 (bond)[1]
Surface temp.
   Kelvin
   Celsius
min mean max

735 K[1][6][7]

461.85 °C
Apparent magnitude up to -4.6[1] (cresent)
-3.8[5] (full)
Angular diameter 9.7" – 66.0"[1]
Atmosphere
Surface pressure 9.3 MPa
Composition ~96.5% Carbon dioxide
~3.5% Nitrogen
0.015% Sulfur dioxide
0.007% Argon
0.002% Water vapor
0.001 7% Carbon monoxide
0.001 2% Helium
0.000 7% Neon
trace Carbonyl sulfide
trace Hydrogen chloride
trace Hydrogen fluoride

Venus is the second-closest planet to the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. The planet is named after Venus, the Roman goddess of love. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6. Because Venus is an inferior planet from Earth, it never appears to venture far from the Sun: its elongation reaches a maximum of 47.8°. Venus reaches its maximum brightness shortly before sunrise or shortly after sunset, for which reason it is often called the Morning Star or the Evening Star.

Classified as a terrestrial planet, it is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because they are similar in size, gravity, and bulk composition. Venus is covered with an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. Venus has the densest atmosphere of all the terrestrial planets, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide, as it has no carbon cycle to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features, nor organic life to absorb it in biomass. A younger Venus is believed to have possessed Earth-like oceans,[8] but these totally evaporated as the temperature rose, leaving a dusty dry desertscape with many slab-like rocks. The water has most likely dissociated, and, because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field, the hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind.[9] The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of the Earth.

Venus' surface was a subject of speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the twentieth century. It was finally mapped in detail by Project Magellan in 1990–91. The ground shows evidence of extensive volcanism, and the sulfur in the atmosphere may indicate that there have been some recent eruptions.[10][11] However, it is an enigma why no evidence of lava flow accompanies any of the visible caldera. There are a low number of impact craters, demonstrating that the surface is relatively young, approximately half a billion years old. There is no evidence for plate tectonics, possibly because its crust is too strong to subduct without water to make it less viscous. Instead, Venus may lose its internal heat in periodic massive resurfacing events.[12]

The adjective Venusian is commonly used for items related to Venus, though the Latin adjective is the rarely used Venerean; the archaic Cytherean is still occasionally encountered. Venus is the only planet in the Solar System named after a female figure,[a] although three dwarf planetsCeres, Eris and Haumea – along with hundreds of the first discovered asteroids also have feminine names.

Physical characteristics

Venus is one of the four solar terrestrial planets, meaning that, like the Earth, it is a rocky body. In size and mass, it is very similar to the Earth, and is often described as its 'sister', or Earth's twin.[13] The diameter of Venus is only 650 km less than the Earth's, and its mass is 81.5% of the Earth's. However, conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth, due to its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. The mass of the atmosphere of Venus is 96.5% carbon dioxide, with most of the remaining 3.5% composed of nitrogen.[14]

Internal structure

Without seismic data or knowledge of its moment of inertia, there is little direct information about the internal structure and geochemistry of Venus.[15] However, the similarity in size and density between Venus and Earth suggests that they share a similar internal structure: a core, mantle, and crust. Like that of Earth, the Venusian core is thought to be at least partially liquid. The slightly smaller size of Venus suggests that pressures are significantly lower in its deep interior than Earth. The principal difference between the two planets is the lack of plate tectonics on Venus, likely due to the dry surface and mantle. This results in reduced heat loss from the planet, preventing it from cooling and providing a likely explanation for its lack of an internally generated magnetic field.[16]

Geography

About 80% of Venus's surface consists of smooth volcanic plains. Two highland 'continents' make up the rest of its surface area, one lying in the planet's northern hemisphere and the other just south of the equator. The northern continent is called Ishtar Terra, after Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess of love, and is about the size of Australia. Maxwell Montes, the highest mountain on Venus, lies on Ishtar Terra. Its peak is 11 km above Venus's average surface elevation. The southern continent is called Aphrodite Terra, after the Greek goddess of love, and is the larger of the two highland regions at roughly the size of South America. A network of fractures and faults covers much of this area.[17]

Map of Venus, showing the elevated 'continents' in yellow: Ishtar Terra at the top and Aphrodite Terra just below the equator to the right

As well as the impact craters, mountains, and valleys commonly found on rocky planets, Venus has a number of unique surface features. Among these are flat-topped volcanic features called farra, which look somewhat like pancakes and range in size from 20–50 km across, and 100–1,000 m high; radial, star-like fracture systems called novae; features with both radial and concentric fractures resembling spiders' webs, known as arachnoids; and coronae, circular rings of fractures sometimes surrounded by a depression. All of these features are volcanic in origin.[18]

Almost all Venusian surface features are named after historical and mythological women.[19] The only exceptions are Maxwell Montes, named after James Clerk Maxwell, and two highland regions, Alpha Regio and Beta Regio. These three features were named before the current system was adopted by the International Astronomical Union, the body that oversees planetary nomenclature.[20]

Cartesian coordinates of physical features on Venus are expressed relative to its prime meridian, defined as the line of longitude passing through a radar-bright spot at the center of the oval feature Eve, which lies to the south of Alpha Regio.[21][22]

Surface geology

Main article: Geology of Venus

Much of Venus's surface appears to have been shaped by volcanic activity. Overall, Venus has several times as many volcanoes as Earth, and it possesses some 167 giant volcanoes that are over 100 km across. The only volcanic complex of this size on Earth is the Big Island of Hawaii.[18] However, this is not because Venus is more volcanically active than Earth, but because its crust is older. Earth's oceanic crust is continually recycled by subduction at the boundaries of tectonic plates, and has an average age of about 100 million years,[23] while Venus's surface is estimated to be about 500 million years old.[18]

Impact craters on the surface of Venus (image reconstructed from radar data)

Several lines of evidence point to ongoing volcanic activity on Venus. During the Soviet Venera program, the Venera 11 and Venera 12 probes detected a constant stream of lightning, and Venera 12 recorded a powerful clap of thunder soon after it landed. The European Space Agency's Venus Express recorded abundant lightning in the high atmosphere.[24] While rainfall drives thunderstorms on Earth, there is no rainfall on the surface of Venus (though it does rain sulfuric acid in the upper atmosphere that evaporates around 25 km above the surface). One possibility is that ash from a volcanic eruption was generating the lightning. Another piece of evidence comes from measurements of sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, which were found to drop by a factor of 10 between 1978 and 1986. This may imply that the levels had earlier been boosted by a large volcanic eruption.[25]

There are almost a thousand impact craters on Venus, more or less evenly distributed across its surface. On other cratered bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, craters show a range of states of degradation. On the Moon, degradation is caused by subsequent impacts, while on Earth, it is caused by wind and rain erosion. However, on Venus, about 85% of craters are in pristine condition. The number of craters together with their well-preserved condition indicates that the planet underwent a global resurfacing event about 500 million years ago.[26] Earth's crust is in continuous motion, but it is thought that Venus cannot sustain such a process. Without plate tectonics to dissipate heat from its mantle, Venus instead undergoes a cyclical process in which mantle temperatures rise until they reach a critical level that weakens the crust. Then, over a period of about 100 million years, subduction occurs on an enormous scale, completely recycling the crust.[18]

Venusian craters range from 3 km to 280 km in diameter. There are no craters smaller than 3 km, because of the effects of the dense atmosphere on incoming objects. Objects with less than a certain kinetic energy are slowed down so much by the atmosphere that they do not create an impact crater.[27]

Atmosphere and climate

Main article: Atmosphere of Venus
Cloud structure in Venus's atmosphere, revealed by ultraviolet observations

Venus has an extremely dense atmosphere, which consists mainly of carbon dioxide and a small amount of nitrogen. The atmospheric mass is 93 times that of Earth's atmosphere while the pressure at the planet's surface is about 92 times that at Earth's surface—a pressure equivalent to that at a depth of nearly 1 kilometer under Earth's oceans. The density at the surface is 65 kg/m³ (6.5% that of water). The CO2-rich atmosphere, along with thick clouds of sulfur dioxide, generates the strongest greenhouse effect in the Solar System, creating surface temperatures of over 460 °C (860 °F).[28] This makes Venus's surface hotter than Mercury's which has a minimum surface temperature of -220 °C and maximum surface temperature of 420 °C, even though Venus is nearly twice Mercury's distance from the Sun and receives only 25% of Mercury's solar irradiance.

Studies have suggested that several billion years ago Venus's atmosphere was much more like Earth's than it is now, and that there were probably substantial quantities of liquid water on the surface, but a runaway greenhouse effect was caused by the evaporation of that original water, which generated a critical level of greenhouse gases in its atmosphere.[29] Thermal inertia and the transfer of heat by winds in the lower atmosphere mean that the temperature of Venus's surface does not vary significantly between the night and day sides, despite the planet's extremely slow rotation. Winds at the surface are slow, moving at a few kilometers per hour, but because of the high density of the atmosphere at Venus's surface, they exert a significant amount of force against obstructions, and transport dust and small stones across the surface. This alone would make it difficult for a human to walk through, even if the heat were not a problem.[30] Above the dense CO2 layer are thick clouds consisting mainly of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid droplets.[31][32] These clouds reflect about 60% of the sunlight that falls on them back into space, and prevent the direct observation of Venus's surface in visible light. The permanent cloud cover means that although Venus is closer than Earth to the Sun, the Venusian surface is not as well lit. In the absence of the greenhouse effect caused by the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the temperature at the surface of Venus would be quite similar to that on Earth. Strong 300 km/h winds at the cloud tops circle the planet about every four to five earth days.[33]

The surface of Venus is effectively isothermal; it retains a constant temperature between day and night and between the equator and the poles.[1][34] The planet's minute axial tilt (less than three degrees, compared with 23 degrees for Earth), also minimizes seasonal temperature variation.[35] The only appreciable variation in temperature occurs with altitude. In 1995, the Magellan probe imaged a highly reflective substance at the tops of Venus's highest mountain peaks which bore a strong resemblance to terrestrial snow. This substance arguably formed from a similar process to snow, albeit at a far higher temperature. Too volatile to condense on the surface, it rose in gas form to cooler higher elevations, where it then fell as precipitation. The identity of this substance is not known with certainty, but speculation has ranged from elemental tellurium to lead sulfide (galena).[36]

The clouds of Venus are capable of producing lightning much like the clouds on Earth.[37] The existence of lightning had been controversial since the first suspected bursts were detected by the Soviet Venera probes. However, in 2006–2007 Venus Express clearly detected whistler mode waves, the signatures of lightning. Their intermittent appearance indicates a pattern associated with weather activity. The lightning rate is at least half of that on Earth.[37] In 2007 the Venus Express probe discovered that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole of the planet.[38][39]

Magnetic field and core

In 1980, The Pioneer Venus Orbiter found that Venus's magnetic field is both weaker and smaller (i.e. closer to the planet) than Earth's. What small magnetic field is present is induced by an interaction between the ionosphere and the solar wind,[40] rather than by an internal dynamo in the core like the one inside the Earth. Venus's magnetosphere is too weak to protect the atmosphere from cosmic radiation.

The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising given that it is similar to Earth in size, and was expected also to contain a dynamo at its core. A dynamo requires three things: a conducting liquid, rotation, and convection. The core is thought to be electrically conductive and, while its rotation is often thought to be too slow, simulations show that it is adequate to produce a dynamo.[41][42] This implies that the dynamo is missing because of a lack of convection in Venus's core. On Earth, convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core because the bottom of the liquid layer is much hotter than the top. On Venus, a global resurfacing event may have shut down plate tectonics and led to a reduced heat flux through the crust. This caused the mantle temperature to increase, thereby reducing the heat flux out of the core. As a result, there not an internal geodynamo that can drive a magnetic field. Instead the heat energy from the core is being used to reheat the crust.[43]

It is possible that Venus has no solid inner core,[44] or that its core is not currently cooling, so that the entire liquid part of the core is at approximately the same temperature. Another possibility is that its core has already completely solidified. The state of the core is highly dependent on the concentration of sulfur, which is unknown at present.[43]

Orbit and rotation

Size comparison of terrestrial planets (left to right): Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
VenusAnimation.ogg
Play video
Venus rotates about its axis in the opposite direction to most planets in the Solar System.

Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 108 million km (about 0.7 AU), and completes an orbit every 224.65 days. Although all planetary orbits are elliptical, Venus is the closest to circular, with an eccentricity of less than 0.01.[1] When Venus lies between the Earth and the Sun, a position known as 'inferior conjunction', it makes the closest approach to Earth of any planet, lying at an average distance of 41 million km during inferior conjunction.[1] The planet reaches inferior conjunction every 584 days, on average.[1] Due to the decreasing eccentricity of both Earth's and Venus's orbits, the minimum distances will become greater. From 1 to 5383, there are 526 approaches less than 40 million km; then there are none for about 60,200 years.[45] During periods of greater eccentricity Venus can come as close as 38.2 million km.[1]

Venus rotates once every 243 days—by far the slowest rotation period of any of the major planets. A Venusian sidereal day thus lasts more than a Venusian year (243 versus 224.7 Earth days). However, the length of a solar day on Venus is significantly shorter than the sidereal day; to an observer on the surface of Venus the time from one sunrise to the next would be 116.75 days,[7] which means that Venus' solar day is actually shorter than Mercury's (176 days). The Sun would appear to rise in the west and set in the east. At the equator, Venus's surface rotates at 6.5 km/h; on Earth, the rotation speed at the equator is about 1,670 km/h.[46]

If viewed from above the Sun's north pole, all of the planets are orbiting in a counter-clockwise direction; but while most planets also rotate counter-clockwise, Venus rotates clockwise in "retrograde" rotation. The present rotation period of Venus represents an equilibrium state between gravitational tidal locking by the Sun that tends to slow the rotation rate, and an atmospheric tide created by the solar heating of Venus' thick atmosphere. When it formed from the solar nebula, Venus may have begun with a different rotation period and obliquity, then migrated to the current state because of chaotic spin changes caused by planetary perturbations and tidal effects on its dense atmosphere. This change in the rotation period likely took place over the course of billions of years.[47][48]

A curious aspect of Venus's orbit and rotation periods is that the 584-day average interval between successive close approaches to the Earth is almost exactly equal to five Venusian solar days. Whether this relationship arose by chance or is the result of some kind of tidal locking with the Earth, is unknown.[49]

Venus currently has no natural satellite, though the asteroid 2002 VE68 presently maintains a quasi-orbital relationship with it.[50] According to Alex Alemi and David Stevenson of the California Institute of Technology, their recent study of models of the early Solar System shows that it is very likely that, billions of years ago, Venus had at least one moon, created by a huge impact event.[51][52] About 10 million years later, according to Alemi and Stevenson, another impact reversed the planet's spin direction. This caused the Venusian moon gradually to spiral inward[53] until it collided and merged with Venus. If later impacts created moons, those also were absorbed in the same manner. The Alemi/Stevenson study is recent, and it remains to be seen what sort of acceptance it will achieve in the scientific community.[citation needed]

Observation

Venus is always brighter than the brightest stars

Venus is always brighter than the brightest stars, with its apparent magnitude ranging from −3.8 to −4.6.[5] This is bright enough to be seen even in the middle of the day, and the planet can be easy to see when the Sun is low on the horizon. As an inferior planet, it always lies within about 47° of the Sun.[5]

Venus 'overtakes' the Earth every 584 days as it orbits the Sun.[1] As it does so, it goes from being the 'Evening star', visible after sunset, to being the 'Morning star', visible before sunrise. While Mercury, the other inferior planet, reaches a maximum elongation of only 28° and is often difficult to discern in twilight, Venus is hard to miss when it is at its brightest. Its greater maximum elongation means it is visible in dark skies long after sunset. As the brightest point-like object in the sky, Venus is a commonly misreported 'unidentified flying object'. U.S. President Jimmy Carter reported having seen a UFO in 1969, which later analysis suggested was probably the planet. Countless other people have mistaken Venus for something more exotic.[54]

Phases of Venus and evolution of its apparent diameter.

