Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby: Conception to birth
The one-celled organism transform into a human baby with remarkable capacities to adjust to life outside the womb.
The sperm and ovum that unite to form the new individual are uniquely suited for the task of reproduction
Periods of Prenatal Development: Zygote(1-2 weeks), Embryo(3-8 weeks),Fetus(9-12 weeks),Second(13-
24 weeks),Third(25-38 weeks).
Prenatal Environmental Influences: Teratogens refers to any envirnmental agent that causes damage
during the prenatal period. It depends on the following factors: Dose, heredity, age,other negative
influences :Prescripcion and nonprescriptions drugs, ilegal drugs, tobacco, alcohol,radiation, enviromental pollution, infectious disease, nutrition, emotional stress,RH factor incompatibility, maternal age.
Three stages of childbirth
Dilatation and effacement of the cervix: it last 12 to 14 hours with a first birth and 4 to 6 hour with later births. Contractions of the uterus become more frequent and powerful causing the uterine opening for the baby passage.
Delivery of the baby: This is much shorter, about 50 minutes for a fist birth and 20 minutes in later birth, strong contractions of the uterus. The mother pushes with the abdominal muscles; with each contraction she forces the baby down and out.
Delivery of the placenta: Labor comes to an end with a few final contractions and pushes this causes the placenta to speared from the wall of the uterus and be delivered in about 5 to 10 minutes.
Baby’s adaptation to labor and delivery.
Baby’s delivery seems dangerous because of the strong contraction. But the strong contractions make the stress hormones acts over the baby to prepare them sending blood to head and heart until the baby is able to breathe once the baby is delivered. The stress a hormone prepares the baby’s to breathe by causing the longs to absorb any remaining fluid.
Natural childbirth and home delivery
There are techniques to diminish pain and medical interventions. There are 3 activities suggested:
· Classes: Where the mother learn about anatomy and physiology of labor and delivery.
· Relaxation and breathing techniques: Practicing breathing exercise to control uterus contraction pain.
· Labor coach: the partner learns to help during childbirth remaining her to relax and breathe motivating her.
These techniques have a lot of benefits for the child and parents health supporting the baby to be healthy; therefore, parents would diminish concerns. Some concerns could be the parents stress leading to sickness, or babies not cared appropriately that can also lead them to acquire some disease or traumas. We should have in mind that childbirth always has to be managed by a professional to prevent any risk circumstance.
List common medical interventions during childbirth, circumstances that justify their use and any dangers associated with each.
Common Medical Interventions.
· Inadequate oxygen supply. It may cause brain damage.
· When the baby comes with the umbilical cord is wrapped around his or her neck. It may cause also a brain damage.
Risks associated with preterm versus and small-for-date births, along with factors that help infants who survive a traumatic.
Pretend infants are those born several weeks before the due date.
Risks: Although they are small they weight may still be appropriate, days on time spent in the uterus.
Small-for-date: babies are below their expected weight considering lengths of the pregnancy. Some small-for-day infants are actually full-term.
Risks: Others are pretend infants who are especially underweight.
Both types usually have more serious problems.
Factors that help infants who survive a traumatic birth recover
1. Special infant stimulation: intensively care nurseries preterm babies rock in suspended hammocks or are exposed to attractive mobile or a tape recording of a heartbeat soft music or the mother´s voice. Touch is very important also.
2. Training parents in infant’s care giving skills: teach them about the infants’ characteristics and promote care giving skills.
3. Very low birth weight, environmental advantages and long –term outcomes: these children relied on factors outside the family and within themselves to overcome stress.
Newborn baby’s reflexes and states of arousal.: sleep and crying baby.
A reflex is and inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation. Some reflexes have survival value.
A few reflexes form the basics for complex motor skills that will develop later.
Reflexes help parents and infants stabilizations gratifying interaction.
Most newborn reflects disappear during the first six month, due to gradual increase in voluntary control over behavior at the cerebral cortex develops.
State of arousal: Are the degrees of sleep and wakefulness.
Sleep: During irregular, or rapid-eye-movement (REM), sleep, brain-wave. Activity is remarkable similar to that of the waking stage. In contrast, during regular, or non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM), sleep, the body is almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing, and brain-wave activity are slow and even.
Observation of sleep of baby can help identify central nervous system abnormalities.
Crying: is the first way that babies communicate, letting parents know they need food, comfort or stimulation. Young infants usually cry because of physical needs. But babies may also cry in respond to temperature changes when undressed, a sudden noise or a painful stimulus.
There are two kinds of crying soothing cry infants and abnormal crying.
· Soothing cry infants: is when fiddling and the diaper changing do not work.
· Abnormal crying: The infant cry offers a clue to central nervous system distress. Some examples are colic.
Describe the newborn baby’s sensory capacities.
Touch: The sensitive to touch is well developing at birth and infants are highly sensitive to pain.
Taste: Newborns can distinguish several basic tastes.
Smell: Certain odor preferences are present at birth.
Hearing: Newborn infants can hear a wide variety of sounds and their sensitivity improves greatly.
Vision is the least-developed of the newborn baby´s sense. Visual structures in both the eye and the
brain are not yet fully formed. (Berk,86-87)
Typical changes in the family after the birth of a new baby.
Mothers begin to produce oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions; causes breasts to ” let down! Milk.
The first weeks are full of profound challenges. The mother needs to recuperate from childbirth and the father needs to support the mother in her recovery.
Other young siblings may feel jealous.
Stress of income.
INFANCY AND TODDLERHOOD
Cognitive, Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Piaget´s Cognitive Developmental Theory:
Schemes changes in two ways: trough adaptation: assimilation and accommodation and trough organization.
• Birth to 2 years, divided into six sensorimotor substage
1. Reflexive schemes ( birth – 1 month ). Newborn reflexes.
2. Primary circular reactions ( 1 -4 months ). Simple motor habits.
3. Secondary circular reactions (4 – 8 months). Actions aimed.
4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8 – 12 ). Ability to find.
5. Tertiary circular reactions (12 – 18 months ). Exploration objects.
6. Mental representation ( 18 months – 2 years ). Internal depictions.
Sensorimotor stage:The circular reaction provides a special means of adapting their first schemes.
- Repeating change behaviors : trough primary and secondary circular reaction, the bays try to repeat interesting events .
- Intentional Behavior: coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems. Object permanence.
- Mental Representation: internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate. Deferred imitation, make-believe play. (Berk,118-120)
Structure of the Information-Processing System: We hold information in three parts of the mental system for processing:
1. The sensory register, where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly.
2. Working o short-term, memory, we actively apply mental strategies as we work on a limited amount of information..
3. Long-term memory, our permanent knowledge base.
ATTENTION: During the first year, infants pay attention to novel events. During toddlerhood, children become capable of intentional behavior and sustained attention improves.
MEMORY: Operant conditioning research shows that infants’ memories increase dramatically during infancy and toddlerhood moving from highly context-dependent to increasingly context free. Habituation/recovery research confirms that infants do not need to be physically active to acquire and retain new information. Infants can engage in recall by the end of the first yea
CATEGORIZATION: By 6 months, infants can categorize based on two features. Earliest categories are perceptual, but by the second half of the first year, more categories are conceptual. (Berk,124-127)
Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development expands our understanding of early cognitive development. The zone proximal development refers to a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners. Social context contribute to cognitive development. Zone of proximal development tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help. (Berk, 128-129)
Theories of Language Development:
- The Behaviorist Perspective: Learned through operant conditioning and imitation.
- The Nativist Perspective: Inborn language biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language. An innate system that contains a universal grammar o set of rules common to all languages.
- The Integrationist: Perspective: Inner capacities and environment work together, social context is important.
Getting ready to talk: Baby say the first word and speaking their native tongue. They listen attentively to human speech, and than make speechlike sound.
First speech sounds: cooing and babbling.
Becoming a communicator: joint attention, give and take, preverbal gestures.
First Words: Underextension , Overextension
Two-Word Utterances:Most children show a steady, continuous increase in the rate of word learning through the preschool years. Telegraphic speech.
Toddlers first acquire “concrete pieces of language,” gradually generalizing to construct the word order and grammatical rules of their native tongue.
Individual difference in language development: Gender, temperament,
environment, language style, language delay.
Supporting early language :
Infants: Respond to coos and babbles, establish and respond to join attention, play social games.
Toddlers: Play makes believe together, have frequent conversations, read to toddlers often and talk about the books. (Berk,134-135)
Emotional and Social Development
Erikson´s Theory of Infant and Toddler Personality
Basic Trust versus Mistrust: First year. When the balance of care is sympathetic and loving, the psychological conflict is resolved on the positive side.
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt: Second year. The conflict is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices. (Berk,141-142)
Development of Basic Emotions
Basic emotions: Happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promotion survival.
-Happiness expressed first in blissful smiles and lather through exuberant laughter. Social smile appears around 3 o 4 months.
-Anger and Sadness. Newborn babies respond with generalized distress to a variety of unpleasant experiences. From 4 to 6 months into the second year, angry expressions increase in frequency and intensity.
-Fear.Like anger, fear rises during the second half of the first year.The most frequent expressions of fear is to unfamiliar adults, a respose called stranger anxiety. (Berk, 142-144)
Temperament and Development
The Structure of Temperament:
-The easy child: 40%, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, adapts easily to new experiences.
-The difficult child: 10%. Is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences and tends to react negatively and intensely.
-The slow to warm up child: 15%, is inactive, shows
mild, low key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative mood, and adjusts
slowly to new experiences.
