CCA report

Climate Change Community Awareness Workshop Report


Knowledge Sharing for Climate Change Adaptation initiative is a one year project of the Arid Lands Information Network (ALIN) ending by March 2010. The project is funded by the Royal Danish Embassy to empower local communities in Kyuso and Mutomo districts of Ukambani region, Kenya to address two complex questions:

  • What is climate change and what does it mean for local communities?
  • How do local communities cope and adapt to climate change?

A key component of the project is to increase awareness and facilitate knowledge exchange on climate change adaptation strategies among communities in Kyuso and Mutomo districts. Hence, one of the strategies to realizing this objective is to host community awareness raising forums including workshops on climate change.

This report covers the proceedings of a three days workshop held between 17th and 19th June 2009 at the KEFRI regional centre at Kitui. The purpose of the workshop was to raise awareness and share knowledge for climate change adaptation. The specific workshop objectives included:

 1.       To generate community perceptions of climate change issues,

2.       To identify climate change impacts and vulnerabilities at community level,

3.       To identify local coping and adaptation mechanisms to climate change,

4.       To map out cases of climate change coping and adaptation mechanisms for documentation,

5.       To generate content for development of information, communication and education materials, and

6.       To establish partnership for learning and sharing about climate change adaptation.

The 30 workshop participants were drawn from the four ukambani districts of Kyuso, Mwingi, Kitui and Mutomo all which share similar climatic and socio-economic circumstances. The participants were well mixed and included representatives from local communities, NGOs and government departments of agriculture, water, Energy and forest. Eleven of the participants were women.

 2.0  Workshop Process

 2.1           Day 1: Preliminaries, Climate Change Overview and an Account of the Local Situation

 2.1.1           Preliminaries

Noah Lusaka and Dorothy Amboka of ALIN started off by welcoming everybody to the workshop. This was followed by a round of self-introductions by all the participants. He proceeded by introducing ALIN, took the participants through the objectives and key activities of the project and other initiatives being undertaken by ALIN on climate change.                                                                                                                                                                      

ALIN is a membership organization of people who work in drylands, particularly Community Development Workers (CDWs) from CBOs, NGOs and government. It reaches the CDWs by disseminating development knowledge and experiences on drylands through its journal - BAOBAB, which is published three times a year.

This workshop is supported through Knowledge Sharing for Climate Change Adaptation project, which is funded by the Danish Embassy. The project objectives include:

  1. To increase awareness and facilitate knowledge exchange on climate change adaptation strategies among communities in Kyuso and Mutomo districts
  2. To build skills of youths on ICTs and grassroots journalism
  3. To produce multi-media materials on climate change adaptation
  4. To strengthen ALIN’s participation in international climate change fora

 Key Activities in this Project Include:

1.          Conduct climate change awareness meetings at Mutomo and Kyuso.

2.          Produce documentaries on climate change adaptation on quarterly basis.

3.          Publish and disseminate 4 articles on climate change adaptation.

4.          Equip the Kyuso and mutomo Maarifa centres with fabricated containers as office space.

5.          Brand the maarifa centres as climate change exchange points.

6.          Train volunteers and community facilitators

7.          Engage youth volunteers and knowledge facilitators at Kyuso and Mutomo.

8.          Participate in climate change forums

9.          Participate at COP 15 meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark.

10.      Convey strategy meeting for ALIN stakeholders on climate change.


Other Climate Change Activities

Joto Afrika newsletter. In partnership with International Development Studies (IDS) – university of Sussex (UK), ALIN will be publishing a series of printed briefings and online resources about adapting to climate change in sub Sahara Africa. (Refer the leaflet given).


In his closing remarks, Noah emphasized that the workshop was designed to be participatory with the aim of generating the rich insights of what was actually happening in local communities. How is climate change affecting people’s lives and their livelihoods and more importantly, how the people are responding or adapting to the effects of climate change. He invited participants to give their expectations, which they wrote on manila cards.

Participants’ Expectations

Diagram I summarises   participants expectations (also see annex 1) where 32% wanted to learn more about climate change, followed by exploring collaboration with ALIN. The various expectations reflect the level of participants’ mix, from farmers to development professionals.