As it moves around its orbit, Venus displays phases in a telescopic view like those of the Moon: In the phases of Venus the planet presents a small "full" image when it is on the opposite side of the Sun. It shows a larger "quarter phase" when it is at its maximum elongations from the Sun. Venus is at its brightest in the night sky and presents a much larger "thin crescent" in telescopic views as it comes around to the near side between the Earth and the Sun. Venus is at its largest and presents its "new passes" when it is between the Earth and the Sun. Since it has an atmosphere it can be seen in a telescope by the halo of light refracted around the planet.[5]

Venus's orbit is slightly inclined relative to the Earth's orbit; thus, when the planet passes between the Earth and the Sun, it usually does not cross the face of the Sun. However, transits of Venus do occur in pairs separated by eight years, at intervals of about 121.5 years, when the planet's inferior conjunction coincides with its presence in the plane of the Earth's orbit. The most recent transit was in June 2004; the next will be in June 2012. The preceding pair of transits occurred in December of 1874 and 1882; the following pair will occur in December of 2117 and 2125, 243 years later.[55] Historically, transits of Venus were important, because they allowed astronomers to directly determine the size of the astronomical unit, and hence the size of the Solar System. Captain Cook's exploration of the east coast of Australia came after he had sailed to Tahiti in 1768 to observe a transit of Venus.[56][57]

A long-standing mystery of Venus observations is the so-called Ashen light—an apparent weak illumination of the dark side of the planet, seen when the planet is in the crescent phase. The first claimed observation of ashen light was made as long ago as 1643, but the existence of the illumination has never been reliably confirmed. Observers have speculated that it may result from electrical activity in the Venusian atmosphere, but it may be illusory, resulting from the physiological effect of observing a very bright crescent-shaped object.[58]

Studies of Venus

Early studies

Galileo's discovery that Venus showed phases proved that it orbits the Sun and not the Earth

Venus was known in the Hindu Jyotisha since early times as the planet Shukra.[59][60] In the West, before the advent of the telescope, Venus was known as a 'wandering star'. Several cultures historically held its appearances as a morning and evening star to be those of two separate bodies. Pythagoras is usually credited with recognizing in the sixth century BC that the morning and evening stars were a single body, though he thought that Venus orbited the Earth.[61] When Galileo first observed the planet in the early 17th century, he found that it showed phases like the Moon's, varying from crescent to gibbous to full and vice versa. When Venus is furthest from the Sun in the sky it shows a half-lit phase and when it is closest to the Sun in the sky it shows as a cresent or full phase. This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun, and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric model that the Solar System was concentric and centered on the Earth.[62]

The atmosphere of Venus was discovered in 1761 by Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov.[63][64] Venus's atmosphere was observed in 1790 by Johann Schröter. Schröter found that when the planet was a thin crescent, the cusps extended through more than 180°. He correctly surmised that this was due to scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere. Later, Chester Smith Lyman observed a complete ring around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction, providing further evidence for an atmosphere.[65] The atmosphere complicated efforts to determine a rotation period for the planet, and observers such as Giovanni Cassini and Schröter incorrectly estimated periods of about 24 hours from the motions of markings on the planet's apparent surface.[66]

Ground-based research

Little more was discovered about Venus until the 20th century. Its almost featureless disc gave no hint as to what its surface might be like, and it was only with the development of spectroscopic, radar and ultraviolet observations that more of its secrets were revealed. The first UV observations were carried out in the 1920s, when Frank E. Ross found that UV photographs revealed considerable detail that was absent in visible and infrared radiation. He suggested that this was due to a very dense yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it.[67]

90% of the surface Venus appears to be recently solid basalt lava. Spectroscopic observations in the 1900s gave the first clues about Venus's rotation. Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus, but found that he could not detect any rotation. He surmised that the planet must have a much longer rotation period than had previously been thought.[68] Later work in the 1950s showed that the rotation was retrograde. Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the 1960s, and provided the first measurements of the rotation period which were close to the modern value.[69]

Radar observations in the 1970s revealed details of Venus's surface for the first time. Pulses of radio waves were beamed at the planet using the 300 m radio telescope at Arecibo Observatory, and the echoes revealed two highly reflective regions, designated the Alpha and Beta regions. The observations also revealed a bright region attributed to mountains, which was called Maxwell Montes.[70] These three features are now the only ones on Venus which do not have female names.[71]

Exploration of Venus

Early efforts

Mariner 2, launched in 1962

The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began on February 12, 1961 with the launch of the Venera 1 probe. The first craft of the otherwise highly successful Soviet Venera program, Venera 1 was launched on a direct impact trajectory, but contact was lost seven days into the mission, when the probe was about 2 million km from Earth. It was estimated to have passed within 100 000 km from Venus in mid-May.[72]

The United States exploration of Venus also started badly with the loss of the Mariner 1 probe on launch. The subsequent Mariner 2 mission enjoyed greater success, and after a 109-day transfer orbit on December 14, 1962 it became the world's first successful interplanetary mission, passing 34,833 km above the surface of Venus. Its microwave and infrared radiometers revealed that while Venus's cloud tops were cool, the surface was extremely hot—at least 425 °C, finally ending any hopes that the planet might harbor ground-based life. Mariner 2 also obtained improved estimates of Venus's mass and of the astronomical unit, but was unable to detect either a magnetic field or radiation belts.[73]

Atmospheric entry

The Soviet Venera 3 probe crash-landed on Venus on March 1, 1966. It was the first man-made object to enter the atmosphere and strike the surface of another planet, though its communication system failed before it was able to return any planetary data.[74] Venus's next encounter with an unmanned probe came on October 18, 1967 when Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed a number of science experiments. Venera 4 showed that the surface temperature was even hotter than Mariner 2 had measured at almost 500 °C, and that the atmosphere was about 90 to 95% carbon dioxide. The Venusian atmosphere was considerably denser than Venera 4's designers had anticipated, and its slower than intended parachute descent meant that its batteries ran down before the probe reached the surface. After returning descent data for 93 minutes, Venera 4's last pressure reading was 18 bar at an altitude of 24.96 km.[74]

Another probe arrived at Venus one day later on October 19, 1967 when Mariner 5 conducted a flyby at a distance of less than 4000 km above the cloud tops. Mariner 5 was originally built as backup for the Mars-bound Mariner 4, but when that mission was successful, the probe was refitted for a Venus mission. A suite of instruments more sensitive than those on Mariner 2, in particular its radio occultation experiment, returned data on the composition, pressure and density of Venus's atmosphere.[75] The joint Venera 4–Mariner 5 data were analyzed by a combined Soviet-American science team in a series of colloquia over the following year,[76] in an early example of space cooperation.[77]

Armed with the lessons and data learned from Venera 4, the Soviet Union launched the twin probes Venera 5 and Venera 6 five days apart in January 1969; they encountered Venus a day apart on May 16 and May 17 that year. The probes were strengthened to improve their crush depth to 25 atmospheres and were equipped with smaller parachutes to achieve a faster descent. Since then-current atmospheric models of Venus suggested a surface pressure of between 75 and 100 atmospheres, neither was expected to survive to the surface. After returning atmospheric data for a little over fifty minutes, they both were crushed at altitudes of approximately 20 km before going on to strike the surface on the night side of Venus.[74]

Surface and atmospheric science

Venera 7 represented a concerted effort to return data from the planet's surface, and was constructed with a reinforced descent module capable of withstanding a pressure of 180 bar. The module was pre-cooled prior to entry and equipped with a specially reefed parachute for a rapid 35-minute descent. Entering the atmosphere on December 15, 1970, the parachute is believed to have partially torn during the descent, and the probe struck the surface with a hard, yet not fatal, impact. Probably tilted onto its side, it returned a weak signal supplying temperature data for 23 minutes, the first telemetry received from the surface of another planet.[74]

The Venera program continued with Venera 8 sending data from the surface for 50 minutes, and Venera 9 and Venera 10 sending the first images of the Venusian landscape. The two landing sites presented very different visages in the immediate vicinities of the landers: Venera 9 had landed on a 20 degree slope scattered with boulders around 30–40 cm across; Venera 10 showed basalt-like rock slabs interspersed with weathered material.[78]

In the meantime, the United States had sent the Mariner 10 probe on a gravitational slingshot trajectory past Venus on its way to Mercury. On February 5, 1974, Mariner 10 passed within 5790 km of Venus, returning over 4000 photographs as it did so. The images, the best then achieved, showed the planet to be almost featureless in visible light, but ultraviolet light revealed details in the clouds that had never been seen in Earth-bound observations.[79]

The American Pioneer Venus project consisted of two separate missions.[80] The Pioneer Venus Orbiter was inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on December 4, 1978, and remained there for over thirteen years studying the atmosphere and mapping the surface with radar. The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe released a total of four probes which entered the atmosphere on December 9, 1978, returning data on its composition, winds and heat fluxes.[81]

Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander. The orange color is due to atmospheric scattering removing the blue wavelengths from the surface sunlight.

Four more Venera lander missions took place over the next four years, with Venera 11 and Venera 12 detecting Venusian electrical storms;[82] and Venera 13 and Venera 14, landing four days apart on March 1 and March 5, 1982, returning the first color photographs of the surface. All four missions deployed parachutes for braking in the upper atmosphere, but released them at altitudes of 50 km, the dense lower atmosphere providing enough friction to allow for an unaided soft landing. Both Venera 13 and 14 analyzed soil samples with an on-board X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and attempted to measure the compressibility of the soil with an impact probe.[82] Venera 14, though, had the misfortune to strike its own ejected camera lens cap and its probe failed to make contact with the soil.[82] The Venera program came to a close in October 1983 when Venera 15 and Venera 16 were placed in orbit to conduct mapping of the Venusian terrain with synthetic aperture radar.[83]

In 1985 the Soviet Union took advantage of the opportunity to combine missions to Venus and Comet Halley, which passed through the inner Solar System that year. En route to Halley, on June 11 and June 15, 1985 the two spacecraft of the Vega program each dropped a Venera-style probe (of which Vega 1's partially failed) and released a balloon-supported aerobot into the upper atmosphere. The balloons achieved an equilibrium altitude of around 53 km, where pressure and temperature are comparable to those at Earth's surface. They remained operational for around 46 hours, and discovered that the Venusian atmosphere was more turbulent than previously believed, and subject to high winds and powerful convection cells.[84][85]

Radar mapping

Magellan radar topographical map of Venus (false color)

The United States' Magellan probe was launched on May 4, 1989 with a mission to map the surface of Venus with radar.[20] The high-resolution images it obtained during its 4½ years of operation far surpassed all prior maps and were comparable to visible-light photographs of other planets. Magellan imaged over 98% of Venus's surface by radar and mapped 95% of its gravity field. In 1994, at the end of its mission, Magellan was deliberately sent to its destruction into the atmosphere of Venus in an effort to quantify its density. Venus was observed by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft during flybys on their respective missions to the outer planets, but Magellan would otherwise be the last dedicated mission to Venus for over a decade.[citation needed]

Current and future missions

The Venus Express probe was designed and built by the European Space Agency. Launched on November 9, 2005 by a Russian Soyuz-Fregat rocket procured through Starsem, it successfully assumed a polar orbit around Venus on April 11, 2006.[86] The probe is undertaking a detailed study of the Venusian atmosphere and clouds, and will also map the planet's plasma environment and surface characteristics, particularly temperatures. Its mission is intended to last a nominal 500 Earth days, or around two Venusian years.[86] One of the first results emerging from Venus Express is the discovery that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole of the planet.[86]

NASA's MESSENGER mission to Mercury performed two flybys of Venus in October 2006 and June 2007, in order to slow its trajectory for an eventual orbital insertion of Mercury in 2011. MESSENGER collected scientific data on both those flybys.[87] The European Space Agency (ESA) will also launch a mission to Mercury, called BepiColombo, which will perform two flybys of Venus in August 2013 before it reaches Mercury orbit in 2019.[88]

Artist's impression of a Stirling cooled Venus Rover devised by NASA.