The Goodness of Fit Model
Goodness of fit model: Describe how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes. Goodness of fit involves creating child rearing environments that recognize each child´s temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning. (Berk,146-147)
Bowlby´s Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Recognizes the infant´s emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival, is the most widely accepted view.
- Reattachment phase (birth to 6 weeks). Built in signals grasping, smiling, crying and gazing into the adult´s eyes.
- Attachment in the making. (6 weeks to 6-8 months). During this phase, infants respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger.
- Clear cut attachment phase. ( 6-8 months to 18 months – 2 years).Babies display separation anxiety, becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves. (Berk, 150-152)
Factors That Affect Attachment Security
- Opportunity For Attachment: The development of infants in an institution with a good caregiver child ratio and rich section of books and toys.
- Quality Of Caregiving: Sensitive caregiving responding promptly , consistently , and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully.
- Infant Characteristics: Because attachment is the result of a relationship between two partners, infant characteristics affect how easily it is established.
- Family Circumstances: We have seen that family conditions affect attachment security. For many employed women, handling two full time jobs work and motherhood is stressful.
- Parent´s Internal Working Models: Parents bring to the family context their own history of attachment experiences from which they construct internal working models that they apply to the bonds they establish with their babies. (Berk,154-156)
Physical , Cognitive, Emotional and Social Develoment in Early Childhood
The years from 2 to 6 are often called the play years aptly so, since play blossoms during this time and supports every aspect of development. Physical achievements of early childhood growth in body size and improvements in motor coordination.
Physical Development: A changing Body and Brain
Body Growth Slows :Shape becomes more streamlined.
Skeletal Growth Continues :New growth centers, lose baby teeth. Age 2 and 6.
Asynchronies: Brain, lymph nodes grow fastest. Between ages 2 and 6 , the brain increases from 70 % of its adult weight to 90%.
( Berk, 165 )
Influences on physical growth and health
Heredity and hormones, nutrition, infectious disease (immunization and malnutrition). Poor diet suppresses children's immune systems and makes them more susceptible to disease.
Childhood diseases have declined dramatically over the past half-century largely because of widespread immunization of infants and young children.
About 20% of American infants and toddlers are not fully immunized.
(Berk, 168 -169)
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of childhood mortality in industrialized nations.
Factors related to childhood injures
Accidental, suggests they are due to change and cannot be prevented. They occur within a complex ecological system of individual, family, community, and societal influences and we can do something about tem.
Individual Differences:Gender—boys are 1.5 times more likely to be injured than girls, and their injuries are more severe. Mothers judge the chances of preventing injury in sons to be lower a belief that might keep them from exercising proper controls. Temperament .
Poverty, low parental education.
More children in the home.
Societal conditions. International differences.
Preventing Childhood Injuries
Laws prevent many injuries by requiring car safety seats, child resistant caps on medicine bottles, flameproof clothing, and fencing around backyard swimming pool. Playgrounds, a common site of injury, can be covered with protective surfaces. Many parents and children still behave in ways that compromise safety. Safety seats—40% of North Americans don’t place their children in child safety seats and of those that do, 82% either install them or use them incorrectly. Parents expect small children to recall safety rules, rather than monitoring and controlling access to hazards.
( Berk. 170-171)
Gross- Motor Development: As children become steadier on their feet they arms and torsos are freed to experiment with new skill. Walking, running, catching, throwing, swinging, riding.
Fine-Motor Development: As a control of the hands and fingers improves. Self-help: dressing, eating, drawing.
Drawing progresses through the following skills: Scribbles: during 2nd year. First representational forms. Label already-made drawings: around age 3.Draw boundaries and people: 3–4 years. More Realistic Drawings: preschool to school age. Early Printing: Ages 4–6.
Individual Differences in Motor Skills: Wide individual difference exist in the ages at which children reach motor milestone. Body Build: Taller, longer limbed better at running and jumping.Sex : boys, better at power and force. Girls: fine motor skills, balance, foot movement.
( Berk, 171-173)
(Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s)
Piaget called these utterances egocentric speech, reflecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others.Piaget believed that cognitive development and certain social experiences eventually bring an end to egocentric speech.
Vygotsky disagreed whith Piaget´s conclusions. Because language helps children think about their mental activities and behavior and select courses of action, Vygotsky saw is as the foundation for all higher cognitive processes, including controlled attencion, deliberate memorization and recall, categorization, planning problem solving , and self-refletion. In Vygotsky´s view, children speak to themselves for self-directed.
Piaget called “egocentric speech”.
Vygotsky viewed as foundation for all higher cognitive processes
Helps guide behavior: Used more when tasks are difficult, after errors, or when confused.
Gradually becomes more silent: Children with learning and behavior problems use for longer.
Vygotsky´s theory says little about how basic motor, perceptual, attencion, memory, and problem-solving silks, contribute to socially transmitted higher cognitive processes.
A Vygotskyan classroom promotes assisted discovery, with teachers guiding children’s learning with explanations and verbal prompts. Peer collaboration is also emphasized.
Vygotsky’s theory has been challenged on the grounds that verbal communication is not the only way new information is mastered and because the theory says little about how basic motor, perception, attention, memory, and problem-solving skills contribute to higher cognitive processes.
Vygostsky saw make-believe play as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood. As childhood creative imaginary situations they learn to follow internal ideas and social rules rather than their immediate impulses.
Early Childhood Literacy and Young Children´s Mathematical Reasoning
Their active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences are called emergent literacy.
Provide literacy-rich homes and preschool environments.
Engage in interactive book reading.
Provide outings to libraries, museums, parks, zoos, and other community settings.
Point out letter-sound correspondences, play rhyming and other language-sound games, and read rhyming poems and stories.
Support children’s efforts at writing, especially narrative products.
Model literacy activities
Mathematical reasoning, like literacy, builds on informally acquired knowlwdge.
Ordinality :Relationships between quantities
Cardinality:Last number when counting is the total
Arithmetic Strategies:Min strategy
Vocabulary: The children build their vocabulary so quickly. Research shows that they can connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter, a process called fast-mapping.
Types of words: Children in many Western and nonWestern language communities fast-map labels for objects especially rapidly because these refer to concepts that are easy to perceive. Soon children adds verbs (go, run, broke), which require understandings of relationships between objects and actions.
Strategies for word learning: children adopt a mutual exclusivity bias, syntactic bootstrapping, inventing own words.
Grammar: children learning other languages adopt the word orders of the adult speech to which they are exposed.
Basic Rules: Overregulation: applying rules without appropriate
exceptions. Complex structures. Explaining grammatical development:
semantic bootstrapping, relying on word meanings to figure out grammatical rules.
Conversation: Besides acquiring vocabulary and grammar, children must learn to engage in effective and appropriate communication. This practical, social side of language is called pragmatics, and preschoolers make considerable headway in mastering it. Preschool children are skilled conversationalists. In face-to-face interaction.
Supporting Language Development in Early Childhood
Conversational give –and-take with adults, either at home or in preschool, is consistently related to language progress.
Recasts: Restructuring incorrect speech into correct form.
Expansions: elaborating on children’s speech.
Erikson´s Theory: Initiative versus Guilt
According to Erikson, once children have a sense of autonomy, they become less contrary than they were as toddlers. Their energies are freed for tackling the psychological conflict of the preschool years: initiative versus guilt.
Initiative: Eagerness to try new tasks, join activities with peers. Play permits trying out new skills. Act out highly visible occupations.
Guilt: Overly strict superego, or conscience, causing too much guilt.
Related to excessive threats, criticism, punishment from adults. (Brek,198)
Self-concept, the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
I-self:Includes the realization that the self is separate from the surrounding world; remains the same person over time; has a private, inner life, and controls own thoughts and actions.
Me-self:Consists of all qualities that make the self unique, including physical characteristics, psychological characteristics, and social characteristics.
Foundations of Self-Concept: Accordingly, rather than simply insisting on sharing parents and teachers can accept young children´s possessiveness as a sign of self-assertion and then encourage compromise.
Observable characteristics: appearance, possessions and behavior.
Typical emotions and attitudes. The richness of life-story narratives help children understands themselves. Asserting rights to objects helps define boundaries of self.
Emergence of Self-Esteem
Self-Esteem, the judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments.
Judgments we make about our own worth.Includes global appraisal and judgments of different aspects of self. Affects preschoolers’ initiative.
Understanding Emotion: Early in the preschool years, children refer to causes, consequences, and behavioral signs of emotion, and over time their understanding becomes more accurate and complex.
As preschooler’s age, they: Judge causes of emotions better, predict actions based on emotions, and help relieve others’ feelings.
Caregivers: Label and explain emotions, discuss feelings that highlight the emotional significance of events, scaffold emotional thought.
Siblings and Friends: Negotiate, act out emotions in play.
Emotional Self-Regulation: Language also contributes to preschoolers improved emotional self-regulation.
Language helps children to improve their ability to regulate their emotions.
Effortful control is vital in managing emotions in early childhood.
Temperament affects the development of emotional self-regulation.
Self-Conscious Emotions: Parents whose feedback labels the worth of the child and her performance have children who experience self-conscious emotions intensely more shame after failure, more improve performance induce moderate, more adaptive levels of shame and pride and greater persistence on difficult tasks.
Empathy: In early childhood, emotional capacity empathy, serves as an important motivator prosocial, or altruistic, behavior actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self.
Sympathy feelings of concern or sorrow for another´s plight.
Temperament plays a role in whether empathy prompts sympathetic, prosocial behavior or self-focused personal distress. Children that are sociable, assertive, and good at regulating emotion are more likely to help, share, and comfort others in distress.
As with emotional self-regulation, parenting affects empathy and sympathy.