 Kitui - Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) gave welcoming remarks and presented a brief history and activities of the centre. The Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) was established in 1986 through an act of parliament. Kitui - KEFRI is one of six regional research centres that cater for different regions in country.  Kitui is the second one after Muguga, Nairobi.  The Kitui – KEFRI centre deals with dry land forestry. The centre has had successes in screening for appropriate dry land tree species. The centre is addressing the challenge of inadequate information on woodland biodiversity.


Key constrains that the centre faces is limited financial resources for research following the phase out of the Japanese donor agency – JICA, which was a major donor. The centre now depends of the government for funding.


Participants raised a number of interesting questions and comments on --------------- welcoming remarks and presentation. The following is a summarized tabulation of questions and responses.


Participants’ questions/comments

Responses by Dr.

We have heard that Prosopis (Mathenge) tree is dangerous to the environment, livestock and human life. What is your view?

The dangers of mathenge tree are debatable. Like any other tree species, mathenge becomes an issue when it is left to go wild. It has lots of benefits if well managed. Its pods and bark dust are useful as livestock feed. It is currently the only tree that has been formally allowed for charcoal production.  

Eucalyptus trees originating from South Africa are increasing drought in farmers’ fields. What is the policy on planting of Eucalyptus trees?

There is no policy guideline for planting Eucalyptus.  However, the major thing is site selection – don’t plant them in the watershed, or water areas.  But KEFRI has not done much research on it.

Has the government or KEFRI considered investing in areas around Ukambani to make them greener by introducing trees? Is there a strategy aimed at influencing communities to take action? 

When Kitui- KEFRI centre started; local people were reluctant to adopt the recommended measures of tree planting. The centre is  trying to reach people through demonstrations (have had about six in the last three years). The centre has also tried to reach people through agricultural shows, also open days when people can attend to get information.  Once in a while (every quarter) KEFRI is on air to inform people about trees.  Adoption of measures has reached quite an encouraging stage.

Due to climate change, when it’s dry, animals have no food? Any plans to get species of grasses that can be planted all over so that livestock production can be boosted?

The centre recognizes that farming is a way of life and it is trying to cover food security for animals.  One option includes harvesting the leaves and perhaps seed of trees that shed when it is hot and silo them for the animals.

Do the researchers at Kitui – KEFRI  incorporate indigenous knowledge in the selection of tree species and management?

Yes, they have to involve people otherwise they won’t come up with solutions that farmers are willing to adopt.



2.1.2           An Overview of Climate Change, Eric Kisiangani, Practical Action

Mr. Eric Kisiangani, Practical Action presented an overview of climate change. He kicked of the presentation by seeking to know from the participants the difference between climate and weather. Mr. Mutui P. Muthengi, Teacher, Kyuso high school, noted that climate is the average weather conditions recorded over a long period of time, averaging about 35 years. On the other hand, weather is atmospheric conditions of a place over a short period of time from one day to weeks, months or a few years.


The participants concurred with Mr. Muthengi and observed that there has been a significant shift in the state of things over the past 15 years, starting from 1985. There is no more predictability in rainfall seasons hence the uncertainty in the climate.

Mr. Kisiangani sharing experiences on climate change adaptation

It was noted that climate had been almost stable since the last ice age, about 10,000 years ago.  An increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) and greenhouse gases (GHG) has led to increased global warming.  CO2 contributes to 60% of the warming effect. GHGs keep the earth’s surface about 30 degrees warmer than it should be and predictions indicate a temperature rise of 1.2-5.8 degrees by the year 2100; however this is uncertain and the figure could be much higher.


Implications of global warming include:

-          a rise in sea level as ice caps and glaciers melt,

-          Increase in global rainfall

-          Increased warming in deserts and arid and semi-arid areas, without much rainfall.