Future missions to Venus are planned. Japan's aerospace body JAXA is planning to launch its Venus climate orbiter, PLANET-C, in 2010.[89] Under its New Frontiers Program, NASA has proposed a lander mission called the Venus In-Situ Explorer to land on Venus to study surface conditions and investigate the elemental and mineralogical features of the regolith. The probe would be equipped with a core sampler to drill into the surface and study pristine rock samples not weathered by the very harsh surface conditions. The Venera-D (Russian: Венера-Д) probe is a proposed Russian space probe to Venus, to be launched around 2016 with its goal to make remote-sensing observations around the planet Venus and deploying a lander, based on the Venera design, capable of surviving for a long duration on the planet's surface. Other proposed Venus exploration concepts include rovers, balloons, and airplanes.[90]

Manned Venus flyby

Main article: Manned Venus Flyby

A manned Venus flyby mission, using Apollo program hardware, was proposed in the late 1960s.[91] The mission was planned to launch in late October or early November 1973, and would have used a Saturn V to send three men to fly past Venus in a flight lasting approximately one year. The spacecraft would have passed approximately 5,000 kilometres from the surface of Venus about four months later.[91]

Colonization

Main article: Colonization of Venus

Due to the extremely hostile conditions on the surface, current technology disallows any possibility of colonizing the surface of Venus in the near future. However, there have been recent speculations about the possibility of developing extensive "floating cities" in the atmosphere of Venus in the future.[92] This concept is based on the atmospheric conditions approximately fifty kilometres above the surface of the planet, where atmospheric pressures and temperatures are thought to be similar to those of Earth. Proposals suggest that manned exploration can be conducted from aerostat vehicles, followed in the longer term by permanent settlements.[92] The existence of dangerous quantities of volatile acids at these heights, however, precludes any short term settlements.[92][93][dubious discuss] Landis[who?] has also suggested that should Venus be shielded from the Sun, then over time its atmospheric heat would be radiated into space resulting in the majority of the thick atmosphere eventually raining out onto the surface leaving a planet better suited for terraforming and eventual settlement.[citation needed]

Venus in human culture

Historic understanding

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The Mayan Dresden Codex, which calculates Venus's appearances

As one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been known since prehistoric times and as such has gained an entrenched position in human culture. It is described in Babylonian cuneiformic texts such as the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, which relates observations that possibly date from 1600 BC.[94] The Babylonians named the planet Ishtar (Sumerian Inanna), the personification of womanhood, and goddess of love.[95]

The Ancient Egyptians believed Venus to be two separate bodies and knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti.[96] Likewise, believing Venus to be two bodies, the Ancient Greeks called the morning star Φωσφόρος, Phosphoros (Latinized Phosphorus), the "Bringer of Light" or Ἐωσφόρος, Eosphoros (Latinized Eosphorus), the "Bringer of Dawn". The evening star they called Hesperos (Latinized Hesperus) (Ἓσπερος, the "star of the evening"). By Hellenistic times, the ancient Greeks realized the two were the same planet.[97] Hesperos would be translated into Latin as Vesper and Phosphoros as Lucifer ("Light Bearer"), a poetic term later used to refer to the fallen angel cast out of heaven.[b] The Romans would later name the planet in honor of their goddess of love, Venus,[98][dubious discuss] whereas the Greeks used the name of her Greek counterpart, Aphrodite (Phoenician Astarte).[99] Pliny the Elder (Natural History, ii,37) identified the planet Venus with Isis.[100]

Venus was important to the Maya civilization, who developed a religious calendar based in part upon its motions, and held the motions of Venus to determine the propitious time for events such as war. They named it Noh Ek', the Great Star, and Xux Ek', the Wasp Star. The Maya were aware of the planet's synodic period, and could compute it to within a hundredth part of a day.[101] The Maasai people named the planet Kileken, and have an oral tradition about it called The Orphan Boy.[102]

Venus is important in many Australian aboriginal cultures, such as that of the Yolngu people in Northern Australia. The Yolngu gather after sunset to await the rising of Venus, which they call Barnumbirr. As she approaches, in the early hours before dawn, she draws behind her a rope of light attached to the Earth, and along this rope, with the aid of a richly decorated "Morning Star Pole", the people are able to communicate with their dead loved ones, showing that they still love and remember them. Barnumbirr is also an important creator-spirit in the Dreaming, and "sang" much of the country into life.[103]

Shukra is the Sanskrit name for Venus

In western astrology, derived from its historical connotation with goddesses of femininity and love, Venus is held to influence desire and sexual fertility.[104] In Indian Vedic astrology, Venus is known as Shukra,[60] meaning "clear, pure" or "brightness, clearness" in Sanskrit. One of the nine Navagraha, it is held to affect wealth, pleasure and reproduction; it was the son of Bhrgu, preceptor of the Daityas, and guru of the Asuras.[59][105] Modern Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese cultures refer to the planet literally as the gold star (Chinese: 金星), based on the Five elements. The ancient Chinese called the star Tai Bai (太白) if sighted in the evening, and Qi Ming (启明) in the morning, and it is both a representation of an important Taoist deity and a symbol of war. Lakotan spirituality refers to Venus as the daybreak star, and associates it with the last stage of life and wisdom.

In the metaphysical system of Theosophy, it is believed that on the etheric plane of Venus there is a civilization hundreds of millions of years in advance of Earth’s[106] and it is also believed that the governing deity of Earth, Sanat Kumara, is from Venus. [107]

♀

The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: a circle with a small cross beneath.[108] The Venus symbol also represents femininity, and in Western alchemy stood for the metal copper.[108] Polished copper has been used for mirrors from antiquity, and the symbol for Venus has sometimes been understood to stand for the mirror of the goddess.[108]

Perhaps the strangest appearance of Venus in literature is as the harbinger of destruction in Immanuel Velikovsky's Worlds in Collision (1950). In this intensely controversial book, Velikovsky argued that many seemingly unbelievable stories in the Old Testament are actually true recollections of times when Venus nearly collided with the Earth - when it was still a comet and had not yet become the docile planet that we know today. He contended that Venus caused most of strange events of the Exodus. He cites legends in many other cultures (such as Greek, Mexican, Chinese and Indian) indicating that the effects of the near-collision were global. The scientific community rejected his wildly unorthodox book, however it became a bestseller.[109]

In science fiction

Main article: Venus in fiction

Venus's impenetrable cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface; all the more so when early observations showed that not only was it very similar in size to Earth, it possessed a substantial atmosphere. Closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet was frequently depicted as warmer, but still habitable by humans.[110] The genre reached its peak between the 1930s and 1950s, at a time when science had revealed some aspects of Venus, but not yet the harsh reality of its surface conditions.

In the 1930s, Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote the "sword-and-planet" style "Venus series", set on a fictionalized version of Venus known as Amtor. In Olaf Stapledon’s 1930 science fiction novel Last and First Men, humanity is forced to migrate to Venus hundreds of millions of years in the future when astronomical calculations show that the Moon will soon spiral down to crash into Earth. Stapledon describes Venus as being mostly ocean and having fierce tropical storms. The Venus of Robert Heinlein's Future History series was inspired by the chemist Svante Arrhenius's prediction of a steamy carboniferous swamp upon which the rain dripped incessantly. It probably inspired[citation needed] Henry Kuttner to the subsequent depiction given in his novel Fury. Ray Bradbury's short stories The Long Rain and All Summer in a Day also depicted Venus as a habitable planet with incessant rain.

Works such as C. S. Lewis's 1943 Perelandra or Isaac Asimov's 1954 Lucky Starr and the Oceans of Venus, drew from a vision of a Cambrian-like Venus covered by a near planet-wide ocean filled with exotic aquatic life.[110] In Germany, the Perry Rhodan novels also used the classical vision of a Cambrian Venus. The desert planet model of Venus, covered in clouds of polymeric formaldehyde dust, was never as popular, but featured in several notable stories, like Poul Anderson's The Big Rain (1954), and Frederick Pohl and Cyril M. Kornbluth's novel The Space Merchants (1953). Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be very different, and brought this particular genre to an end,[111] a passing which Brian Aldiss and Harry Harrison marked with their 1968 anthology Farewell Fantastic Venus.

As scientific knowledge of Venus advanced, so science fiction authors endeavored to keep pace, particularly by conjecturing human attempts to terraform Venus.[112] Arthur C. Clarke's 1997 novel 3001: The Final Odyssey, for example, postulates humans lowering Venus's temperature by steering cometary fragments to impact its surface. A terraformed Venus is the setting for a number of diverse works of fiction that have included Star Trek, Exosquad, the German language Mark Brandis series and the manga Venus Wars. In L. Neil Smith's Gallatin Universe novel The Venus Belt, Venus was broken apart by a massive man-made projectile to form a second asteroid belt suitable for commercial exploitation.

Notes

  1. ^ Goddesses such as Gaia and Terra were named after the Earth, and not vice versa.
  2. ^ Jerome translated Septuagint heosphoros and Hebrew helel as lucifer, in Isaiah 14:12.

References

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Awesome Moon and Venus View April 22

Written by Nancy Atkinson

The Moon and Venus on April 22, 2009.  Credit:  Ted Judah
Did you happen to catch the view of the crescent Moon and crescent Venus this morning? Ted Judah from Petaluma, California did, and what an incredible shot this is! Ted used a Canon 30d attached to an Orion 100mm aperture refractor, making it essentially a 900mm f/9 lens. Ted said this is about a 1 second exposure at 200 ISO speed. Click on the image (and then again) to see a larger version of this great image.

The duo should also be visible during the day today — just look around for the crescent Moon, and scan the sky around it for Venus. Venus is usually visible in broad daylight, but the trick is knowing where to look for it. Today, just look for the moon!

Thanks Ted, for sharing your photo. If anyone else was able to nab a photo of the Moon and Venus and would like to share it, either post a link in the comments below, or insert it the comments, or send it to me.

 Venus is just about to be covered by the moon! The sun was well up by this time, but I got the shot using my Nikon D50 attached to an Orion 5-inch Mak (1540mm focal length) using a 3x barlow. Photo by Paul Kinzer from Galesville, Wisconsin on 2009 April 22  near dawn.
 
 The image “http://spaceweather.com/submissions/pics/t/Tom-Polakis-3061122-crop3_1240504680.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
              CLOSEUP OF THE 2009 VENUS OCCULTATION BY TOM POLAKIS FROM TEMPE, ARIZONA
 
 NOTE HOW VENUS DRAMATICALLY CHANGES  ITS POSITION IN OUR SKY OVER THIS  EIGHT AND  A HALF MONTH PERIOD
 VENUS HAS BEEN CLOSER TO US THAN THESUN  SINCE 2008 DEC 4.
                      VENUS HAD BEEN BETTER VIEWED IN 2008 FROM THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE WHERE IT WAS  MUCH HIGHER IN ALTITUDE
NOW IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE IT IS OUR TIME TO WATCH VENUS DOMINATE THE EARLY EVENING SKY.

                                          THE VIEW BELOW  OF THE CHANGING POSITIONS OF VENUS IS  FOR CHICAGO
BY CURT RENZ.
                                                                USE THE SLIDE BAR BELOW THE DIAGRAM TO SEE THE ENTIRE WIDTH .



 
VENUS WILL BE OCCULTED (BLOCKED) BY THE MOON  AS SEEN IN THE WESTERN 70% OF THE US                                           ON 2009 APRIL 22.  DETAILS BELOW:

Occultation of Venus on 22 Apr 09



UNIVERSAL TIME OF DISAPPEARANCE & REAPPEARANCE
Occultation predictions of Venus        Magnitude -4.7
Date 2009 Apr 22