As children become increasingly self-aware and better at communicating and understanding the thoughts and felling of others, their skill at interacting whith peers improves rapidly.
Advances in Peer Sociability: It begins with nonsocial activity, parallel play, associative play, cooperative play.
First Friend ships: As preschooler’s interac, first friendships form that serve as important contexts for emotional an social development. Someone who likes you, plays with you, and shares toys. friendships change frequently. friends more reinforcing, emotionally expressive than non-friends.social ability contributes to academic performance.
Parental influences on Early Peer Relations
Direct parental influences: Arrange informal peer activities. Guidance on how to act toward others.
Indirect parental influences: Secure attachment. Emotionally expressive, supportive communication. (Berk, 201-204)
Child Rearing and Emotional and Social Development
Styles of Child Rearing: are combination of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, crating an enduring child-rearing climate.
Authoritative child rearing: the most successful approach involves high acceptance, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting,
Authoritarian child rearing: is low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive and low autonomy granting.
Permissive child rearing: is warm and accepting but uninvolved.
Uninvolved child rearing: combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy.
What Makes Authoritative Child Rearing Effective?
Warm, involved parents provide models of caring concern as well as confident, self-controlled behavior.
Children are far more likely to comply with and internalize control that appears fair and reasonable.
Authoritative parents let children know that they are competent individuals, which fosters self-esteem and maturity.
Supportive aspects of the authoritative style including parental acceptance, involvement, and rational control, are powerful sources of resilience.
Cultural Variations: Although authoritative child rearing is broadly advantageous, ethnic groups often have distinct parenting belief and practice that reflect cultural value
Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
Physical Development: Physical growth during the school years continues at the slow , regular pace of early childhood. At age 6, the average North American child weighs about 45 pounds and is 3 ½ feet tall. Over the few years, children add about 2 to 3 inches in height and 5 pounds in weight each year.
Body growth in middle childhood: Slow regular pattern. Girls shorter and lighter until about age9. Lower portion of body growing fastest. Bones lengthen. Muscles very flexible. All permanent teeth arrive. (Berk, 225 )
Health Issues: Poverty continues to be a powerful predictor of ill health during the school year.
Nutrition: School-age children need a well-balance, plentiful diet to provide energy for learning and increased physical activity.
The causes of poor nutrition or malnutrition : Little focus on eating. Fewer meals with family. Too few fruits and vegetables. Too many fried foods and soft drinks. Poverty and lack of nutritional food.
The consequences of malnutrition: Myopia, Otitis media, Malnutrition, Obesity, Bedwetting, Illnesses, Injuries.
Causes of obesity in middle childhood: Overweight parents, early rapid growth or malnutrition, low SES, family eating habits, response to food cues, low physical activity, television.
Health and psychological risks for obese children: Blood pressure. Cholesterol, respiratory problems, diabetes, liver gall bladder. cancer and feeling unattractive, stereotyping and teasing, depression, problem behaviors, early puberty and sexual problems. (Berk, 225-228)
Illnesses: Children experience a somewhat higher rate of illness during the first two years of elementary school than later because of exposure to sick children and an immune system that is still developing. Chronic diseases 15-20%, asthma, severe illnesses 2%. Interventions that foster positive family relationships help parent and child cope with the disease and improve children`s adjustment. These include health education, counseling, social, support, and disease-specific summer camps. (Berk, 228)
Motor development and Play
Gross-Motor Development: During the school years, running, jumping, hopping, and ball skills become more refined.
Gross motor skills improvements: Flexibility, balance, agility, force.
Fine motor skills: Writing, drawing.
Individual differences in motor skills: Body build, sex, family encouragement expectations, SES, School community lessons available.
Physical play development: Child organized games with rules, sport, invented games, video games, adult organized sports, physical education.
Providing development: Build on children´s interests, emphasize enjoyment, let kids contribute. Teach age appropriate skills, limit practices. Discourage unhealthy competition, focus on personal and team improvement.
Sex differences: Girls have fine motor skills of handwriting and drawing, hopping and skipping, but boys outperform girls on all other grows motor skills and, in throwing and kicking, the gender gap is large. School age boy´s genetic advantage in muscle mass is not large enough to account for their gross motor superiority.
Physical Education: Physical activity supports many aspects of children´s development health, sense of self worth, and the cognitive and social skills necessary for getting along with others.
Piaget´s Theory: The Concrete Operational Stage about 7 to 11 years and marks a major turning point in cognitive development.
Conservation: Decentration, reversibility, the capacity to think through a series of steps and the mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Classification. Seriation (transitive inference). Spatial Reasoning (directions, maps).
Evaluation of the concrete operational stage: Attention, memory strategies ( rehearsal, organization, elaboration), The knowledge base and memory performance, culture and memory strategies, the school-age child´s theory of mind.
Cognitive Self-regulation, the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
Applications of information processing to academic learning: Fundamental discoveries about development of information processing have been applied to children´s learning of reading and mathematics.
Reading: Whole language approach, phonics approach, a combination of the two approaches, along with excellent teaching practices, shows the best results in literacy progress for 1st
Math: Number sense, drill, a blended approach is most beneficial.
Group Test: Allow testing large groups, require little training to administer, useful for instructional planning, identify students who need individual testing.
Individually administered test: Examiners need training experience (provide insights about accuracy of score). Identity highly intelligent and children with learning problems.
Recent Efforts to Define Intelligence
Sternberg´s triarchic theory of successful intelligence, identifies three broad, interacting intelligences : 1) analytical intelligence, or information-processing skills; 2) creative intelligence, the capacity to solve novel problems; and 3) practical intelligence, application of intellectual skills in everyday situations. Intelligent behavior involves balancing all three intelligences to achieve success in life according to one´s personal goals and the requirements of one´s cultural community.
Gardner´s theory of multiple intelligence, defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. Dismissing the idea of general intelligence, Gardner proposes at least eight indepent intelligences.
Multiple intelligences: Linguistic, logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, intrapersonal. (Berk, 240-242)
Explaining Differences in IQ
Genetics: Accounts for about half of differences.
Environment: SES, culture (communications styles, cultural bias in test content, stereotypes).
Language development: Vocabulary and grammar, pragmatics, learning two languages at a time: Bilingual development, bilingual education (Berk, 246-247)
Learning in School
Traditional vs. constructivist classrooms, in contrast, encourages students to construct their own knowledge.
New philosophical directions: social constructivist (reciprocal teaching, communities of learners).
Teacher – student interaction: Self fulfilling propheies.
Grouping practices (Berk,248-250)
Teaching children with special needs: Children with learning difficulties, gifted children (creative and talent), educating the gifted. (Berk. 250-252)
Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood
Erikson´s Theory: Industry versus Inferiority, which is resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks.
Industry: Developing a sense of competence at useful skills. School provides many opportunities.
Inferiority: Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well. Family environment, teachers, peers, can contribute to negative feelings. (Berk, 257)
Self-concept: More refined me-self (Social comparisons, emphasize competencies, both positive and negative).
Cognitive development affects structure of self-concept (Perspective taking).
Social cultural development affect content of self-concept (Real self vs. ideal self).
Self-Esteem: Hierarchically structures (Separate areas and general self-esteem), drops first few years in school, then rises.
Influences on self-steem: Culture, child-rearing practices, messages from adults, attributions ( Mastery oriented, learned helplessness).
Emotional Development :
Self-concious emotions: Pride, guilt.
Emotional Understanding: Explain using internal states, understand mixed emotions.
Emotional self-regulation: Motivated by self-esteem and peer approval, emotional self-efficacy. (Berk.257-261)
Social conventions, moral rules, personal matters (Berk,262-264)
Formed from proximity, similarity, adopt similar dress and behavior, peer culture ( Relational aggression, exclusion).
Peer Acceptance Categoties:
Popular (prosocial, antisocial), rejected (aggressive, withdrawn), controversial, neglected.
Gender Stereotypes, gender identity, cultural factors, gender identity and behavior.
Family relationships: Parents, siblings. (Berk, 267-269)
Maternal employment and child development:
Benefits: Higher self-esteem, positive family and peer relations, fewer fender stereotypes, better grades, more father involvement.
Drawbacks: Less time for children, risk of ineffective parenting. (Berk, 274)
Adolescence: the transition between childhood and adulthood.
Puberty: a flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity.
Conceptions of Adolescence
-Biological Perspective: Puberty, storm and stress, Freud genital stage.
-Social Perspective: Cultural influences.
-Balanced Point of View: Both biological and social influences.
Phases of Adolescence
-Early 11 or 12 to 14 years: Rapid pubertal changes.
-Middle 14 to 16 years: Puberty nearly complete.
-Late l6 to l8 years: Achieved adult appearance, assumes adult roles.
Puberty: The physical transition to adulthood
Hormonal changes in puberty:
Growth hormone Thyoxine (increase around ages 8 to 9 )
Estrogenens (adrenal estrogens)
Body Growth: The first outward sign of puberty is the rapid gain in height and weight know as the growth spurt.
-Body proportions: During the puberty, the cephalocaudal growth trend of infancy and childhood reverses.
-Muscle and fat makeup and other internal changes.
Motor Development and Physical Activity.
Primary sexual characteristics, involve the reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus, and vagina in females, penis, scrotum, and testes in males).
Secondary sexual characteristics: are visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity (breast development in females and the appearance of underarm and pubic hair in both sexes).
Sex differences in body growth in adolescence.
Growth spurt: Starts age 12 1/2 Starts age 10
Proportions: Shoulders broaden Hips broaden
Muscle – fat : Gain more muscle, Gain more fat
Primary sexual characteristics: Maturation of the reproductive organs.