Moon: % illumination = 8-, Solar elongation = 33


Disappearance
U.T. Sun Moon CA PA WA a b
Location h m s Alt Alt Az o o o m/o m/o

1 BR Ciudad Acuna 12 15 23 0 23 100 -42S 119 142 +1.6 -0.2
2 CA Abbotsford 12 29 10 -6 7 94 -89S 72 95 +0.1 +1.7
3 CA Alert 13 43 1 18 10 176 -70S 92 114 +0.3 +0.2
4 CA Armstrong 12 52 30 19 30 127 -67S 95 117 +1.3 +1.3
5 CA Atikokan 12 46 49 16 29 123 -68S 93 116 +1.2 +1.4
6 CA Baker Lake 13 7 24 16 20 129 -82S 79 102 +0.6 +1.6
7 CA Brandon 12 40 31 10 22 114 -78S 83 106 +0.8 +1.7
8 CA Broughton Island 13 39 53 29 25 173 -56S 106 128 +1.2 +0.0
9 CA Buffalo Narrows 12 45 43 6 16 110 -87S 74 96 +0.5 +1.8
10 CA Burwash 12 50 57 -5 0 85 -84N 65 87 -0.1 +1.8
11 CA Calgary 12 34 51 0 13 102 -88S 74 96 +0.3 +1.8
12 CA Cambridge Bay 13 10 55 13 14 122 -87S 74 97 +0.4 +1.7
13 CA Campbell River 12 30 30 -7 5 92 -90N 71 93 +0.1 +1.7
14 CA Cape Dorset 13 24 4 26 26 154 -66S 96 118 +1.1 +0.8
15 CA Castlegar 12 30 34 -3 10 98 -88S 73 96 +0.2 +1.8
16 CA Chapleau 12 58 38 24 35 133 -54S 107 130 +2.0 +0.8
17 CA Chilliwack 12 29 27 -6 7 94 -89S 72 95 +0.1 +1.7
18 CA Churchill 12 59 56 16 23 127 -79S 83 105 +0.8 +1.6
19 CA Clyde River 13 36 2 26 22 167 -64S 97 120 +0.9 +0.4
20 CA Cold Lake 12 42 16 5 15 107 -88S 74 96 +0.4 +1.8
21 CA Comox 12 30 7 -7 5 92 -90N 71 94 +0.1 +1.7
22 CA Coppermine 13 5 16 8 11 111 -89N 70 93 +0.3 +1.8
23 CA Coral Harbour 12 32 53 -1 11 100 -88S 73 96 +0.3 +1.8
24 CA Coronation 12 37 33 3 14 104 -87S 74 97 +0.4 +1.8
25 CA Cranbrook 12 31 37 -2 11 99 -88S 74 96 +0.3 +1.8
26 CA Dauphin 12 42 25 10 22 115 -79S 82 105 +0.8 +1.7
27 CA Dawson 12 55 44 -3 1 86 -84N 65 87 -0.1 +1.8
28 CA Dawson Creek 12 41 38 0 9 99 -88N 69 91 +0.2 +1.8
29 CA Dease Lake 12 45 28 -4 4 92 -85N 66 88 +0.0 +1.8
30 CA Dryden 12 47 14 15 28 122 -71S 91 113 +1.1 +1.5
31 CA Earlton 13 6 39 27 38 139 -46S 116 139 +2.7 +0.2
32 CA Edmonton 12 39 26 2 13 104 -89S 72 95 +0.3 +1.8
33 CA Edson 12 38 33 0 11 101 -90N 71 94 +0.3 +1.8
34 CA Eskimo Point 13 3 43 17 22 129 -80S 82 104 +0.8 +1.6
35 CA Estevan 12 37 3 7 20 111 -80S 82 104 +0.7 +1.7
36 CA Eureka 13 34 9 17 11 149 -77S 85 107 +0.3 +1.1
37 CA Faro 12 52 17 -2 3 90 -84N 65 88 +0.0 +1.8
38 CA Flin Flon 12 47 22 10 20 116 -83S 79 101 +0.7 +1.7
39 CA Fort Chipewyan 12 49 52 6 14 109 -90S 72 94 +0.4 +1.8
40 CA Fort McMurray 12 45 56 5 15 108 -89S 72 95 +0.4 +1.8
41 CA Fort McPherson 13 1 48 1 4 92 -85N 66 89 +0.0 +1.8
42 CA Fort Nelson 12 46 56 0 8 98 -86N 67 90 +0.2 +1.8
43 CA Fort Resolution 12 53 27 6 13 108 -89N 70 93 +0.3 +1.8
44 CA Fort Saint John 12 42 26 0 9 99 -87N 69 91 +0.2 +1.8
45 CA Fort Simpson 12 52 37 3 9 101 -86N 67 90 +0.2 +1.9
46 CA Fort Smith 12 51 55 6 14 109 -90N 71 94 +0.4 +1.8
47 CA Geraldton 12 54 33 20 32 130 -63S 98 121 +1.5 +1.2
48 CA Gillam 12 55 36 16 24 125 -78S 83 106 +0.9 +1.6
49 CA Gjoa Haven 13 14 25 16 18 132 -82S 79 102 +0.5 +1.5
50 CA Gore Bay 12 59 8 25 37 133 -48S 113 136 +2.5 +0.4
51 CA Grande Prairie 12 40 53 0 10 100 -88N 70 92 +0.2 +1.8
52 CA Hall Beach 13 24 18 22 21 150 -73S 89 111 +0.8 +1.1
53 CA Hay River 12 52 12 5 12 106 -88N 69 92 +0.3 +1.9
54 CA High Level 12 47 41 3 11 103 -88N 69 92 +0.3 +1.9
55 CA Holman Island 13 10 1 8 10 110 -89N 71 93 +0.2 +1.8
56 CA Hudson Bay 12 43 40 9 20 114 -82S 79 102 +0.7 +1.7
57 CA Inuvik 13 3 28 2 4 93 -85N 66 89 +0.0 +1.8
58 CA Iqaluit 13 33 41 30 28 165 -55S 106 129 +1.4 +0.2
59 CA Kamloops 12 32 25 -4 8 96 -90S 71 94 +0.2 +1.8
60 CA Kapuskasing 13 1 39 24 35 136 -55S 106 129 +1.9 +0.8
61 CA Kelowna 12 31 18 -4 9 96 -89S 72 95 +0.2 +1.8
62 CA Kenora 12 45 25 14 26 120 -73S 89 111 +1.0 +1.5
63 CA Kindersley 12 37 31 4 16 106 -86S 76 98 +0.5 +1.8
64 CA Kuujjuararapik 13 15 1 28 33 147 -56S 105 128 +1.8 +0.7
65 CA La Grande Riviere 13 14 4 28 35 147 -53S 108 131 +2.0 +0.6
66 CA La Ronge 12 46 3 8 18 112 -85S 76 99 +0.6 +1.8
67 CA Lethbridge 12 32 37 0 13 102 -86S 75 98 +0.4 +1.8
68 CA Lloydminster 12 40 21 4 15 107 -87S 74 97 +0.4 +1.8
69 CA London 13 4 5 27 40 135 -34S 128 150 +4.7 -1.7
70 CA Lynn Lake 12 51 37 11 20 118 -83S 78 101 +0.7 +1.7
71 CA Matagami 13 12 24 29 38 144 -45S 116 139 +2.7 +0.1
72 CA Mayo 12 54 51 -2 3 89 -84N 65 88 +0.0 +1.8
73 CA Meadow Lake 12 42 32 6 16 109 -87S 75 97 +0.5 +1.8
74 CA Medicine Hat 12 34 9 2 15 104 -85S 76 98 +0.4 +1.8
75 CA Moose Jaw 12 37 17 6 19 109 -83S 79 101 +0.6 +1.7
76 CA Moosonee 13 6 47 26 35 140 -55S 107 129 +1.9 +0.8
77 CA Muskoka 13 9 34 29 41 140 -34S 128 150 +4.7 -1.7
78 CA Nakina 12 55 25 21 32 130 -63S 98 121 +1.5 +1.2
79 CA Nanaimo 12 29 1 -7 6 92 -90S 72 94 +0.1 +1.7
80 CA Nanisivik 13 26 48 20 17 148 -76S 85 108 +0.6 +1.2
81 CA Norman Wells 12 58 21 2 7 98 -85N 67 89 +0.1 +1.9
82 CA North Battleford 12 40 13 5 17 108 -86S 76 98 +0.5 +1.8
83 CA North Bay 13 8 0 28 39 140 -40S 121 144 +3.4 -0.4
84 CA Old Crow 13 2 8 -1 2 87 -84N 66 88 +0.0 +1.8
85 CA Pangnirtung 13 37 48 30 26 170 -56S 106 128 +1.3 +0.0
86 CA Peace River 12 43 9 1 11 102 -88N 70 92 +0.3 +1.8
87 CA Pelly Bay 13 17 53 19 19 139 -79S 83 105 +0.6 +1.4
88 CA Penticton 12 30 25 -4 9 96 -89S 73 95 +0.2 +1.8
89 CA Petawawa 13 18 49 31 42 145 -26S 136 159 +9.9 +9.9
90 CA Pickle Lake 12 52 27 18 29 127 -70S 92 115 +1.2 +1.4
91 CA Pitt Meadows 12 29 26 -6 7 93 -89S 72 95 +0.1 +1.7
92 CA Pond Inlet 13 30 29 22 19 156 -72S 89 112 +0.6 +0.9
93 CA Port Hardy 12 31 39 -8 4 90 -89N 70 93 +0.0 +1.7
94 CA Portage-La-Prairie 12 41 56 11 24 116 -77S 85 107 +0.9 +1.6
95 CA Prince Albert 12 42 20 7 18 111 -85S 77 99 +0.6 +1.8
96 CA Prince George 12 37 49 -3 8 96 -88N 69 92 +0.1 +1.8
97 CA Prince Pupert 12 37 58 -7 3 89 -86N 67 90 +0.0 +1.8
98 CA Princeton 12 30 13 -5 8 95 -89S 72 95 +0.2 +1.8
99 CA Quesnel 12 36 16 -3 8 95 -88N 69 92 +0.1 +1.8
100 CA Quujjuaq 13 34 25 33 34 165 -43S 118 141 +2.4 -0.6
101 CA Rankin Inlet 13 7 53 18 22 133 -79S 83 105 +0.8 +1.5
102 CA Red Deer Industrial 12 36 49 1 13 102 -88S 73 95 +0.3 +1.8
103 CA Regina 12 37 59 6 19 110 -82S 79 102 +0.6 +1.7
104 CA Repulse Bay 13 17 47 21 22 142 -76S 86 108 +0.8 +1.3
105 CA Resolute 13 23 58 16 14 137 -81S 80 103 +0.4 +1.4
106 CA Rocky Mountain House 12 36 54 1 12 102 -89S 72 95 +0.3 +1.8
107 CA Rouyn 13 9 29 28 38 142 -44S 118 140 +2.8 +0.0
108 CA Sachs Harbour 13 11 0 7 7 103 -88N 70 92 +0.1 +1.8
109 CA Sandspit 12 36 10 -8 2 88 -86N 68 90 +0.0 +1.7
110 CA Sarnia 12 59 36 25 39 132 -39S 123 145 +3.5 -0.6
111 CA Saskatoon 12 39 55 6 18 109 -85S 77 99 +0.5 +1.8
112 CA Sault Sainte Marie 12 55 13 22 35 131 -54S 108 130 +2.0 +0.8
113 CA Sioux Lookout 12 48 35 16 28 123 -70S 91 114 +1.2 +1.5
114 CA Slave Lake 12 42 12 2 12 103 -90N 71 94 +0.3 +1.8
115 CA Smithers 12 39 3 -5 5 92 -86N 68 90 +0.1 +1.8
116 CA Spence Bay 13 17 4 17 18 135 -81S 80 103 +0.6 +1.5
117 CA Sudbury 13 3 54 26 38 137 -45S 116 139 +2.7 +0.2
118 CA Swift Current 12 36 2 4 17 107 -84S 77 100 +0.5 +1.8
119 CA Terrace 12 38 20 -6 4 91 -86N 68 90 +0.0 +1.8
120 CA Teslin 12 48 35 -3 3 90 -84N 65 88 +0.0 +1.8
121 CA Thompson 12 52 4 13 22 121 -80S 81 104 +0.8 +1.7
122 CA Thunder Bay 12 49 21 18 31 125 -65S 97 119 +1.4 +1.3
123 CA Timmins 13 3 22 26 36 137 -51S 110 133 +2.2 +0.6
124 CA Tofino 12 28 57 -8 5 91 -90S 71 94 +0.1 +1.7
125 CA Toronto 13 12 37 29 42 140 -26S 136 158 +9.7 -6.5