-Girls: menarche -Boys: spermarche
Secondary sexual characteristics: Other visible parts of the body that signal sexual maturity.
-Girls: breasts Boys: facial, hair , voice change
Both: underarm, pubic hair. (Berk, 284-286)
Individual Differences in Timing of Puberty
Heredity, nutrition, exercise (body fat in girls), geographical location, SES, ethnic group, secular trend.
Brain Development in Adolescence
White matter increases, gray matter declines: Pruning continues, myelination speeds up, improved cognition.
Neurons more sensitive to neurotransmitters: Experiences are more intense, pleasure, novelty seeking, and taking drugs increases.
Sleep habits in adolescence: 9 hours of sleep needed (Go to bed later, sleep deprivation). (Berk, 286- 288)
The Psychological impact of Pubertal Events
-Reactions to pubertal changes vary: Culture plays a role ( Preparation, initiation ceremonies).
-Parent child conflict
Consequences of timing of puberty
Early maturing: BOYS: Popular, confident, independent, positive body image. Girls: Unpopular, withdrawn, low confidence, negative body image, more deviant behavior.
Late maturing: BOYS: Unpopular, anxious, talkative, attention seeking. Negative body image. GIRLS: Popular sociable, livery , positive body image.
Factors in reactions to timing of puberty:
Physical attractiveness body image, fitting with peers. Berk, 288-290)
-Calories need increase.
-Poor food choices common (Less fruit, vegetables, milk, breakfast, more soda, fast food).
-Iron, calcium, vitamin deficiencies common.
-Many try diets or being vegetarians.
-Anorexia nervosa: 1% affected, starve out fear of getting fat, abnormalities on neurotransmitters in the brain may make some individuals more susceptible.
-Bulimia nervosa: Strict diet and exercise binge and purge, 2 to 4 % affected.
The impact of Culture
-Sexual attitudes in North America are relatively restrictive.
-Parents give limited information about sex.
-Most learn about sex from friends, books, magazines, movies, T:V: and the internet.
Characteristics of sexually active adolescents
-Recent decline in sexual activity
-Yet, a substantial percentage sexually active: Males start earlier than females, few partners, American youths begin sexual activity at younger age.
-Personal: Early puberty, tendency to violate norms, little religious involvement.
-Family : Step, single parent, or large family, weak parental monitoring, parent child communication.
-Peer: Sexually active friends or siblings.
-Educational: Poor school performance , low educational goals.
Adolescent Contraceptive Use
-Recent increase in contraceptive use.
-Still, 20% American, 13% Canadian do not use.
-Reason for not using: Concern about image, adolescents risk taking, social environment, forced intercourse.
-About 2 to 3% of young people identify as lesbians, gay or bisexual.
-An unknown number who experience same sex attraction have not come out to their family members.
-Heredity is an important contributor to homosexuality.
-Stereotypes and misconceptions continue to be widespread.
Most Common STDs: AIDS, Chlamydia, Cytomegalovirus, Gonorrhea, Herpes simplex 2, Human papillonavirus, Syphilis. (Berk, 293-295)
-750,000-80,000 American teen girls each year.
-40-50% get abortion.
-85% of teen mothers unmarried problems.
Substance use and abuse
-Widespread and rises over adolescence
-Many factors in abuse: Personal, antisocial, environmental, family , peers.
-Different treatments for use and abuse. (Berk. 295-300)
Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Piaget´s Theory: The formal operational Stage: Around 11 young people enter the formal operational stage, in which they develop `the capacity for abstract, systematic , scientific thinking.
-Hypothetic deductive reasoning
-Propositional Thought : Ability to evaluate the logic of proposition.
Follow-Up research on formal operational Thought
-Are children capable of hypothetico-deductive and propositional thinking?
-Do all individuals reach the formal operational stage?
Consequences of Adolescent Cognitive Changes
Self-consciousness and self –focusing
-The firsts is called the imaginary audience, sensitivity to criticism.
-A second cognitive distortion is the personal fable, a feeling that they are special and unique.
-Idealism and criticism
Language Development in Adolescents: Vocabulary, grammar, pragmatics improve. (Berk, 300-306)
School Transitions in Adolescence
-Grades decline with each transition: Higher standards, less supportive teaching –learning environment.
-Lower self-esteem: Girls more than boys.
Helping Adolescents Adjust to School Transitions
-Homeroom teacher relationships
-Classes with familiar peers
-Minimize competition, treatment by ability at school.
Supporting High Achievement During Adolescence
.Peer support: Ethnicity may affect
-Schools: Warm teacher support and high quality instruction, flexible tracking, low test pressure.
Dropout Prevention Strategies
-Remedial instruction and personalizes counseling.
-High quality vocational training
Address factors in student’s ´lives outside school
Factors Influencing Vocational Choice
-Personality, family influences, teachers, gender stereotypes, access to vocational information.
Holland´s Personality Types
-Investigative, social, realistic. artistic. conventional, enterprising.
Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence
Erikson’s Theory: Identity versus Role Confusion
-Defining who you are, what you value and your direction in life.
-Commitments to vocation, personal relationships, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals.
-Resolution of identity crisis or exploration.
-Lack of direction and definition of self .
-Restricted exploration in adolescence: Earlier psychosocial conflicts not resolved, society restricts choices.
-Unprepared for stages of adulthood. (Berk, 314)
Self Concept in Adolescence
-Unify separate traits into targer, abstract ones.
-May describe contradictory traits, social situations.
–Gradually combine traits into organized system.
-More emphasis on social virtues, being viewed positively by others.
Self .Esteem in Adolescence
-Continues to differentiate.
-Generally rises: Frequent shifts
-Individual differences become increasingly stable. (Berk, 314-315)
The Four Identity Statuses
-Identity Achievement: High Level of Commitment and high Level of Exploration.
-Identity Moratorium: Low Level of Commitment and High Level of Exploration.
-Identity Foreclosure: High Level of Commitment and Low Level of Exploration.
-Identity Diffusion: Low Level of Commitment and Low Level of Exploration.
Factors that Affect Identity Development
-Personality: Flexible, open- minded.
-Family: Attached, positive problem solving.
-School and Communities.
Larger Context : Culture, historical time period. (Berk, 315-318)
Kohlberg´s Stage of Moral Development
-Preconventional Level : Stage 1 : Punishment and Obedience
Stage 2 :Instrumental Purpose
-Conventional Level: Stage 3 : Good by good girl
Stage 4 : Social Order Mantaining
-Postconventional Level: Stage 5: Social Contract
Stage 6 : Universal Ethical Principle
Influences on Moral Reasoning: Personality, child rearing practices ( caring, supportive, discuss moral concerns), schooling, peer iteractions, culture.
Moral Reasoning and Behavior: Moral self relevance, close relationships with parents, teachers and friends.
Just educational environments are also influential.
Civic engagement can enhance moral self-relevance. (Berk, 319-324)
Parent-Child Relationships in Adolescence
-Adolescents strive for autonomy: Shift from parents to selves and peers for guidance, de idealize parents.
Parents need to balance connection and separation: Authoritative style, can be difficult during adolescence.
Adolescents and Their Families
-Most spend less time with family: Culture is a factor.
-Family system affects relationships: Family structure, parents´concers, economic status.
-Sibling relationships change. (Berk,325-326)
Friendships in Adolescence
-Fewer best friends.
-More intimacy, loyalty.
-Friends are similar or get more similar.
-Gender differences: Girl- emotional closeness, boys –actives, status
Benefits of Adolescent Friendships
-Opportunities to explore self.
-Form deep understanding of another.
-Foundation for future intimate relationships.
-Help deal with life stress.
-Can improve attitude and school involvement. (Berk, 326-330)
Physical, Cognitive, Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood
We have seen that through childhood and adolescence, the body grow larger and stronger, coordination improves, and sensory systems gather information more effectively.
Biological aging, or senescence, begins genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems that are universal in all members of our specie.
Aging at the level of DNA and Body Cells:
Release of free radicals naturally occurring, highly reactive chemical that form in the presence of oxygen.
Aging at the level of tissues and organs:
When normally separate fibers cross-link, tissue becomes less elastic, leading to many negative outcomes, including loss of flexibility in the skin and other organs.
Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems:
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs 12% more often in the U.S. black than in the U.S. white population. The rate of death from heart disease among African Americans is 30% higher.
During stressful exercise does heart performance decline with age a change due o decrease in maximum heart rate greater rigidity of the heart muscle.
Atherosclerosis. If present it usually begins early in life, progresses during middle adulthood, and culminates in serious illness.
Before puberty, a high-fat diet produces only fatty streaks on the artery walls.
Heart disease has decreased due to a decline in cigarette smoking, to improved diet and exercise among at risk-individuals, and to better medical detection and treatment of high blood pressure and cholesterol.
Lung capacity decrease during physical exertion. Maximum vital capacity declines by 10% per decade after age 25.
Stiffness makes breathing harder with age.
Declines in heart and lung functioning under conditions of exertion, combined with gradual muscle loss, lead to change in motor performance.
Athletic skills peak between 20 and 35, decline gradually until 60s or 70s.
Continued training slows loss. Keep more vital capacity, muscle, response speed. Before late adulthood, biological aging accounts for only a small past of age-related decline until advanced old age.
The immune response is the combined work of specialized cells that neutralize or destroy antigens in the body.
The capacity of the immune system to offer protection against disease increases through adolescence and declines after age 20.
Fewer T cells from shrinking thymus. B cells don´t work as well without T cells.
Stress weakens immune response.
Reproductive capacity does decline with age. The major cause of the female age-related decline in fertility.In males % normal sperm decrease gradually after 35, contributing to reduced fertility rates in older men.
Health and Fitness
SES variations in health over the lifespan reflect these influences. Income, education, and occupational status show strong and continue relationship with almost every disease and health indicator.
An abundance of food, combined with a heavily scheduled life, means that most Americans eat because they feel like it or because it is time to do so rather than to maintain the body´s functions. Overweight and obesity and a high-fat diet are widespread nutritional problems with long-term consequences for health in adulthood.
Overweight and Obesity
Overweight a less extreme but nevertheless unhealthy condition affects an additional 33% of Americans.
Causes and Consequences: Lives sedentary, adding some weight between ages 25 and 50 is a normal part of aging because basal metabolic rate, the amount of energy the body uses at complete rest, gradually declines as the number of active muscle cells drop off.
Consequences: Health problems (Blood pressure, heart, diabetes, liver, gallbladder, arthritis, sleep, digestive). Social discrimination (Housing, education and careers). Mistreatment.
Treatment: A well- balanced diet lower in calories and fat, plus exercise. Training participants to keep an accurate record of what they eat. Social support. Teaching problem-solving skills. Extended intervention.
Dietary Fat: Eat less fat of all kinds and to substitute unsaturated for saturated fat when possible.
More women than men are inactive. And inactivity is greater among low.
Is recommended for a healthier, moderately intense physical activity for example, 30 minutes of brisk walking on most days leads to health benefits for previously inactive people.
Exercises at greater intensity derive even greater protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity.
30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on five or more days per week or 20 or more minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise on three or more days per week.
Benefits: Reduce fat, boost immune system, menthal health benefits, stress reduction, self esteem, and longer life.
Peak from 19-22 years, then declines. But up to 20% ages 21-25 are substance abuser. Cigarettes, chewing tobacco. Alcohol (Binge drinking). Drugs ( Marijuana, stimulants, prescription drugs, party drugs).
The ingredients of cigarette smoke nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and other chemicals leave their damaging mark throughout the body, in deterioration of the retina of the eye, skin abnormalities, including premature aging, poor wound healing, and hair loss, decline in bone mass, decrees in reserve ova and earlier menopause in women, reduced sperm count and higher rate of sexual impotence in men .
Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, acute leukemia, melanoma, and cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus, lungs, stomach, pancreas, kidneys, and bladder.
Most in treatment programs restart.
Alcoholism usually begins in the teens and early twenties and worsens over the
Genetic, cultural factors in alcoholism.
Causes mental, physical problems.
High social cost.
Treatments combine personal and family counseling, group support, and aversion therapy. Treatment is difficult (Half relapse in months).
At the end of high school, about 65% of U.S. young people have sexual intercourse, by age 25.
Heterosexual attitudes and behavior
90% have intercourse by age 22
Most sex in the context of relationships
70% only one partner in past year
Partners similar to each other
Sex infrequent (Only 1/3 twice a week or more, more often in 20s.declines with age).
Most are satisfied (Over 80% of those in relationships, minority report problems).
Sex difference: Woman more opposed to casual sex (More men looking for play and pleasure).
Men more upset by sexual infidelity (Women by emotional).
Lifetime number of partners similar for men and women (Attitudes grow more similar with age).
Homosexual attitudes and behavior
The majority of Americans support civil liberties and equal employment
Opportunities for gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals.
Homosexuality and Bisexuality: 2.8% of men, 1.4% of women.
Estimated 30% same-sex couples do not report,
Similar behavior to heterosexuals, Public acceptance growing.
Most well-educated (Live in larger cities, college towns).
About 15 to 30 % of U. S. young adult samples report female-initiated coercive sexual behavior gains men, with 3 to 10% of male respondents indicating threats of physical force or actual force.
Women submission (Acceptance of violence, aggressive pornography).
The trauma induced by rape is severe enough that therapy is important:
Other critical features that foster recovery include:
Routine screening for victimization, Validation of the experience, Safety planning.
Physical and psychological symptoms (6-10 days before period).
40% have some PMS, severe for 10-20%.
Diet, exercise, stress reduction, meds can help.
Related to illness, unhealthy behavior. The stress buffering effect of social support, with continues throughout life.
Caused or worsened by low SES, challenges of early adulthood.
Perry´s Theory: Epistemic Cognition
Epistemic cognition refers to our reflections on how we arrived at facts, beliefs, and ideas.
Development of Epistemic Cognition
Dualistic thinking, relativistic thinking, commitment within relativistic thinking.
Challenge, opportunities to reflect, peers.
All help development.
Expertise and Creativity
Expertise=acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field ( Takes many years, affects information processing).
Effects on creativity (Problem finding, 10 year rule,. Creativity usually rises in early adulthood).
The College Experience
Formative, influential: Development testing ground.
Exposure to new ideas, belief, demands leads to cognitive growth, new thinking patterns.
Depends on participation in campus life.
Dropping Out of College
30-50% drop out, personal factors, institutional factors.
Periods of Vocational Development
Fantasy, tentative and realistic period: Exploration and crystalization.
Factors Influencing Vocational Choice
Personality. family influences, teachers, gender stereotypes, access to vocational information.
Personality Types and Vocational Choice
Investigative, social, realistic, artistic, conventional and enterprising.
Vocational Preparation of Non-College-Bound
North American high-school graduates poorly prepared to work.
Lack vocational placement, counseling, fewer opportunities than in past, limited jobs, Work-study, apprenticeships can help, rare in North America, Europe has model systems.
Emotional and Social Development
For many young people industrialized nations the transition to early adulthood is a time of prolonged exploration of attitudes, values, and life possibilities.
A Gradual Transition: Emerging Adulthood
The transition to adult roles has become so delayed and prolonged that is has spawned a new transitional period, extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties, called emerging adulthood.
Erikson´s Theory: Intimacy versus Isolation
Intimacy: Making a permanent commitment to intimate partner.
Involves giving up some newfound independence, redefining identity.
Strong identity helps.
Isolation: Loneliness, self- absorption.
Erikson believed that successful resolution of intimacy versus isolation prepares
the individual for the middle adulthood stage, which focuses on generativity caring for the next generation and helping to improve society.
Levinson´s Seasons of Life
Early adult transition: Dream, mentor.
Early adulthood life structure: Men : Setting down. Women: Continued instability more roles.
Age 30 transition: Reevaluate life structure. Often focus on underdeveloped aspects.
Vaillant´s Adaptation to life
Keepers of meaning- 50s,60s.
Spiritual an reflective- 70s.
The Social Clock
Age graded expectations for major life events, such as beginning a first job, getting married, birth of the first child, buying a home, and retiring.
Less rigid than in earlier generations.
Following a social clock lends confidence, contributes to social stability.
Distress if not following or falling behind.
With this in mind, let´s take a closer look at how young men and women traverse the major tasks of young adulthood.
Finding a life partner is a major milestone of early adult development, with profound consequences for self-concept and psychological well-being.
Selecting a Mate
Nevertheless, men and women differ in the importance they place on certain characteristic.
Most select partners who are similar.
Women: Intelligence, ambition, financials, morals.
Men: Attractiveness, domestic skills.
For romance to lead to lasting partnership, it must happen at the right time. If one or both do not feel ready to marry, the relationship is likely to dissolve.
The components of love
Triangular Theory of Love: Identifies three components that shift in emphasis a romantic relation ships develop:
Passionate Love early: Companionate love later (Passion gradually fades while intimacy, commitment grow.
Today, young people in many countries consider love to be a prerequisite for marriage though Westerners assign grader importance to it especially, its passionate component.
Siblings as friends
Unhappiness resulting from a gap betweens the social relationships we currently have and those we desire.
Age, circumstances and personal characteristic.
Family Life Cycle
Early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood.
Trends in Marriage
More cohabiting before marriage
Legalization of same sex marriage in some places
More religious and ethnically mixed marriages
Transition to Parenthood
Many profound changes
Roles often become more traditional
Marriage can be strained
Later parenthood eases transition
The Diversity of Adult Lifestyles
Increasing: One –third of males. One-fourth of females. 8-10% single for life.
Gender differences:Women more likely to stay single, more high SES women, low SES men single after 30.
Ethnic Differences: African American single longer.
Stressful periods: Late 20s, mid 30s for women.
Unmarried, sexually intimate, living together.
Can be preparation for marriage ( North Americans who cohabit before marriage more likely to divorce).
Some people are involuntary childless because they did not find a partner with whom to share parenthood or their efforts at fertility treatments did not succeed
Divorce and Remarriage.
Causes and Factors in Divorce:
Ineffective problem solving
Major problems: Infidelity, money issues, substance abuse.
Background factors: Age, religion, prior divorce, family background.
Gender roles, expectations.
Consequences of Divorce:
Major change of life and self: Opportunities for positive change.
Immediate consequences: Generally subside in 2 years.
Disrupted social network, support.
Increased anxiety, depression, impulsive behavior.
Traditional women, noncustodial fathers may have more problems.
New partner helps satisfaction.
More important to men.
Remarriage After Divorce:
Most within four years of divorce : Men sooner than women.
Vulnerable to breakup: Reasons for marriage, often too pragmatic.
Carry over negative patterns
View divorce as acceptable resolution
Takes 3-5 years to blend : Education, couples and family counseling can help.
Physical and Cognitive Development
Middle adulthood, which begins around age 40 and ends at about 65, is marked by narrowing life options and a shrinking future as children leave home and career paths become more determined.
In midlife is a continuation of the gradual changes under way in early adulthood.
Hair grays and things, new lines appear on the face, and a fuller, less youthful body shape is evident.