126 CA Tuktoyaktuk 13 5 33 3 5 94 -86N 67 90 +0.0 +1.8
127 CA Val D'Or 13 12 43 30 39 144 -40S 122 144 +3.3 -0.5
128 CA Vancouver 12 29 21 -7 6 93 -89S 72 94 +0.1 +1.7
129 CA Vermillion 12 40 7 4 15 106 -88S 74 96 +0.4 +1.8
130 CA Victoria 12 28 23 -7 6 93 -89S 72 95 +0.1 +1.7
131 CA Waterloo 13 7 0 28 41 137 -32S 130 153 +5.5 -2.4
132 CA Watson Lake 12 48 38 -2 5 94 -85N 66 88 +0.1 +1.8
133 CA Whitecourt 12 39 47 1 12 102 -90N 71 94 +0.3 +1.8
134 CA Whitehorse 12 49 34 -4 2 88 -84N 65 88 +0.0 +1.8
135 CA Wiarton 13 2 59 26 39 135 -41S 121 144 +3.3 -0.3
136 CA Williams Lake 12 34 48 -4 8 95 -89N 70 93 +0.2 +1.8
137 CA Windsor 12 57 40 24 39 131 -39S 123 146 +3.6 -0.6
138 CA Winnipeg 12 43 17 12 25 117 -76S 86 108 +0.9 +1.6
139 CA Wrigley 12 54 56 3 8 100 -86N 67 90 +0.2 +1.9
140 CA Yellowknife 12 55 36 6 12 108 -88N 70 92 +0.3 +1.8
141 CA Yorkton 12 40 53 8 21 113 -81S 80 103 +0.7 +1.7
142 CF Yalinga 12 45 41 18 32 123 -60S 102 124 +1.6 +1.1
143 GL Jakobshavn 13 54 52 31 23 191 -44S 117 140 +1.3 -1.4
144 GL Sondrestrom 13 59 17 34 25 193 -35S 126 149 +1.8 -2.4
145 GL Thule 13 38 31 22 16 168 -69S 92 115 +0.5 +0.4
146 MX Chihuahua 12 9 3 -5 18 97 -48S 114 136 +1.0 +0.2
147 MX Ciudad Juarez 12 10 10 -5 17 97 -56S 105 128 +0.8 +0.7
148 MX Ciudad Obregon 12 5 40 -10 14 94 -47S 114 137 +0.7 +0.1
149 MX Culiacan 12 9 4 -8 17 95 -33S 129 152 +1.4 -1.6
150 MX Ensenada 12 5 19 7 91 -63S 98 121 +0.3 +0.9
151 MX Guaymas 12 5 4 -11 12 94 -50S 112 134 +0.6 +0.3
152 MX Hermosillo 12 5 27 -10 12 94 -53S 108 131 +0.6 +0.5
153 MX La Paz 12 6 34 -11 14 93 -34S 128 151 +1.1 -1.4
154 MX Loreto 12 4 34 -12 12 93 -44S 118 141 +0.7 -0.2
155 MX Los Mochis 12 6 32 -10 15 94 -40S 122 144 +1.0 -0.5
156 MX Mexicali 12 6 32 9 92 -64S 97 120 +0.3 +1.0
157 MX Monclova 12 16 11 -1 23 99 -32S 130 152 +2.3 -1.9
158 MX Nogales 12 6 55 -9 13 94 -59S 103 125 +0.5 +0.8
159 MX Nuevo Casas Grandes 12 8 10 -7 16 96 -55S 107 130 +0.7 +0.6
160 MX Nuevo Laredo 12 20 23 2 26 101 -29S 133 155 +3.2 -3.0
161 MX Piedras Negras 12 16 20 1 24 100 -39S 123 146 +1.8 -0.7
162 MX Punta Penasco 12 5 57 -11 10 93 -61S 101 123 +0.4 +0.9
163 MX San Filipe 12 5 7 9 92 -60S 101 124 +0.3 +0.8
164 MX San Jose Del Cabo 12 9 30 -10 15 93 -26S 136 159 +1.8 -3.8
165 MX Tijuana 12 5 58 7 91 -65S 97 119 +0.2 +1.0
166 MX Torreon 12 14 52 -3 22 98 -28S 133 156 +2.5 -3.0
167 NO Svalbard 14 12 35 20 5 262 -40S 122 145 +0.1 -3.4
168 US Abilene Tx 12 17 54 3 24 103 -50S 111 134 +1.4 +0.5
169 US Alamogordo Nm 12 11 29 -4 17 98 -59S 103 125 +0.8 +0.9
170 US Alice Tx 12 25 46 5 28 103 -23S 139 161 +6.5 -8.3
171 US Altus Ok 12 19 55 4 24 104 -55S 106 129 +1.3 +0.8
172 US Amarillo Tx 12 17 44 2 22 103 -60S 102 124 +1.0 +1.0
174 US Ardmore Ok 12 22 50 6 27 106 -51S 111 133 +1.5 +0.6
175 US Austin Tx 12 21 5 4 27 104 -39S 123 146 +2.2 -0.6
176 US Bakersfield Ca 12 8 54 6 91 -71S 90 113 +0.2 +1.2
177 US Barter Island Ak 13 6 54 0 1 85 -85N 67 89 -0.1 +1.8
178 US Baudette Mn 12 43 33 14 27 119 -72S 90 112 +1.1 +1.5
179 US Belleville Il 12 38 30 16 34 117 -48S 114 136 +2.2 +0.4
180 US Bellingham Wa 12 28 45 -6 7 93 -89S 72 95 +0.1 +1.7
181 US Blytheville Ar 12 37 57 15 35 115 -40S 122 144 +2.9 -0.4
182 US Boise Id 12 21 8 -6 10 96 -82S 79 102 +0.3 +1.6
183 US Bryan Tx 12 23 44 6 29 105 -37S 124 147 +2.4 -0.8
184 US Buckley Co 12 20 42 1 19 103 -71S 91 114 +0.7 +1.4
185 US Burbank Ca 12 7 27 6 91 -69S 93 115 +0.2 +1.1
186 US Calexico Ca 12 6 29 9 92 -65S 97 120 +0.3 +1.0
187 US Carlsbad Nm 12 12 34 -2 19 99 -56S 106 128 +0.9 +0.8
188 US Casper Wy 12 24 24 1 18 103 -76S 85 108 +0.6 +1.6
189 US Cedar City Ut 12 13 23 -7 12 96 -73S 89 111 +0.4 +1.4
190 US Cheyenne Wy 12 22 46 2 19 104 -73S 89 111 +0.7 +1.5
191 US Chicago Il 12 45 8 18 34 123 -53S 109 131 +2.0 +0.8
192 US Chico Ca 12 14 22 5 90 -79S 83 105 +0.1 +1.4
193 US Childress Tx 12 18 29 3 23 103 -56S 105 128 +1.2 +0.8
194 US China Ca 12 9 27 7 92 -71S 90 113 +0.2 +1.2
195 US Cincinnati Oh 12 54 15 23 40 126 -31S 130 153 +5.4 -2.5
197 US Cleveland Oh 13 4 31 27 41 133 -27S 134 157 +8.1 -4.9
198 US Clovis Nm 12 15 19 0 20 101 -60S 102 124 +0.9 +1.0
199 US College Station Tx 12 23 45 6 29 105 -37S 125 147 +2.5 -0.9
200 US Colorado Springs Co 12 19 24 0 19 102 -69S 92 115 +0.7 +1.4
201 US Conroe Tx 12 26 33 8 30 106 -32S 129 152 +3.3 -1.9
202 US Cotulla Tx 12 19 11 2 26 101 -34S 127 150 +2.4 -1.4
203 US Dalhart Tx 12 17 45 1 21 102 -62S 99 122 +0.9 +1.1
204 US Dallas Tx 12 22 29 6 27 106 -47S 115 138 +1.7 +0.2
205 US Dayton Oh 12 55 41 23 40 127 -32S 129 152 +5.0 -2.1
207 US Del Rio Tx 12 15 43 0 23 101 -42S 120 142 +1.6 -0.2
209 US Denver Co 12 20 59 1 19 103 -71S 91 113 +0.7 +1.4
210 US Deridder La 12 34 48 11 33 109 -24S 138 160 +8.1 -8.1
211 US Des Moines Ia 12 34 35 12 29 115 -61S 100 123 +1.4 +1.2
212 US Detroit Mi 12 56 26 24 39 130 -40S 122 144 +3.3 -0.4
213 US Duluth Mn 12 43 28 15 29 120 -67S 95 117 +1.3 +1.4
214 US Durango Co 12 15 7 -3 16 99 -69S 93 115 +0.6 +1.3
215 US Eagle Pass Tx 12 16 25 1 24 101 -39S 123 145 +1.8 -0.6
216 US Edwards Afb Ca 12 8 23 7 91 -70S 92 114 +0.2 +1.2
217 US El Centro Ca 12 6 37 8 92 -65S 97 119 +0.3 +1.0
218 US El Dorado Ks 12 31 6 11 32 110 -38S 124 146 +2.8 -0.7
219 US El Paso Tx 12 10 22 -5 17 98 -57S 105 127 +0.8 +0.8
220 US Enid Ok 12 23 9 6 26 107 -57S 104 127 +1.3 +0.9
222 US Fairfield Ca 12 12 16 4 90 -77S 85 107 +0.1 +1.4
223 US Fallon Nv 12 14 17 -10 7 92 -78S 84 106 +0.2 +1.4
224 US Farmington Nm 12 14 18 -4 16 98 -68S 93 116 +0.6 +1.3
225 US Fort Carson Co 12 19 11 0 19 102 -69S 93 115 +0.7 +1.3
226 US Fort Dodge Ia 12 35 5 12 28 115 -63S 98 121 +1.3 +1.3
227 US Fort Hood Tx 12 20 44 5 27 104 -43S 119 142 +1.9 -0.1
228 US Fort Huachuca Az 12 7 33 -8 13 95 -59S 102 125 +0.6 +0.8
229 US Fort Irwin Ca 12 9 9 -12 8 92 -70S 91 114 +0.3 +1.2
230 US Fort Knox Tn 12 50 11 21 39 123 -32S 130 152 +4.9 -2.2
231 US Fort Leavenworth Ks 12 30 21 10 28 112 -59S 103 125 +1.4 +1.1
232 US Fort Leonardwood Mo 12 33 22 13 31 114 -51S 111 133 +1.9 +0.6
233 US Fort Lewis Va 12 25 51 -8 6 93 -88S 74 96 +0.1 +1.7
234 US Fort Polk La 12 34 7 11 33 109 -25S 136 159 +6.6 -6.0
236 US Fort Riley Ks 12 27 33 8 27 110 -61S 101 123 +1.3 +1.1
237 US Fort Sill Ok 12 21 4 5 25 105 -54S 107 130 +1.3 +0.8
238 US Fort Smith Ar 12 27 51 9 30 109 -49S 113 135 +1.8 +0.5
239 US Fort Worth Tx 12 22 11 6 27 105 -47S 114 137 +1.7 +0.3
240 US Fort Worth Tx 12 21 34 5 27 105 -48S 114 137 +1.7 +0.3
242 US Fresno Ca 12 10 31 6 91 -74S 88 110 +0.1 +1.3
243 US Gage Ok 12 20 55 4 24 105 -60S 102 125 +1.1 +1.0
244 US Garden City Ca 12 21 43 4 23 105 -64S 98 120 +1.0 +1.2
245 US Grand Forks Nd 12 39 45 11 25 116 -74S 88 110 +1.0 +1.6
246 US Grand Rapids Mi 12 50 33 21 36 126 -48S 113 136 +2.4 +0.5
247 US Grandview Mo 12 30 15 10 29 112 -57S 104 127 +1.5 +1.0
248 US Grants Ca 12 12 35 -4 16 98 -65S 96 119 +0.6 +1.1
249 US Great Falls Mt 12 29 24 0 14 102 -84S 78 100 +0.4 +1.7
250 US Green Bay Wi 12 46 31 18 33 124 -57S 104 127 +1.8 +1.0
251 US Greenvile Tx 12 23 55 7 28 106 -46S 116 138 +1.9 +0.2
252 US Greenwood Ms 12 41 36 16 36 114 -26S 136 159 +7.6 -6.1
253 US Gwinn Mi 12 49 49 20 33 126 -59S 102 125 +1.7 +1.1
254 US Harrison Ar 12 30 33 11 31 111 -49S 112 135 +1.9 +0.5