Vision: Around age 60, the lens loses is capacity to adjust to objects at varying distances entirely, a condition called presbyopia (old eyes). As the lens enlarges, the eye rapidly becomes more farsighted between age 40 and 60.
Bifocals if nearsighted. Difficulties in dim light reduced color discrimination.
Glaucoma risk, a disease in which poor fluid drainage leads to a buildup of pressure within the eye, damaging the optic nerve.
Hearing: Although some conditions run in families and may be hereditary, most are age-related, a condition called presbycusis (old hearing).
Earliest most loss in high frequencies, gender, cultural differences (man lose more hearing), hearing aids can help.
Skin: Wrinkles: Forehead starting in 30s. Crow’s Feet 40s .
Sagging :Face, arms, legs .
Age Spots :After age 50.
Faster with sun exposure, for women.
Muscle-Fat Makeup: Middle-age spread common ,fat gain in torso:Men: upper abdomen, back. Women: waist, upper arms.
Very gradual muscle declines.
Can be avoided: Low-fat diet with fruits, vegetables, grains. Exercise resistance training.
Skeleton: The bones broaden, but their mineral content declines, so they become more porous. And following menopause, the favorable impact of estrogen on bone mineral absorption is lost.
Loss of bone strength causes the disks in the spinal column to collapse.They fracture more easily and heal more slowly.
Osteoporosis : When bone loss is very great, it leads to a debilitating.
(Berk, 397- 399)
Reproductive changes in women:
Climacteric: The midlife transition in which fertility declines.
Menopause: The end of menstruation and reproductive capacity.
Gradual end of fertility: Menopause follows 10-year climacteric, Age range extends from late thirties to late fifties .
Drop in estrogen: Shorter monthly cycles, eventually stop. Can cause problems.
Menopausal Symptoms: Hot flashes, night sweats, sexual problems, irritability, sleep difficulties, depression.
Hormone therapy Menopause:
Benefits: Reduces hot flashes, vaginal dryness, may help mood, bone benefits.
Risk: Heart attack, stroke, blood clots, cancer, cognitive declines, Alzheimer´s.
Alternatives: Gabapentin for hot flashes, antidepressants, black cohosh.
Women´s psychological reactions to menopause:
Individual differences: Importance of child-bearing capacity , Other interests.
Cultural differences : Medicalization in industrial West linked to complaints, ethnic differences in North America, social status of aging women linked to reactions.
Reproductive changes in men:
Reduced sperm and semen after 40.
Gradual testosterone reduction: Sexual activity stimulates production.
Erection problems : Frequent problems may be linked to anxiety, diseases, injury, loss of interest. Viagra & other drugs.
Nevertheless, because of reduced blood flow to and change in connective tissue in the penis, more stimulation is required for and erection, and it may be harder to maintain.
( Berk, 399-402 )
Helth and Fitness
Men are more likely to suffer from fatal illnesses, women from nonfatal, limiting health problems.
Sexuality: Frequency of sexual activity among married couples tends to decline in middle adulthood, but most, the drop is slight.
Illness and Disability: Cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis.
Hostility and Anger: Might have negative effects on health is a centuries old ideas. Health Effects : Cardiovascular problems, health complaints, illnesses, depression, dissatisfaction, unhealthy behaviors.
Adapting to the Challenges of Midlife
Stress Management: Reevaluate the situation, focus on events you can control, consider alternatives, exercise regularly, relaxation techniques, constructively reduce anger, seek social support.
Exercise: Many physical and psychological benefits, barriers to beginning in middle age, self-efficacy, choose activities that match personality, lifestyle.
An Optimistic Outlook: Hardiness: Control, commitment, challenge.
Double Standard of Aging
Gender and Aging:
Aging men rated more positively; women more negatively.
Evolutionary roots; media, social messages.
May be declining.
Fortunately, recent surveys suggest that the double standard is declining that more people are viewing middle age as a potentially upbeat, satisfying time for both genders.
( Berk, 408)
In middle adulthood, the cognitive demands of everyday life extend to new and sometimes more challenging situations.
Changes in Mental Abilities
Cohort Efeects: Are largely responsible for this difference.
Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence:
Crystallized: Skills that depend on: Accumulated knowledge, experience, good judgment, mastery of social conventions.
Fluid: Depends on basic information processing skills: Detecting relationships among stimuli, analytical speed, working memory.
Speed of Processing:
Neural Network View: Neurons in brain die, breaking neural connections, brain forms new connections, new connections are less efficient.
Information Loss View: Information lost at each step through cognitive system, whole system slows down to inspect, interpret information.
Attention: Experience, practice, training help adults compensate, may be linked to slower processing.
Memory: Working memory decreases from 20s to 60s, adults can compensate, few changes in: Factual, procedural, metacognitive knowledge.
Practical Problem Solving and Expertise: Which requires people to size up real-world situations and analyze how best to achieve goals that have a high degree of uncertainty.
Practical Problem Solving : Evaluate real-world situations, achieve goals that have high uncertainty, helped by expertise.
Expertise: Extensive, highly organized knowledge base, provides efficient, effective approaches to solving problems, organized around abstract principles,
result of years of experience. (Berk, 413- 414 )
Creativity: More deliberate, thoughtful, sum up or integrate ideas, goals more altruistic.
Vocational Life and Cognitive Development
Cognitive and personality characteristics affect job choice.
Job, in turn, affects cognition: Complex work increases cognitive flexibility (Link to SES, also seek intellectually stimulating leisure).
Adult Learners: Becoming a Student in Midlife
40% of North American college students over age 25: 60% are women
Reasons diverse: Job change, better income, life transition, personal achievement, self-enrichment.
Concerns: Academic abilities.
Aging, gender stereotypes: Role overload balancing demands outside school.
Characteristics and Supporting Returning Students:
60% of adult learners are women. Role demands outside of school from spouses, children, other family members, friends, and employers pull many returning women in conflicting directions.
As these finding suggest, social support for returning students can make the difference between continuing in school and dropping out. Adult students need family members and friends who encourage their efforts and enable them to find time for uninterrupted study.
When support systems are in place, most returning students gain in self-efficacy and do well academically. In middle adulthood as in earlier years, educations transforms development, often powerfully reshaping the life course.
Emotional and Social Development
MIDUS (Midlife Development in the United States), has greatly expanded our knowledge of the multidimensional and multidirectional nature of midlife change, and it promises to be a rich source of information for many years to come.
Erikson´s Theory: Generativity versus Stagnation
Generativity: Reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation, commitment extends beyond self, typically realized through child rearing, other family, work mentoring relationships also generative.
Stagnation: Place own comfort and security above challenge and sacrifice, self-centered, self-indulgent, self-absorbed, lack of involvement or concern with young people, little interest in work productivity, self-improvement.
Levinson´s Seasons of Life
Midlife transition (40–45) : Sense of time running out in life, evaluate early adulthood, make drastic or small changes .
Entry life structure (45–50)
Age 50 transition (50–55)
Culminating life structure (55–60)
Seasons: Young- old, destruction-creation, masculinity-femininity,engagement-separateness.
People who flexibly modify their identities in response to age-related changes yet maintain a sence of self-continuity are more aware of their own thoughts and feelings and are higher in self-steem.
Vaillant´s Adaptation to Life
Keepers of meaning: Guardians of culture, adults in 40s and 50s carry responsibility for functioning of society.
“Passing the torch” becomes important: Focus on longer-term goals, prevents too rapid change.
In societies around the world, older people are guardians of traditions, laws, and cultural values. And they become more philosophical, accepting the fact that not all problems can be solved in their lifetime.
Is There a Midlife Crisis?
Are self doubt and stress especially great during the forties, and do they prompt major restructuring of the personality, as the term midlife crisis implies?
Research: Wide individual differences
Gender differences: Men – changes in early 40s, women – late 40s–50s, different directions.
Sharp disruption uncommon.
Differences in handling regrets: Changes or not, interpretation, acceptance.
Life evaluation is common during middle age.
Those who cannot modify their life paths often look for the silver lining in life´s difficulties. (Berk, 422-423)
What one hopes or fears becoming
Become fewer, more modest concrete with age
May become more time-oriented with age: Compare to what you had planned
Self-Acceptance, Autonomy, and Environmental Mastery:
More complex, integrated self-descriptions
Increases in feelings of: More complex, integrated self-descriptions
Linked to increased well-being, happiness
Psychological well-being factors:
Good Health, exercise,sense of control,personal life investment,positive social relationships,good marriage,mastery of multiple roles.
Coping with Daily Stressors:Identifying positives,postponing action during evaluation,anticipation and planning,humor,integrating strengths and weaknesses,confidence, experience.
Gender Identity: Women: Increase in “masculine” traits.
Men: Increase in “feminine” traits.
Big five Personality Traits:Neuroticism,extroversion,openness to experience,
Relationships at Midlife
Many people have more close relationships than any other period of life: Children
Launching: Parents, friends.
Economic well-being and time between parenting and retirement allow focus on marriage.
Review and adjust marriage .
Strong marriage linked to psychological well-being.
Midlifers adjust more easily than young adults.
Feminization of poverty.
Launching — culminates “letting go” process:Decline in parental authority,continued contact, support to children,adjusting to in-laws , kinkeepers
Affected by:Investment in nonparental roles, children’s characteristics
Off time children stress parents: Cultural social clocks.
Become grandparent average late 40s
Can spend one-third of life
Highly meaningful to most
Grandparenting styles vary
Geography, age, gender, SES, ethnicity are factors.
Trends in grandparenting: Raising grandchildren, coping with divorce of grandchildren’s parents.
Meanings of Grandparenthood:
Valued elder,immortality through descendents,reinvolvement with personal past,indulgence.