255 US Havre Mt 12 31 57 2 16 104 -84S 78 100 +0.5 +1.7
256 US Hawthorne Ca 12 7 9 6 91 -68S 93 116 +0.2 +1.1
257 US Helena Mt 12 27 40 -1 14 101 -83S 78 101 +0.4 +1.7
258 US Hibbing Mn 12 43 23 15 28 120 -68S 93 116 +1.2 +1.4
259 US Hobart Ok 12 20 28 4 25 105 -56S 106 128 +1.3 +0.8
260 US Hobbs Nm 12 13 50 -1 20 100 -56S 106 128 +1.0 +0.8
261 US Hopkinsville Ky 12 45 38 19 37 119 -33S 128 151 +4.4 -1.8
262 US Houghton Lake Mi 12 53 21 22 36 129 -50S 112 134 +2.3 +0.6
263 US Houston Tx 12 27 51 8 30 106 -29S 132 155 +4.0 -3.0
264 US Huron Sd 12 33 12 9 25 112 -71S 91 113 +1.0 +1.5
265 US Imperial Ca 12 6 39 9 92 -65S 97 119 +0.3 +1.0
266 US Indian Springs Ca 12 11 5 -10 9 93 -72S 89 112 +0.3 +1.3
267 US Indianapolis In 12 47 43 20 37 123 -42S 120 143 +3.0 -0.2
268 US Intl Falls Mn 12 44 35 15 28 120 -70S 91 114 +1.1 +1.5
269 US Jackson Tn 12 41 28 17 36 117 -34S 127 150 +3.9 -1.5
270 US Jonesboro Ar 12 36 0 14 34 114 -42S 120 143 +2.7 -0.2
271 US Juneau Ak 12 45 20 -6 2 88 -84N 66 88 +0.0 +1.8
272 US Kankakee Il 12 44 15 18 35 122 -50S 112 135 +2.2 +0.6
273 US Kansas City Mo 12 30 32 10 28 112 -59S 103 126 +1.4 +1.1
274 US Killeen Tx 12 20 31 4 27 104 -43S 119 142 +1.9 -0.1
275 US Kirtland Nm 12 13 19 -3 17 99 -64S 97 120 +0.7 +1.1
276 US Knobnoster Mo 12 31 40 11 30 113 -56S 106 129 +1.6 +0.9
277 US Lansing Mi 12 52 50 22 37 128 -46S 116 138 +2.6 +0.3
278 US Laredo Tx 12 20 23 2 26 101 -29S 133 155 +3.1 -2.9
279 US Las Vegas Nv 12 10 50 -10 10 94 -71S 90 113 +0.3 +1.3
280 US Lemoore Ca 12 9 55 5 91 -73S 88 111 +0.1 +1.3
281 US Lincoln Ne 12 29 43 9 26 111 -64S 97 120 +1.2 +1.3
282 US Little Rock Ar 12 32 11 12 32 112 -42S 119 142 +2.5 -0.1
283 US Lompoc Ca 12 7 50 5 90 -70S 91 114 +0.1 +1.2
284 US Long Beach Ca 12 7 4 6 91 -68S 94 116 +0.2 +1.1
285 US Longview Tx 12 26 45 9 30 107 -40S 122 144 +2.4 -0.4
286 US Los Angeles Ca 12 7 9 6 91 -68S 93 116 +0.2 +1.1
287 US Louisville Ky 12 51 0 21 39 124 -32S 129 152 +4.9 -2.1
288 US Lubbock Tx 12 16 5 1 22 102 -56S 105 128 +1.1 +0.8
289 US Lufkin Tx 12 27 23 8 31 107 -35S 127 149 +2.9 -1.3
290 US Madison Wi 12 43 1 17 33 121 -57S 105 127 +1.7 +1.0
291 US Marquette Il 12 49 46 19 33 126 -60S 102 124 +1.7 +1.1
292 US McAlester Ok 12 25 9 8 28 108 -50S 111 134 +1.7 +0.6
293 US Memphis Tn 12 38 19 15 35 115 -36S 126 148 +3.4 -1.1
294 US Midland Tx 12 14 28 0 21 101 -53S 109 132 +1.1 +0.6
295 US Millington Tn 12 38 24 15 35 115 -37S 125 147 +3.3 -0.9
296 US Milwaukee Wi 12 45 31 18 34 123 -54S 108 130 +1.9 +0.8
297 US Mineral Wells Tx 12 20 26 5 26 104 -49S 113 136 +1.6 +0.4
298 US Minneapolis Mn 12 39 26 14 29 118 -66S 96 119 +1.3 +1.3
299 US Minot Nd 12 36 56 8 22 112 -78S 84 106 +0.8 +1.7
300 US Miramar Ca 12 6 15 7 91 -66S 96 118 +0.2 +1.0
301 US Modesto Ca 12 11 30 5 90 -75S 86 109 +0.1 +1.3
302 US Monroe La 12 34 23 12 34 111 -31S 131 153 +4.3 -2.5
303 US Mount Clemens Mi 12 58 4 25 39 131 -40S 122 145 +3.4 -0.5
304 US Mountain Home Ca 12 20 24 -6 10 96 -81S 80 103 +0.3 +1.6
305 US Mountain View Ca 12 11 7 4 90 -75S 86 109 +0.1 +1.3
306 US Muskogee Ok 12 26 21 8 28 109 -52S 110 132 +1.6 +0.7
307 US Nogales Az 12 7 9 -9 13 95 -59S 102 125 +0.5 +0.8
308 US Oakland Ca 12 11 31 4 90 -76S 86 108 +0.1 +1.3
309 US Ogden Ut 12 18 49 -4 13 98 -77S 84 107 +0.4 +1.5
310 US Oklahoma City Ok 12 23 2 6 26 107 -54S 107 130 +1.4 +0.8
311 US Omaha Ne 12 31 5 10 27 112 -63S 98 121 +1.2 +1.3
312 US Ontario Ca 12 7 26 7 91 -68S 93 116 +0.2 +1.1
313 US Oscoda Mi 12 56 31 24 37 131 -47S 115 137 +2.6 +0.3
314 US Palm Springs Ca 12 7 28 8 92 -67S 94 117 +0.3 +1.1
315 US Palmdale Ca 12 8 0 7 91 -69S 92 115 +0.2 +1.2
316 US Pembina Nd 12 41 17 11 25 116 -75S 87 109 +0.9 +1.6
317 US Peru Il 12 48 11 20 37 124 -44S 118 140 +2.7 +0.1
318 US Phoenix Az 12 8 31 -9 12 94 -65S 97 119 +0.4 +1.1
319 US Pine Bluff Ar 12 33 3 12 33 112 -39S 122 145 +2.8 -0.5
320 US Point Mugu Ca 12 7 15 6 91 -69S 93 115 +0.2 +1.1
321 US Ponca City Ok 12 24 35 7 26 108 -57S 105 127 +1.4 +0.9
322 US Port Angeles Ca 12 27 34 -7 6 92 -89S 73 95 +0.1 +1.7
323 US Port Huron Mi 12 58 58 25 39 132 -39S 122 145 +3.5 -0.5
324 US Portland Or 12 23 20 -9 6 92 -86S 75 98 +0.1 +1.7
325 US Prescott Az 12 9 42 -9 12 95 -67S 94 117 +0.4 +1.2
326 US Princeton Mn 12 39 56 13 28 118 -67S 95 117 +1.2 +1.4
327 US Pueblo Nm 12 18 51 0 19 102 -68S 93 116 +0.8 +1.3
328 US Rancho Murieta Ca 12 12 40 5 91 -77S 85 107 +0.1 +1.4
329 US Rapid City Sd 12 28 40 5 21 107 -75S 86 109 +0.7 +1.6
330 US Red River Nd 12 39 33 11 25 115 -74S 88 110 +0.9 +1.6
331 US Reno Nv 12 14 12 -11 6 92 -78S 83 106 +0.2 +1.4
332 US Riverside Ca 12 7 18 7 92 -68S 94 116 +0.2 +1.1
333 US Robinson Ar 12 31 59 12 32 112 -43S 119 141 +2.4 -0.1
334 US Roswell Nm 12 13 11 -2 19 100 -59S 103 126 +0.9 +0.9
335 US Sacramento Ca 12 12 53 5 90 -77S 84 107 +0.1 +1.4
336 US Salt Lake City Ut 12 18 19 -4 13 98 -77S 85 107 +0.4 +1.5
337 US San Angelo Ca 12 16 19 1 23 102 -48S 113 136 +1.4 +0.3
338 US San Antonio Tx 12 19 48 3 26 103 -38S 124 146 +2.1 -0.8
339 US San Diego Ca 12 6 7 7 91 -65S 96 119 +0.2 +1.0
340 US San Francisco Ca 12 11 22 4 89 -76S 86 108 +0.1 +1.3
341 US San Jose Ca 12 11 3 4 90 -75S 86 109 +0.1 +1.3
342 US San Luis Ca 12 23 37 -9 6 92 -86S 75 98 +0.1 +1.7
343 US Sandusky Oh 12 59 42 25 40 131 -33S 128 151 +4.8 -1.7
344 US Santa Ana Ca 12 6 58 7 91 -67S 94 117 +0.2 +1.1
345 US Santa Fe Nm 12 14 19 -2 18 99 -65S 97 119 +0.7 +1.2
346 US Seattle Wa 12 26 31 -7 6 93 -88S 74 96 +0.1 +1.7
347 US Shreveport La 12 28 52 10 31 108 -38S 124 146 +2.7 -0.8
348 US Sioux City Ia 12 32 14 10 26 112 -66S 96 118 +1.2 +1.3
349 US Sitka Ak 12 43 2 -7 1 87 -85N 66 88 -0.1 +1.8
350 US Skagway Ak 12 47 20 -5 2 88 -84N 65 88 +0.0 +1.8
351 US Spokane Wa 12 27 49 -4 10 97 -87S 75 97 +0.2 +1.7
352 US St. Louis Mo 12 37 31 15 33 116 -50S 112 135 +2.1 +0.6
353 US Stockton Ca 12 11 50 5 90 -76S 86 108 +0.1 +1.4
354 US Tacoma Wa 12 25 57 -8 6 93 -88S 74 96 +0.1 +1.7
355 US Terre Haute In 12 44 55 19 36 121 -44S 118 140 +2.7 +0.1
356 US Texarkana Ar 12 28 9 10 31 109 -42S 119 142 +2.3 -0.1
357 US Tonopah Nv 12 12 23 -10 8 93 -75S 87 109 +0.2 +1.4
358 US Topeka Ks 12 28 52 9 28 111 -59S 102 125 +1.4 +1.1
359 US Tucson Az 12 7 45 -9 13 95 -61S 101 123 +0.5 +0.9
360 US Tucumcari Nm 12 15 53 0 20 101 -62S 100 122 +0.9 +1.1
361 US Tulsa Ok 12 25 53 8 28 108 -54S 108 130 +1.5 +0.8
362 US Tustin Ca 12 7 1 7 91 -68S 94 117 +0.2 +1.1
363 US Twenty Nine Palms Ca 12 8 2 -12 8 92 -68S 93 116 +0.3 +1.1
364 US Tyler Tx 12 25 12 8 29 107 -42S 120 142 +2.2 -0.2
365 US Victorville Ca 12 8 5 7 92 -69S 92 115 +0.2 +1.2
366 US Waco Tx 12 21 36 5 27 105 -43S 118 141 +1.9 -0.1
367 US Wendover Ut 12 17 26 -6 11 96 -78S 84 106 +0.3 +1.5
368 US West Chicago Il 12 44 0 18 34 122 -52S 109 132 +2.0 +0.8
369 US Whidbey Island Wa 12 28 0 -7 6 93 -89S 73 95 +0.1 +1.7
370 US White Sands Nm 12 10 47 -4 17 98 -58S 103 126 +0.8 +0.8
371 US Wichita Falls Tx 12 20 29 4 25 105 -53S 109 132 +1.4 +0.7
372 US Wichita Ks 12 25 9 7 26 108 -59S 102 125 +1.3 +1.0
373 US Williston Nd 12 34 51 6 20 109 -80S 82 104 +0.7 +1.7
374 US Wink Tx 12 13 16 -1 20 100 -53S 108 131 +1.1 +0.6
375 US Yuma Az 12 6 46 -12 9 93 -64S 97 120 +0.3 +1.0
376 US Zuni Pueblo Nm 12 11 58 -5 15 97 -66S 96 118 +0.6 +1.2


Reappearance
U.T. Sun Moon CA PA WA a b
Location h m s Alt Alt Az o o o m/o m/o

1 BR Ciudad Acuna 12 45 38 7 30 105 10S 172 195 -0.5 +3.9
2 CA Abbotsford 13 28 16 3 16 105 66S 227 250 +0.3 +2.0
3 CA Alert 14 34 48 19 10 189 49S 211 233 +0.1 +0.2
4 CA Armstrong 13 46 35 27 36 142 33S 194 217 +0.4 +2.2
5 CA Atikokan 13 42 6 25 36 137 35S 196 219 +0.4 +2.3
6 CA Baker Lake 14 8 16 22 24 145 55S 216 239 +0.5 +1.5
7 CA Brandon 13 40 27 19 31 128 47S 209 232 +0.5 +2.1
8 CA Broughton Island 14 24 45 32 25 185 27S 189 212 +0.2 +1.3
9 CA Buffalo Narrows 13 47 36 15 24 124 60S 222 245 +0.5 +1.9
10 CA Burwash 13 48 5 1 7 98 77S 239 261 +0.1 +1.9
11 CA Calgary 13 35 44 10 22 114 62S 224 246 +0.5 +2.0
12 CA Cambridge Bay 14 11 26 18 19 137 62S 224 247 +0.4 +1.5
13 CA Campbell River 13 29 14 1 14 103 68S 230 252 +0.3 +1.9
14 CA Cape Dorset 14 16 48 31 28 169 36S 197 220 +0.3 +1.4
15 CA Castlegar 13 30 33 6 20 110 63S 225 247 +0.4 +2.0
16 CA Chapleau 13 41 37 31 40 146 17S 179 202 -0.1 +2.8
17 CA Chilliwack 13 28 40 3 17 106 66S 227 250 +0.3 +2.0
18 CA Churchill 14 0 22 24 29 143 49S 210 233 +0.5 +1.7
19 CA Clyde River 14 26 52 29 22 181 37S 199 221 +0.3 +1.0
20 CA Cold Lake 13 43 57 14 23 121 61S 223 245 +0.5 +1.9
21 CA Comox 13 28 52 2 15 103 68S 229 252 +0.3 +2.0
22 CA Coppermine 14 5 45 14 16 126 68S 229 252 +0.3 +1.6
23 CA Coral Harbour 13 33 21 8 21 112 63S 224 247 +0.4 +2.0
24 CA Coronation 13 38 51 12 23 118 61S 222 245 +0.5 +2.0
25 CA Cranbrook 13 31 58 8 21 112 62S 224 246 +0.4 +2.0
26 CA Dauphin 13 42 51 20 30 129 49S 210 233 +0.5 +2.0
27 CA Dawson 13 53 2 2 7 99 77S 239 261 +0.1 +1.8
28 CA Dawson Creek 13 42 9 8 18 112 69S 230 253 +0.4 +1.9
29 CA Dease Lake 13 44 9 3 12 104 74S 236 258 +0.2 +1.9
30 CA Dryden 13 43 57 25 35 137 38S 199 222 +0.4 +2.2
31 CA Earlton 13 40 12 33 41 149 8S 170 192 -0.7 +3.4
32 CA Edmonton 13 40 46 11 22 117 63S 225 247 +0.5 +1.9
33 CA Edson 13 39 27 9 20 114 65S 227 249 +0.4 +1.9
34 CA Eskimo Point 14 4 15 24 27 145 51S 212 235 +0.5 +1.6
35 CA Estevan 13 37 25 17 29 124 50S 212 234 +0.5 +2.1
36 CA Eureka 14 29 27 19 12 163 55S 216 239 +0.2 +0.7
37 CA Faro 13 50 32 4 10 103 76S 237 260 +0.2 +1.9
38 CA Flin Flon 13 48 59 19 28 131 54S 215 238 +0.5 +1.9
39 CA Fort Chipewyan 13 51 40 14 22 123 64S 225 248 +0.5 +1.8
40 CA Fort McMurray 13 47 43 14 22 122 63S 225 247 +0.5 +1.9
41 CA Fort McPherson 13 59 51 6 9 105 75S 237 259 +0.2 +1.8
42 CA Fort Nelson 13 47 5 8 16 112 71S 233 255 +0.3 +1.9
43 CA Fort Resolution 13 54 53 13 20 123 66S 228 251 +0.4 +1.8
44 CA Fort Saint John 13 42 53 8 17 112 69S 231 253 +0.4 +1.9
45 CA Fort Simpson 13 52 58 10 16 115 71S 232 255 +0.3 +1.8
46 CA Fort Smith 13 53 32 14 21 124 65S 227 249 +0.5 +1.8
47 CA Geraldton 13 46 3 29 37 144 28S 190 213 +0.3 +2.3
48 CA Gillam 13 55 48 24 30 140 47S 209 232 +0.5 +1.8
49 CA Gjoa Haven 14 14 33 22 21 148 56S 218 241 +0.4 +1.3
50 CA Gore Bay 13 35 39 31 41 144 11S 172 195 -0.5 +3.2
51 CA Grande Prairie 13 41 35 8 18 113 68S 229 252 +0.4 +1.9
52 CA Hall Beach 14 20 41 27 23 165 46S 207 230 +0.4 +1.1
53 CA Hay River 13 53 24 12 19 120 68S 229 252 +0.4 +1.8
54 CA High Level 13 48 46 11 19 117 68S 229 252 +0.4 +1.9
55 CA Holman Island 14 9 45 13 14 125 69S 230 253 +0.3 +1.6
56 CA Hudson Bay 13 45 1 18 28 128 53S 214 237 +0.5 +2.0
57 CA Inuvik 14 1 42 7 10 107 75S 236 259 +0.2 +1.8
58 CA Iqaluit 14 18 18 34 29 178 25S 186 209 +0.2 +1.7
59 CA Kamloops 13 32 15 5 18 108 66S 228 250 +0.4 +2.0
60 CA Kapuskasing 13 45 48 31 39 149 19S 181 203 +0.0 +2.7
61 CA Kelowna 13 31 9 5 18 108 65S 226 249 +0.4 +2.0
62 CA Kenora 13 43 6 23 34 135 40S 202 224 +0.5 +2.1
63 CA Kindersley 13 38 54 13 25 120 58S 220 242 +0.5 +2.0
64 CA Kuujjuararapik 14 0 22 34 36 161 22S 183 206 +0.1 +2.3
65 CA La Grande Riviere 13 56 31 34 38 159 18S 180 202 +0.0 +2.5
66 CA La Ronge 13 47 58 17 26 127 57S 219 241 +0.5 +1.9
67 CA Lethbridge 13 33 21 10 23 114 60S 221 244 +0.5 +2.0
68 CA Lloydminster 13 41 57 13 24 120 60S 222 244 +0.5 +1.9
69 CA London 13 22 50 30 43 140 -5S 156 179 -2.6 +5.5
70 CA Lynn Lake 13 53 21 20 27 133 55S 216 239 +0.5 +1.8
71 CA Matagami 13 45 46 34 40 155 8S 170 192 -0.6 +3.3
72 CA Mayo 13 52 43 4 9 102 77S 238 261 +0.2 +1.8
73 CA Meadow Lake 13 44 19 15 25 123 60S 221 244 +0.5 +1.9
74 CA Medicine Hat 13 35 8 12 24 117 58S 220 243 +0.5 +2.0
75 CA Moose Jaw 13 38 24 15 27 122 54S 215 238 +0.5 +2.0
76 CA Moosonee 13 50 39 33 39 153 19S 181 203 +0.0 +2.6
77 CA Muskoka 13 28 27 32 43 145 -5S 157 179 -2.6 +5.4
78 CA Nakina 13 47 3 29 37 144 29S 190 213 +0.3 +2.3
79 CA Nanaimo 13 27 52 2 15 104 67S 228 251 +0.3 +2.0
80 CA Nanisivik 14 23 51 23 19 163 51S 213 235 +0.3 +1.0
81 CA Norman Wells 13 57 41 8 13 112 73S 235 257 +0.3 +1.8
82 CA North Battleford 13 41 50 14 25 122 58S 220 242 +0.5 +2.0
83 CA North Bay 13 34 41 33 42 148 2S 164 186 -1.3 +4.0
84 CA Old Crow 13 59 28 4 7 100 77S 238 261 +0.1 +1.8
85 CA Pangnirtung 14 22 30 33 27 183 26S 188 211 +0.2 +1.4
86 CA Peace River 13 44 9 10 19 115 67S 229 251 +0.4 +1.9
87 CA Pelly Bay 14 16 54 24 22 155 52S 214 236 +0.4 +1.2
88 CA Penticton 13 30 6 5 18 108 65S 226 249 +0.4 +2.0
89 CA Petawawa 13 26 35 33 42 148 -14S 148 171 +9.9 +9.9
90 CA Pickle Lake 13 48 31 27 35 141 36S 198 220 +0.4 +2.1
91 CA Pitt Meadows 13 28 33 3 16 105 66S 228 250 +0.3 +2.0
92 CA Pond Inlet 14 25 48 25 20 170 47S 208 231 +0.3 +0.9
93 CA Port Hardy 13 30 2 1 13 102 70S 231 254 +0.3 +1.9
94 CA Portage-La-Prairie 13 41 20 21 32 130 45S 207 229 +0.5 +2.1
95 CA Prince Albert 13 44 2 16 26 125 56S 218 240 +0.5 +1.9
96 CA Prince George 13 37 41 5 16 108 69S 231 253 +0.3 +1.9
97 CA Prince Pupert 13 36 11 1 11 101 73S 235 257 +0.2 +1.9
98 CA Princeton 13 29 47 4 18 107 65S 227 249 +0.4 +2.0
99 CA Quesnel 13 36 5 5 16 108 69S 230 253 +0.3 +1.9
100 CA Quujjuaq 14 6 21 37 35 174 9S 171 194 -0.4 +2.9
101 CA Rankin Inlet 14 7 56 25 27 149 50S 212 234 +0.5 +1.5
102 CA Red Deer Industrial 13 37 54 10 22 115 63S 224 247 +0.5 +2.0
103 CA Regina 13 39 2 16 28 123 53S 215 237 +0.5 +2.0
104 CA Repulse Bay 14 15 53 26 25 158 48S 209 232 +0.4 +1.3
105 CA Resolute 14 22 16 20 16 152 58S 219 242 +0.3 +1.1
106 CA Rocky Mountain House 13 37 55 10 21 115 64S 225 248 +0.4 +2.0
107 CA Rouyn 13 41 8 33 41 151 6S 168 191 -0.8 +3.5
108 CA Sachs Harbour 14 9 50 11 11 117 71S 232 255 +0.2 +1.7
109 CA Sandspit 13 33 56 -1 11 100 73S 235 257 +0.2 +1.9
110 CA Sarnia 13 24 42 30 42 139 0S 162 185 -1.5 +4.4
111 CA Saskatoon 13 41 28 15 26 123 56S 218 241 +0.5 +2.0
112 CA Sault Sainte Marie 13 37 57 30 40 143 17S 179 201 -0.1 +2.9
113 CA Sioux Lookout 13 44 55 25 35 138 37S 199 221 +0.4 +2.2
114 CA Slave Lake 13 43 29 11 21 117 65S 227 249 +0.4 +1.9
115 CA Smithers 13 38 2 3 13 105 72S 233 256 +0.3 +1.9
116 CA Spence Bay 14 16 39 22 21 151 55S 217 239 +0.4 +1.3
117 CA Sudbury 13 37 11 32 41 147 8S 169 192 -0.7 +3.4
118 CA Swift Current 13 37 12 14 26 120 56S 217 240 +0.5 +2.0
119 CA Terrace 13 36 59 2 13 103 72S 234 256 +0.3 +1.9
120 CA Teslin 13 46 51 3 10 103 76S 237 260 +0.2 +1.9
121 CA Thompson 13 53 7 22 29 136 50S 212 235 +0.5 +1.8
122 CA Thunder Bay 13 42 1 27 37 139 30S 192 215 +0.3 +2.4
123 CA Timmins 13 43 25 32 40 149 14S 176 199 -0.2 +2.9
124 CA Tofino 13 27 23 1 14 102 68S 229 252 +0.3 +2.0
125 CA Toronto 13 20 48 31 43 142 -13S 148 171 +9.9 +9.9
126 CA Tuktoyaktuk 14 3 49 7 10 108 74S 236 258 +0.2 +1.8
127 CA Val D'Or 13 39 20 34 41 152 2S 164 186 -1.2 +4.0
128 CA Vancouver 13 28 21 2 16 105 67S 228 251 +0.3 +2.0
129 CA Vermillion 13 41 39 13 23 119 61S 222 245 +0.5 +1.9
130 CA Victoria 13 27 12 2 16 104 66S 228 250 +0.3 +2.0
131 CA Waterloo 13 22 48 31 43 141 -8S 154 177 -3.4 +6.2
132 CA Watson Lake 13 47 38 5 12 106 74S 236 258 +0.3 +1.9
133 CA Whitecourt 13 40 50 10 20 115 65S 227 249 +0.4 +1.9
134 CA Whitehorse 13 47 25 2 9 101 76S 238 260 +0.2 +1.9
135 CA Wiarton 13 30 16 31 42 143 2S 164 187 -1.2 +4.0
136 CA Williams Lake 13 34 36 5 17 108 68S 230 252 +0.4 +1.9
137 CA Windsor 13 22 31 29 42 137 0S 162 184 -1.5 +4.4
138 CA Winnipeg 13 42 19 22 32 132 44S 205 228 +0.5 +2.1
139 CA Wrigley 13 54 53 9 15 114 72S 234 256 +0.3 +1.8
140 CA Yellowknife 13 56 51 13 19 123 67S 229 251 +0.4 +1.8
141 CA Yorkton 13 41 52 18 29 127 51S 213 236 +0.5 +2.0
142 CF Yalinga 13 34 5 26 39 135 24S 186 209 +0.2 +2.6
143 GL Jakobshavn 14 28 38 32 22 200 17S 179 201 +0.0 +1.7
144 GL Sondrestrom 14 23 50 35 25 199 7S 169 191 -0.4 +2.8
145 GL Thule 14 31 20 24 16 182 45S 207 229 +0.3 +0.6
146 MX Chihuahua 12 44 46 2 25 101 18S 180 203 -0.1 +3.4
147 MX Ciudad Juarez 12 53 49 4 26 104 27S 189 211 +0.1 +2.9
148 MX Ciudad Obregon 12 40 46 -2 21 98 20S 181 204 -0.1 +3.3
149 MX Culiacan 12 29 37 -3 21 97 4S 166 189 -0.8 +5.0
150 MX Ensenada 12 52 44 -4 17 98 38S 200 223 +0.2 +2.5
151 MX Guaymas 12 42 41 -3 21 98 23S 185 207 +0.0 +3.1
152 MX Hermosillo 12 46 5 -2 21 99 26S 188 211 +0.0 +3.0
153 MX La Paz 12 28 20 -6 18 95 7S 168 191 -0.6 +4.7
154 MX Loreto 12 36 18 -5 19 96 17S 179 201 -0.2 +3.5
155 MX Los Mochis 12 34 32 -4 21 97 12S 174 196 -0.3 +4.0
156 MX Mexicali 12 55 4 -3 19 99 39S 201 223 +0.2 +2.5
157 MX Monclova 12 35 9 4 28 102 0S 162 185 -1.3 +5.5
158 MX Nogales 12 52 10 0 22 101 32S 194 216 +0.1 +2.7
159 MX Nuevo Casas Grandes 12 50 8 2 25 102 26S 188 210 +0.1 +3.0
160 MX Nuevo Laredo 12 35 16 5 29 103 -4S 158 180 -2.1 +6.7
161 MX Piedras Negras 12 42 27 6 30 104 6S 168 191 -0.7 +4.4
162 MX Punta Penasco 12 52 5 -2 20 99 35S 196 219 +0.1 +2.6
163 MX San Filipe 12 50 48 -4 19 98 35S 197 219 +0.1 +2.6
164 MX San Jose Del Cabo 12 22 47 -7 18 95 -2S 160 183 -1.3 +7.1
165 MX Tijuana 12 54 30 -4 17 98 40S 202 225 +0.2 +2.4
166 MX Torreon 12 29 58 0 25 99 -2S 160 182 -1.6 +6.6
167 NO Svalbard 14 42 2 19 3 269 22S 183 206 +0.0 +0.5
168 US Abilene Tx 12 56 16 11 32 109 18S 179 202 -0.2 +3.3
169 US Alamogordo Nm 12 57 20 5 27 105 29S 191 214 +0.1 +2.8
170 US Alice Tx 12 32 43 6 30 104 -11S 151 174 +9.9 +9.9
171 US Altus Ok 13 3 18 13 33 112 23S 184 207 +0.0 +3.0
172 US Amarillo Tx 13 4 41 11 31 111 28S 190 212 +0.2 +2.8
173 US Anchorage Ak 13 47 14 -4 2 88 79S 240 263 +0.0 +1.8
174 US Ardmore Ok 13 2 6 14 35 113 17S 179 201 -0.2 +3.3
175 US Austin Tx 12 46 54 10 32 108 5S 167 189 -0.9 +4.5
176 US Bakersfield Ca 13 0 49 -4 17 99 47S 209 231 +0.2 +2.3
177 US Barter Island Ak 14 3 47 4 6 98 76S 238 260 +0.1 +1.8
178 US Baudette Mn 13 40 43 23 34 133 39S 201 223 +0.5 +2.2
179 US Belleville Il 13 14 21 23 40 125 11S 173 195 -0.5 +3.5
180 US Bellingham Wa 13 27 45 3 16 105 66S 227 250 +0.3 +2.0
181 US Blytheville Ar 13 4 22 21 39 121 3S 164 187 -1.2 +4.4
182 US Boise Id 13 19 24 4 20 106 57S 218 241 +0.4 +2.1
183 US Bryan Tx 12 48 2 11 34 109 3S 165 187 -1.1 +4.7
184 US Buckley Co 13 15 23 11 29 113 40S 202 225 +0.4 +2.4
185 US Burbank Ca 12 58 10 -4 17 98 45S 206 229 +0.2 +2.3
186 US Calexico Ca 12 55 6 -3 19 99 39S 201 224 +0.2 +2.5
187 US Carlsbad Nm 12 56 5 7 28 106 26S 187 210 +0.1 +3.0
188 US Casper Wy 13 22 5 12 28 115 47S 209 231 +0.4 +2.3
189 US Cedar City Ut 13 7 38 3 22 104 46S 208 231 +0.3 +2.3
190 US Cheyenne Wy 13 18 51 12 29 114 43S 204 227 +0.4 +2.4
191 US Chicago Il 13 26 25 26 40 133 16S 178 200 -0.2 +3.1