Middlle –Age Children and Their Aging Parents:
More likely than in past to have living parents
Reassess relationships with parents
Proximity increases with age:Move closer or move in together
Children provide more help to parents: Financial, household aid; caregiving,
helping based on earlier relationships .
Caring for Aging Parents:
Finances, location, gender, culture are factors
Highly stressful :Average 20 hours/week,often starts suddenly, duration uncertain,work and costs increase,hard to witness parent’s decline,support needed .
Contact and support decline during middle adulthood: Demands of diverse roles
Still, often feel closer: Share similar events
Affected by: Earlier relations, culture .
Gender trends continue: Men less expressive than women
Fewer friends; more selective
More complex ideas of friendship:Rely on for pleasure more than support
Invest more time, effort in friends.
Increases in midlife in diverse nations and at all occupational levels, from executives to hourly workers. The trend is weaker for women than for men.
When different aspects of jobs are considered, intrinsic satisfaction, happiness with the work itself shows a strong age related gain.
The rise in job? An improved capacity to cope effectively with difficult situations and a broader time perspective.
Burnout: A condition in which long term job strees leads to mental exhaustion, a sense of loss of personal control, and feelings of reduced accomplishment.
Limits to advancement: Training, glass ceiling.
Personal : Desire to change: Growth v. security needs
Job :Challenging tasks, co-workers, teams.
Gender and Ethnicity:
Glass ceiling or invisible barrier to advancement up the corporate ladder.
Planning for Retirement:
Retirement is a lengthy, complex process that begins as soon as the middle age person first thinks about it. Planning is important, resulting in better retirement adjustment and satisfaction.
Yet nearly half of middle aged people engage in no concrete retirement planning.
Since income typically drops by 50%, more people engage in financial planning than in other forms of preparation.
Retirement leads to ways of spending time that are largely guided by one´s interests rather than one´s obligations. Planning for an active life has an even greater impact on happiness after retirement than financial planning.
In addition, enhancing retirement adjustment among the economically disadvantaged depends on access to better health care, vocational training, and jobs at early ages. Clearly, a lifetime of opportunities and experiences affects the transition to retirement.
Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
We acknowledge that chronological age is an imperfect indicator of functional age, or actual competence and performance.
Increasing in North America: Lower infant mortality, Lower adult deaths.
Group differences: Women live longer, SES, ethnicity, nationality.
Life Expectancy Crossover.
Average healthy life expectancy , the number of years a person born in a particular year can expect to live in full health, without disease or injury.
Quality of Life:
Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), Basic self-care tasks, bathing, dressing, eating.
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs): Conducting business of everyday life, require cognitive competence, shopping, food prep, housekeeping .
Factors in a Long Life: Heredity, environment/lifestyle: Healthy diet, normal weight, exercise, low substance use, optimism, low stress, social support, community involvement.
The duration of life depends on several factors especially good health and nutrition, personality is so important to prevent nervous disorders, emotions control always be optimistic, and other important point is the physical and mental activity. All this favors the quality and years of life. (Berk, 443-446)
Effects of Sensory Changes:
Vision problems: Changes in leisure activities, possible problems in daily activities, possible problems in daily activities.
Hearing loss: Social isolation, lower safety and enjoyment.
Decreased taste and smell: Nutritional, safety risks.
Less sensitive touch: Difficulties with leisure, daily activities.
Over the years there is a deterioration of these senses, becoming increasingly dependent.
Changes in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems
Cardiovascular/Respiratory: Heartbeat less forceful; slower heart rate, blood flow, vital lung capacity cut by half, less oxygen to tissues, exercise helps.
Immune: Effectiveness declines, more infectious, autoimmune diseases, stress-related susceptibility.
The changes in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems are causing serious illness and complications in the elderly that can lead to death. (Berk, 449)
At this stage of life have more difficulties to sleep and suffering from insomnia and are constantly waking up at night, sometimes require medical treatment for your sleep. (Berk, 449-450)
Physical Appearance and Mobility : Skin thinner, rougher wrinkled, spotted, ears, nose, teeth, and hair change, lose height and weight after 60, muscle strength declines , bone strength drops, less flexibility.
Adapting to Physical Changes: Appearance versus functioning , effective coping strategies :
Prevention, compensation, problem-centered coping.
Assistive technology, overcoming stereotypes of aging.
It is inevitable thinning
of the bones at this age, mostly suffering
from osteoporosis, are more easily broken which is why they must have enough care to avoid accidents that may aggravate their condition, it is important to provide them with tools that help support your body as are
accessories to protect them while
walking or sitting.
The mobility decreases considerably due to wear of muscles, bones, ligaments and tendons.
Stereotypes of Aging
Many assume deterioration is inevitable: Elders experience prejudice, discrimination, assumptions affected by culture.
Stereotype threat: Fear of confirming stereotype reduces functioning.
May be changing: Positive media portrayals. (Berk, 450-452)
Factors in Good Health:
Optimism, self-efficacy, SES, ethnicity, sex, nutrition, exercise.
Nutrition in Late Adulthood:
Need extra nutrients: Protect bones, immune system, fight free radicals.
Problems eating: Appetite, taste changes, chewing, digestion, shopping, cooking.
Supplements, diet changes may help.
Exercise in Late Adulthood: Continued exercise best, but never too late to start.
Benefits: Physical capacities, brain function, self-esteem.
Barriers: Unaware of benefits, Discomforts.
Sexuality in Late Adulthood:
Still important : Less desire and frequency; fewer male partners for women, married couples: regular, enjoyable sex.
Continue patterns from earlier years
Enjoy activities other than intercourse :Men sometimes stop all activities if erection problems.
Cultural influences : Disapproval in West.
Should be considered a good diet or vitamin supplements to improve bodily functions by avoiding an imbalance, it is also important to exercise, allowing them to include stretching elasticity, flexibility and intimate relationships are very important to feel great self-esteem. (Berk, 452-455)
Primary : Genetically influenced declines, affects all members of species, even happens if health is good.
Secondary : Declines due to heredity and environment.
Effects individualized : Major contributor to frailty.
Illnesses and disabilities:
Osteoarthritis: Deteriorating cartilage in frequently used joints, common, related to wear and tear.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: Autoimmune response, affects whole body.
Inflamed connective tissues: Membranes in joints.
Cartilage grows: Can deform joints, lost mobility.
Too little insulin or cells insensitive to insulin.
Increases in late adulthood : Genetics, inactivity, abdominal fat.
Risk of long-term damage: Circulatory system, eyes, kidneys, nerves.
Treatment: Lifestyle changes, medicine .
Accidents in Late Adulthood:
Motor vehicle: Vision problems, slower reactions.
Falls: Vision, balance, strength problems, risk of hip fracture.
In old age are common chronic and degenerative diseases. (455-457)
Dementia - thought and behavior impairments that disrupt everyday life.
Parkinson’s disease, alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular dementia (Strokes).
Misdiagnosis, reversible dementia: Depression, medication side effects.
Incidence: Higher with age – nearly 50% over 80.
Symptoms: Forgetting, disorientation, personality change, depression, motor problems, delusions, speech problems, infections.
Brain changes: Neurofobrillary tangles, amyloid plaques in cerebral cortex.
Risk and Protective Factors: Genetic predispositions, high fat diet ( Mediterranean diet may help ). Education, active lifestyle may help.
Cerebrovascular dementia: A series of strokes leaves areas of dead brain cells, producing step-by-step degeneration of mental ability, with each step occurring abruptly after stroke.
Misdiagnosed and reversible dementia: Careful diagnosis of dementia is crucial because other disorders can be mistaken for it. And some forms of dementia can be treated and a few reversed.
Help for Caregivers of Elders with Dementia:
Knowledge: About the diseases, available resources.
Coping Strategies, caregiving skills.
Respite: At least twice a week, video respite. (Berk, 457-462)
Recall more difficult: Context helps retrieval, but slower processing, smaller working memory make context harder to encode.
Recognition easier than recall: More environmental support
Implicit memory better than deliberate : Without conscious awareness,
depends on familiarity.
Very long-term recall, autobiographical memory .
Prospective: Remembering to engage in planned actions, event-based easier than time-based, use reminders, repetition to help.
Real problems include family relations, IADLs.
Extend strategies from middle adulthood: Avoid uncontrollable problems, use experience to decide quickly when can, consult others (spouses and adult children but also friends, neighbors, and members of their religious congregations, for advise about everyday problems) , collaborate. (Berk, 467)
Depth and breadth of practical knowledge, reflect on knowledge, apply knowledge to improve life, listening and evaluating, advice, altruistic creativity, who is Wise?
Life experience, age is no guarantee, combined with life experience, it helps, human service training, practice, overcoming adversity.
This suggest that finding ways to promote wisdom would be a powerful means of both contributing to human welfare and fostering a gratifying old age.
Factors Related to Cognitive Change
Mentally active life: Education, stimulating leisure, social participation, flexibility.
Health, retirement, distance to death (Terminal decline).
Cognitive interventions: ADEPT, ACTIVE.
Educational participation increasing: Elderhostel, college courses, community classes.
Many benefits: New facts, ideas, new friends, broader world perspective, improved self-image.
Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood
Ego Integrity versus Despair
Ego Integrity: Feel whole, complete, satisfied with achievements, serenity and contentment, associated with psychosocial maturity.
Despair: Feel many decisions were wrong, but now time is too short, bitter and unaccepting of coming death, expressed as anger and contempt for others.
Peck: Three Tasks of Ego Integrity
Ego differentiation versus work-role preoccupation.
Body transcendence versus body preoccupation.
Ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation.
Beyond ego integrity, cosmic, transcendent perspective.
Directed beyond self : Forward and outward.
Heightened inner calm, quiet reflection.
Cognitive-affective complexity : Declines for many.
Affect optimization improves : Maximize positive emotions, dampen negative ones.
More vivid emotional perceptions : Make sure of own emotions, use emotion-centered coping. (Berk, 475-476)
Reminiscence and Life Review:
Telling stories about people, events, thoughts and feelings from past:
Self-focused: can deepen despair.
Other-focused: solidifies relationships.
Knowledge-based: helps solve problems.
Considering the meaning of past experiences, a form of reminiscence, for greater self-understanding, can help adjustment. ( Berk, 476-477)
Spirituality and Religion in Late Adulthood
Over 3/4 in U.S. say religion “very important”, over half attend services weekly, many become more religious or spiritual with age : Not all - about 1/4 get less religious, cultural, SES, gender differences .
Physical, psychological benefits: Social engagement, spiritual beliefs themselves.
Factors in Psychological Well-Being:
Control versus dependency.
Health: Poor health, depression linked, suicide risk.
Negative life changes, social support, social interaction.
Besides tangible assistance, elders benefit from social support that offers affection, affirmation of their self-worth, and sense of belonging. (Berk, 480)
Social Theories of Aging:
Disengagement theory: Mutual withdrawal of elders and society.
Activity theory: Social barriers cause declining interaction.
Continuity theory: Strive to maintain consistency between past and future.
Socioemotional Selectivity theory: Social networks become more selective with age, extends lifelong process.
Emphasize emotion-regulating functions of social contact.
View elders preference for high quality, emotionally fulfilling relationships to result from changing life conditions. (Berk, 482-484)
Social Contexts of Aging:
Communities and Neighborhoods: Majority live in suburbs - higher income, minorities in cities - better transportation, social services, few small town, rural - far from children; interact with neighbors, friends.
Housing: Less like home life, harder to adjust .
Housing Arrangements in Late Adulthood:
Ordinary Homes :Own home – preferred and most control, with family.
Residential Communities: Congregate housing, life care communities.
In comparison of Green House residents with traditional nursing home residents, Green House elders reported substantially better quality of life, and they also showed fewer declines over time in ability to carry out activities of daily living.
( Berk, 484-486)
Relationships in Late Adulthood:
The social convoy is an influential model of changes in our social networks as we move through life.
Satisfaction peaks in late adulthood: Fewer stressful responsibilities, fairness in household tasks, joint leisure, emotional understanding, regulation.
If dissatisfied, harder for women.
Gay and Lesbian Partnerships:
Most happy, highly fulfilling.
Coping with oppression may strengthen skill at coping with physical aging.
Face legal, health care issues .
Divorce: Few divorces in late adulthood, but increasing (Hard to recover, especially women.
Remarriage: Rates low, decline with age (Higher for divorced than widowed. Late remarriage stable).
Cohabitation: Growing trend (Financial and family reasons. Relationships stable.
Most stressful event of life for many.
Few remarry; most live alone: Must cope with loneliness.
Reorganizing life harder for men: More likely to remarry.
Support for the Widowed: Family, friends, senior centers, support groups, religious activities, volunteer activities.
Never-Married, Childless Elders:
About five percent in North America.
Develop alternative meaningful relationships: Youths, friends, relatives.
Men more likely to be lonely. (Berk, 487-490)
Elderly siblings are more likely to socialize than to provide one another with direct assistance because more turn first to their spouse and children.
Friends provide: Intimacy, companionship, acceptance, link to community, help with loss.
Feels closest to a few nearby friends, chooses friends similar to self, sex differences continue.
Secondary friends: People who are not intimates but with whom they spend time occasionally, such as a group that meets for lunch, bride, or museum tours.
Relationships with Adult Children:
Quality of relationship affects elders’ physical, mental health.
Assist each other: Direction changes toward children helping as parent’s age,
Closeness affects willingness to help, emotional support most often.
Parents try to avoid dependency.
As social networks shrink in size, relationships with adult children become more important sources of family involvement. (Berk, 491-492)
Elder Maltreatment: Physical abuse, physical neglect, psychological abuse, sexual abuse, financial abuse. (Berk, 492-493)
Adjusting to Retirement:
Most people adapt well :30% report some adjustment difficulties.
Factors in adjustment: Financial worries, workplace factors, spouse influence, sense of personal control, social support. (Berk, 495-496)
Interests usually continue from earlier in life: Choose personally gratifying pursuits.
Involvement in rewarding leisure linked to better health, reduced mortality : Self-expression, new achievements, helping others, social interactions. (Berk, 496)
Successful Aging: Minimize losses and maximize gains: focus less on outcomes, more on processes and reaching personal goals, some factors controllable, others not, social policies can help. (Berk, 496-497)
Death, Dying, and Bereavement
In the days or hours before death, activity declines, the person moves and communicates less and shows little interest in food, water, and surroundings. At the same time, body temperature, blood pressure, and circulation to the limbs fall, so the hands and feet fell cool and skin color changes to a duller, grayish hue. When the transition from life to death is imminent, the person moves through three phases.
Phases of Dying
Agonal phase: Suffering in first moments body can no longer support life.
Clinical death: Heart, breathing, brain stopped, but still can resuscitate.
Mortality: Permanent death.
Brain death: All activity in brain and brain stem stopped. Irreversible.
Persistent vegetative state: Activity in cerebral cortex stopped.
Brain stem still active.
Death with Dignity
How we treat the dying person: Humane, compassionate care, esteem and respect, candid about certainty of death, Information to make end-of-life choices.
( Berk, 503-505)
Attitudes Toward Death
Death anxiety fear and apprehension of death is widespread.
Cultural Variations: Religious teachings, westerners - spirituality, meaning of life .
Individual Variations: Personal philosophy of death, consistency of religious beliefs and practice, symbolic immortality, age, gender.
Five typical responses:
Denial: On learning of terminal illness, the person denies its seriousness.
Anger: Recognition that the time is short promotes anger at having to die without having had a chance to do all one wants to do.
Bargaining: Realizing the inevitability of death, the terminally ill person attempts to bargain for extra time a deal he or she try with family members, friends, doctors, nurses, or God.
Depression: When denial, anger, and bargaining fail to postpone the illness, the person becomes depressed about the loss of his or her life.
Acceptance: Most people who reach acceptance, a state of peace and quiet about upcoming death, do so only in the last weeks or days. (Berk, 507-508)
Contextual Influences on Adaptations to Dying
Appropriate Death: Is one that makes sense in terms of the individual´s pattern of living and values and, at the same time, preserve or restores significant relationships and is as free of suffering as possible.
Goals associated with an appropriate death:
-Maintaining a sense of identity, or inner continuity with one´s past.
-Clarifying the meaning of one´s life and death.
-Maintaining and enhancing relationships.
-Achieving a sense of control over the time that remains.
-Confronting abd preparing for death.
Factors That Influence Thoughts About Dying
Cause of death: Nature of disease, personality, coping style, family members’ behavior, health professionals’ behavior, spirituality and religion, culture.
(Berk, 508-510 )
A Place to Die
Home : Most preferred, only 20–25% die at home.
Hospital : Emergency room, Intensive care unit, cancer care unit.
:Comprehensive support for dying and their families:
Family and patient as a unit
Palliative (comfort) care
Home or homelike
The Home offers an atmosphere of intimacy and loving care in which terminally ill person is unlikely to feel abandoned.
The Rigth to Die
Euthanasia: Is the practice of ending the life of a person suffering from an incurable condition.
Forms of Euthanasia
Voluntary Passive: Withdraw treatment, advance medical directives.
Voluntary Active: Medical staff or others act to end life at patient’s request.
Assisted Suicide: Medical staffs provide means for patient to end own life, controversial.
In assisted suicide, the final act is solely the patient´s reducing the possibility of coercion. For this reason, some experts believe that legalizing assisted suicide is preferable to legalizing voluntary active euthanasia.
Helping incurable, suffering patients who yearn for death poses profound moral and legal problems. (Berk, 513-516)
Breaveavement is the experience of losing a loved one by death.
Grief: Intense physical and psychological distress.
Mourning is the culturally specified expression of the bereaved person´s thoughts and feelings.
Avoidance : Emotional anesthesia.
Confrontation: Most intense grief.
Restoration : Dual-process model of coping with loss.
Alternate between dealing with emotions and with life changes.
Grieving Sudden or Prolonged Deaths
Avoidance from shock and disbelief.
May not understand reasons.
Suicide especially hard.
Anticipatory grieving: Allows emotional preparation.
Reasons usually known. (Berk, 516-520)
Difficult Grief Situations
Parents losing a child.
Children or adolescents losing a parent.
Adults losing an intimate partner.
Bereavement overload : When a person experiences several deaths at once or in close succession, bereavement overload can occur.
General Support: Sympathy, understanding, patient listening, being there.
Interventions: Self-help groups, daily living help.
Children, adolescents: After violent death, prevent unnecessary reexposure , help adults master own distress.
Difficult situations: Sudden, violent, unexplained, ambiguous deaths,
grief therapy, individual counseling. (Berk, 519-521)
Courses in death and dying: Offered at many educational levels.
Lecture format: Increases discomfort
Experiential format: Role playing, discussions, guests, field trips.
May reduce death anxiety.
Goals of Death Education
Understand physical, psychological changes in dying.
Learn to cope with death of loved ones.
Inform consumers of medical, funeral services.
Understand social, ethical issues.
Applying this lesson to ourselves , we learn that by being in touch with death
and dying, we can live ever more fully.