192 US Chico Ca 13 9 41 -3 15 99 56S 217 240 +0.2 +2.1
193 US Childress Tx 13 2 34 12 32 111 24S 186 208 +0.1 +3.0
194 US China Ca 13 1 43 -2 18 100 47S 208 231 +0.2 +2.3
195 US Cincinnati Oh 13 9 50 26 42 130 -8S 154 177 -3.4 +6.4
196 US Clear Mews Ak 13 52 54 -1 3 90 79S 240 263 +0.0 +1.8
197 US Cleveland Oh 13 14 34 28 43 136 -12S 150 172 -6.0 +8.8
198 US Clovis Nm 13 2 5 9 30 109 29S 190 213 +0.2 +2.8
199 US College Station Tx 12 47 21 11 34 109 2S 164 187 -1.1 +4.8
200 US Colorado Springs Co 13 13 17 11 29 112 39S 201 223 +0.4 +2.5
201 US Conroe Tx 12 44 55 11 34 109 -3S 159 182 -1.9 +5.8
202 US Cotulla Tx 12 40 11 7 30 105 1S 163 186 -1.2 +5.2
203 US Dalhart Tx 13 6 45 11 31 111 31S 193 215 +0.2 +2.7
204 US Dallas Tx 12 56 57 13 34 112 12S 174 197 -0.4 +3.6
205 US Dayton Oh 13 12 38 27 42 132 -7S 155 178 -3.0 +6.0
206 US Deadhorse Ak 14 3 38 3 4 94 77S 238 261 +0.0 +1.8
207 US Del Rio Tx 12 45 40 7 30 105 10S 172 194 -0.5 +4.0
208 US Delta Junction Ak 13 52 25 0 5 93 78S 240 262 +0.0 +1.8
209 US Denver Co 13 15 48 11 29 113 41S 202 225 +0.4 +2.4
210 US Deridder La 12 41 50 13 35 110 -12S 150 172 +9.9 +9.9
211 US Des Moines Ia 13 23 35 21 37 126 26S 188 211 +0.2 +2.7
212 US Detroit Mi 13 22 43 29 42 137 1S 163 186 -1.3 +4.2
213 US Duluth Mn 13 37 28 24 36 134 33S 194 217 +0.4 +2.4
214 US Durango Co 13 8 8 7 27 108 40S 202 224 +0.3 +2.5
215 US Eagle Pass Tx 12 42 46 6 30 104 6S 168 191 -0.7 +4.4
216 US Edwards Afb Ca 12 59 54 -3 17 99 46S 207 230 +0.2 +2.3
217 US El Centro Ca 12 55 27 -3 19 99 40S 201 224 +0.2 +2.5
218 US El Dorado Ks 12 55 26 16 37 115 2S 164 186 -1.3 +4.7
219 US El Paso Tx 12 54 26 4 26 104 27S 189 212 +0.1 +2.9
220 US Enid Ok 13 8 22 15 34 115 24S 186 208 +0.1 +3.0
221 US Fairbanks Ak 13 53 52 -1 4 91 79S 240 263 +0.0 +1.8
222 US Fairfield Ca 13 6 26 -4 15 98 54S 215 238 +0.2 +2.1
223 US Fallon Nv 13 9 44 0 18 102 53S 215 238 +0.3 +2.2
224 US Farmington Nm 13 6 59 6 26 107 40S 201 224 +0.3 +2.5
225 US Fort Carson Co 13 12 56 11 29 112 39S 200 223 +0.4 +2.5
226 US Fort Dodge Ia 13 26 10 21 36 126 29S 191 213 +0.3 +2.6
227 US Fort Hood Tx 12 51 12 11 33 109 9S 171 193 -0.6 +4.0
228 US Fort Huachuca Az 12 53 15 1 23 101 32S 194 216 +0.1 +2.7
229 US Fort Irwin Ca 13 1 3 -2 19 100 45S 207 229 +0.2 +2.3
230 US Fort Knox Tn 13 6 52 24 41 127 -7S 155 178 -3.0 +6.1
231 US Fort Leavenworth Ks 13 17 24 19 36 122 25S 186 209 +0.1 +2.8
232 US Fort Leonardwood Mo 13 12 26 20 38 122 15S 177 199 -0.3 +3.3
233 US Fort Lewis Va 13 24 20 2 16 104 64S 226 249 +0.3 +2.0
234 US Fort Polk La 12 43 17 13 35 111 -11S 151 174 +9.9 +9.9
235 US Fort Richardson Ak 13 47 24 -4 2 88 79S 240 263 +0.0 +1.8
236 US Fort Riley Ks 13 16 12 18 35 120 27S 189 212 +0.2 +2.8
237 US Fort Sill Ok 13 3 13 13 34 113 21S 183 205 +0.0 +3.1
238 US Fort Smith Ar 13 4 58 17 37 117 14S 176 198 -0.3 +3.5
239 US Fort Worth Tx 12 57 13 13 34 112 13S 175 197 -0.3 +3.6
240 US Fort Worth Tx 12 57 7 13 34 111 14S 175 198 -0.3 +3.6
241 US Fort Yukon Ak 13 57 10 2 5 95 78S 239 262 +0.1 +1.8
242 US Fresno Ca 13 3 41 -3 16 99 50S 212 234 +0.2 +2.2
243 US Gage Ok 13 7 59 13 33 114 27S 189 211 +0.2 +2.8
244 US Garden City Ca 13 12 18 14 32 115 32S 193 216 +0.3 +2.7
245 US Grand Forks Nd 13 37 45 21 33 129 42S 203 226 +0.5 +2.2
246 US Grand Rapids Mi 13 27 9 28 41 136 11S 173 195 -0.5 +3.3
247 US Grandview Mo 13 15 56 19 37 121 23S 184 207 +0.1 +2.9
248 US Grants Ca 13 3 7 6 26 106 37S 198 221 +0.3 +2.6
249 US Great Falls Mt 13 29 39 10 24 114 57S 218 241 +0.5 +2.1
250 US Green Bay Wi 13 32 19 27 39 136 21S 183 205 +0.0 +2.8
251 US Greenvile Tx 12 57 34 14 35 112 11S 173 196 -0.5 +3.7
252 US Greenwood Ms 12 50 25 17 38 116 -12S 150 173 +9.9 +9.9
253 US Gwinn Mi 13 37 28 28 39 139 23S 185 207 +0.1 +2.6
254 US Harrison Ar 13 7 43 19 38 119 13S 175 198 -0.3 +3.4
255 US Havre Mt 13 32 36 12 25 116 56S 218 240 +0.5 +2.1
256 US Hawthorne Ca 12 57 31 -4 17 98 44S 206 228 +0.2 +2.3
257 US Helena Mt 13 27 33 9 24 113 56S 218 241 +0.5 +2.1
258 US Hibbing Mn 13 38 27 24 36 134 35S 196 219 +0.4 +2.3
259 US Hobart Ok 13 4 17 13 33 113 23S 185 207 +0.0 +3.0
260 US Hobbs Nm 12 57 12 8 29 107 25S 186 209 +0.1 +3.0
261 US Hopkinsville Ky 13 3 51 22 41 124 -5S 157 179 -2.6 +5.8
262 US Houghton Lake Mi 13 31 31 29 41 139 12S 174 197 -0.4 +3.2
263 US Houston Tx 12 42 39 11 34 108 -6S 156 179 -2.6 +6.9
264 US Huron Sd 13 29 13 19 33 124 38S 200 223 +0.4 +2.4
265 US Imperial Ca 12 55 29 -3 19 99 40S 201 224 +0.2 +2.5
266 US Indian Springs Ca 13 4 17 0 20 102 47S 208 231 +0.3 +2.3
267 US Indianapolis In 13 16 5 26 41 130 3S 165 188 -1.1 +4.1
268 US Intl Falls Mn 13 40 52 24 35 134 37S 199 221 +0.4 +2.2
269 US Jackson Tn 13 1 8 21 40 121 -4S 158 181 -2.2 +5.5
270 US Jonesboro Ar 13 4 33 20 39 120 5S 166 189 -1.0 +4.2
271 US Juneau Ak 13 43 5 1 9 100 76S 237 260 +0.2 +1.9
272 US Kankakee Il 13 22 1 25 40 131 12S 174 197 -0.4 +3.3
273 US Kansas City Mo 13 17 14 19 37 122 24S 186 208 +0.1 +2.9
274 US Killeen Tx 12 50 59 11 33 109 9S 171 193 -0.6 +4.0
275 US Kirtland Nm 13 3 9 7 27 107 35S 196 219 +0.2 +2.6
276 US Knobnoster Mo 13 15 35 20 37 122 20S 182 205 +0.0 +3.0
277 US Lansing Mi 13 26 22 28 42 137 8S 170 192 -0.7 +3.6
278 US Laredo Tx 12 35 37 5 29 103 -4S 158 181 -2.0 +6.6
279 US Las Vegas Nv 13 3 40 0 20 102 46S 207 230 +0.3 +2.3
280 US Lemoore Ca 13 2 39 -4 16 99 49S 211 234 +0.2 +2.2
281 US Lincoln Ne 13 21 3 18 35 122 31S 192 215 +0.3 +2.6
282 US Little Rock Ar 13 1 31 18 38 117 6S 168 190 -0.9 +4.1
283 US Lompoc Ca 12 58 56 -5 15 97 47S 209 231 +0.2 +2.3
284 US Long Beach Ca 12 57 19 -4 17 98 44S 205 228 +0.2 +2.4
285 US Longview Tx 12 53 49 14 35 112 5S 167 189 -0.9 +4.3
286 US Los Angeles Ca 12 57 33 -4 17 98 44S 206 228 +0.2 +2.3
287 US Louisville Ky 13 7 53 25 41 128 -7S 155 178 -3.0 +6.1
288 US Lubbock Tx 13 0 11 10 31 109 25S 186 209 +0.1 +3.0
289 US Lufkin Tx 12 48 32 13 35 111 0S 161 184 -1.5 +5.2
290 US Madison Wi 13 28 30 25 39 132 21S 183 205 +0.0 +2.8
291 US Marquette Il 13 37 56 28 39 139 24S 186 208 +0.1 +2.6
292 US McAlester Ok 13 3 48 16 36 115 16S 178 200 -0.2 +3.4
293 US Memphis Tn 13 0 24 20 39 119 -1S 160 183 -1.7 +5.1
294 US Midland Tx 12 54 53 8 30 107 21S 183 205 +0.0 +3.2
295 US Millington Tn 13 1 31 20 39 120 0S 161 184 -1.6 +4.8
296 US Milwaukee Wi 13 28 0 26 40 134 17S 179 201 -0.1 +3.0
297 US Mineral Wells Tx 12 57 12 12 33 111 15S 177 199 -0.2 +3.5
298 US Minneapolis Mn 13 32 21 23 36 130 31S 193 216 +0.3 +2.5
299 US Minot Nd 13 36 36 18 30 125 47S 209 232 +0.5 +2.1
300 US Miramar Ca 12 55 15 -4 17 98 41S 203 225 +0.2 +2.4
301 US Modesto Ca 13 5 15 -3 16 99 52S 214 236 +0.2 +2.2
302 US Monroe La 12 50 38 16 37 114 -6S 156 179 -2.7 +6.5
303 US Mount Clemens Mi 13 23 44 29 42 138 1S 163 185 -1.4 +4.3
304 US Mountain Home Ca 13 18 26 4 21 106 56S 217 240 +0.4 +2.1
305 US Mountain View Ca 13 4 33 -5 15 98 52S 214 237 +0.2 +2.2
306 US Muskogee Ok 13 6 16 16 36 116 17S 179 201 -0.2 +3.3
307 US Nogales Az 12 52 42 0 22 101 32S 194 216 +0.1 +2.7
308 US Oakland Ca 13 5 11 -4 15 98 53S 215 237 +0.2 +2.1
309 US Ogden Ut 13 15 45 6 24 108 50S 212 234 +0.4 +2.2
310 US Oklahoma City Ok 13 5 33 15 34 114 21S 182 205 +0.0 +3.1
311 US Omaha Ne 13 21 58 19 36 123 30S 191 214 +0.3 +2.6
312 US Ontario Ca 12 58 0 -3 17 99 44S 205 228 +0.2 +2.4
313 US Oscoda Mi 13 31 29 30 42 141 9S 171 193 -0.6 +3.4
314 US Palm Springs Ca 12 57 42 -3 18 99 42S 204 227 +0.2 +2.4
315 US Palmdale Ca 12 59 13 -3 17 99 45S 207 229 +0.2 +2.3
316 US Pembina Nd 13 39 53 21 33 130 43S 204 227 +0.5 +2.1
317 US Peru Il 13 19 39 26 41 132 6S 168 190 -0.8 +3.8
318 US Phoenix Az 12 57 52 1 22 102 38S 200 222 +0.2 +2.5
319 US Pine Bluff Ar 12 58 49 18 38 117 3S 164 187 -1.2 +4.5
320 US Point Mugu Ca 12 57 48 -5 16 98 45S 207 229 +0.2 +2.3
321 US Ponca City Ok 13 9 34 16 35 116 23S 185 207 +0.1 +3.0
322 US Port Angeles Ca 13 26 11 2 16 104 66S 227 250 +0.3 +2.0
323 US Port Huron Mi 13 24 34 30 42 139 1S 163 185 -1.4 +4.3
324 US Portland Or 13 21 21 1 16 103 63S 225 247 +0.3 +2.0
325 US Prescott Az 13 0 38 1 22 102 40S 202 225 +0.3 +2.5
326 US Princeton Mn 13 33 53 23 36 131 33S 195 217 +0.4 +2.4
327 US Pueblo Nm 13 12 2 11 29 112 38S 199 222 +0.3 +2.5
328 US Rancho Murieta Ca 13 7 6 -3 16 99 53S 215 238 +0.2 +2.1
329 US Rapid City Sd 13 26 25 15 30 119 45S 206 229 +0.5 +2.3
330 US Red River Nd 13 37 40 21 33 129 42S 204 226 +0.5 +2.2
331 US Reno Nv 13 9 37 -1 17 101 54S 216 238 +0.3 +2.1
332 US Riverside Ca 12 57 40 -3 18 99 43S 205 227 +0.2 +2.4
333 US Robinson Ar 13 2 10 18 38 118 7S 168 191 -0.8 +4.0
334 US Roswell Nm 12 58 50 7 28 107 28S 190 212 +0.1 +2.9
335 US Sacramento Ca 13 7 25 -3 16 99 54S 216 238 +0.2 +2.1
336 US Salt Lake City Ut 13 15 1 6 24 108 50S 211 234 +0.4 +2.2
337 US San Angelo Ca 12 52 53 9 31 107 16S 178 200 -0.2 +3.5
338 US San Antonio Tx 12 44 42 9 32 106 4S 166 189 -0.9 +4.6
339 US San Diego Ca 12 54 55 -4 17 98 41S 202 225 +0.2 +2.4
340 US San Francisco Ca 13 4 56 -5 14 98 53S 215 237 +0.2 +2.1
341 US San Jose Ca 13 4 28 -4 15 98 52S 214 236 +0.2 +2.2
342 US San Luis Ca 13 21 38 1 16 103 63S 225 247 +0.3 +2.0
343 US Sandusky Oh 13 18 4 28 43 136 -6S 156 179 -2.7 +5.6
344 US Santa Ana Ca 12 57 3 -4 17 98 43S 205 227 +0.2 +2.4
345 US Santa Fe Nm 13 4 46 8 28 108 35S 197 219 +0.3 +2.6
346 US Seattle Wa 13 25 9 2 16 104 65S 226 249 +0.3 +2.0
347 US Shreveport La 12 53 3 15 36 113 2S 164 186 -1.2 +4.7
348 US Sioux City Ia 13 25 9 20 35 124 33S 194 217 +0.3 +2.5
349 US Sitka Ak 13 40 30 0 9 99 76S 237 260 +0.2 +1.9
350 US Skagway Ak 13 45 3 1 9 100 76S 238 260 +0.2 +1.9
351 US Spokane Wa 13 27 27 6 20 109 62S 223 246 +0.4 +2.0
352 US St. Louis Mo 13 15 11 22 39 125 13S 175 197 -0.4 +3.4
353 US Stockton Ca 13 5 46 -4 15 99 53S 214 237 +0.2 +2.2
354 US Tacoma Wa 13 24 29 2 16 104 64S 226 249 +0.3 +2.0
355 US Terre Haute In 13 16 3 25 41 129 6S 168 190 -0.8 +3.9
356 US Texarkana Ar 12 57 51 16 36 114 7S 168 191 -0.8 +4.1
357 US Tonopah Nv 13 6 43 0 19 102 50S 211 234 +0.3 +2.2
358 US Topeka Ks 13 16 8 18 36 120 25S 187 209 +0.1 +2.8
359 US Tucson Az 12 54 31 1 23 101 34S 195 218 +0.2 +2.7
360 US Tucumcari Nm 13 4 14 9 30 109 31S 193 215 +0.2 +2.7
361 US Tulsa Ok 13 7 58 16 36 117 19S 181 204 -0.1 +3.1
362 US Tustin Ca 12 57 8 -4 17 98 43S 205 227 +0.2 +2.4
363 US Twenty Nine Palms Ca 12 58 53 -2 19 100 43S 205 227 +0.2 +2.4
364 US Tyler Tx 12 54 26 14 35 112 7S 169 191 -0.7 +4.1
365 US Victorville Ca 12 59 17 -3 18 99 45S 206 229 +0.2 +2.3
366 US Waco Tx 12 52 44 12 33 110 9S 171 194 -0.6 +3.9
367 US Wendover Ut 13 14 4 4 22 106 51S 213 236 +0.4 +2.2
368 US West Chicago Il 13 24 54 26 40 132 16S 177 200 -0.2 +3.1
369 US Whidbey Island Wa 13 26 50 2 16 104 66S 227 250 +0.3 +2.0
370 US White Sands Nm 12 55 52 5 27 105 29S 190 213 +0.1 +2.8
371 US Wichita Falls Tx 13 1 11 13 33 112 19S 181 204 -0.1 +3.2
372 US Wichita Ks 13 12 13 16 35 117 26S 187 210 +0.1 +2.9
373 US Williston Nd 13 34 55 16 29 122 50S 211 234 +0.5 +2.1
374 US Wink Tx 12 54 26 7 29 106 22S 184 207 +0.0 +3.1
375 US Yuma Az 12 55 13 -2 20 100 38S 200 223 +0.2 +2.5
376 US Zuni Pueblo Nm 13 2 41 5 25 105 37S 199 222 +0.3 +2.5

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