-          Increase in extreme events – floods and droughts

-          overall the effects to human society will be negative


It was noted that Climate Change is a worldwide problem but Africa is set to suffer the worst due to its low adaptation capacity.  This is due to high levels of poverty, illiteracy; inadequate infrastructure and weak institutions that can facilitate effective responses.  In developed countries, steps are already being taken against dangerous climate change, the institutions are well developed and they have resources to respond to emergencies.


Climate change associated threats on African communities are diverse. These will include:

          Food insecurity

          Water scarcity

          Increase in disease incidences and emergence of new diseases

          Conflicts over resources


Participants were informed that climate related disasters have increased of late and may worsen with increasing variability and climate change. The recent severe and extended droughts of 2001, 2004-06 are an early signal, and the livelihood threats to the communities of Kenya’s arid and semi arid lands are clear and present.


Floods commonly affect three river basins including Tana, Nyando and Nzoia while drought on the other hand affects large areas including parts of Eastern, Rift Valley and North eastern provinces.

High rainfall has sometimes resulted into mudslides in the hilly areas. The El-Nino of 1997/98 not only damaged infrastructure but also led to outbreak of certain diseases like the rift-valley fever affecting pastoral communities.


It was noted that while climate change is already happening and negatively impacting on the livelihoods of pastoralists responses of governments in Africa are slow. For example, Kenya’s policy response is yet to be elaborated. Prioritization of climate change in Kenya’s Vision 2030 is wanting.


Participants were taken through the various response efforts at global level. It was observed that climate change was first recognized as a problem by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in1979.  World countries are tackling the climate challenge through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).


The convention was adopted in 1992 and now has 185 member countries.

The overriding objective of UNFCCC was initially to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere. This objective should be realized in a time frame sufficient to allow human societies and ecosystems to adapt.


Role of UNFCCC.

          Commits all countries to limit their CO2 emissions.

          Requires developed countries to reduce their emissions to 1990 levels.

          Gathers relevant information through scientific research coordinated and compiled by Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

          Develop strategies for adapting to climate change

          Cooperate on research and technology.


Participants heard that the IPCC was established in 1988 by UNEP and WMO with a mandate to assess the state of existing knowledge about climate system and climate change.


Options for limiting emissions by world governments

          Governments can encourage efficiency trends in consumption of energy.

          Governments can provide regulatory frameworks for consumers and investors.

          Discourage emissions through taxes, regulatory standards, tradable emission permits, information programmes.


It was observed that climate has been changing at almost a stable pace and individuals have always taken measures to adapt. Greenhouse gas emissions by human activities have accelerated the pace of global warming and speed up climate change. Responses by individuals and societies are necessary for survival of man and other life on the planet. At this stage, participants were asked what they were doing to respond to severe droughts experienced in recent years. Response actions by individuals included.


          Harvesting and storage of water including improved management of water sources

          Purchase of fodder for livestock

          Managing the environment

          Learning and adopting effective technologies and practices in the management of crops, livestock  and water

          Community organization for self-support through self-help groups, women groups, youth groups for extending help to each other after loss of livestock or crops to drought.


Participants were told that such response actions could be categorized as adaptation measures. The overview also made participants aware of some of the measures that they could take to contribute towards reductions of emissions. These included:


          Reduce emissions from deforestation

          Reduce emissions from erosion

          Use fuel efficient applications


2.1.3           An Account of the Local Climate Change Impacts

Discussion groups and plenary approach was used to encourage effective participation of individual participants and to capture the richness of local experiences on impacts of climate change. Participants split into three discussion groups to talk about the following six questions:


1)       Are there any visible changes in: water; food in terms of crops, livestock; general vegetation and wildlife (e.g. trees, grasses, wildlife) due to droughts or floods?

2)       What timeframe have the changes been observed in?

3)       What are the changes?

4)       How have the changes affected you and your community?

5)       Who in your family or community is most affected?

6)       How are they affected?


Each group presented their discussions in a plenary. Table 1 summarizes the presentations.


 Table 1: Summary of presentations by the three groups

Visible changes due to climatic changes

Time frame when droughts began to be severe and frequent

Effects of the changes (severe and extended droughts)

Most affected  (vulnerable) members of the community

How are the vulnerable affected

Water situation

·   Acute shortage of water

·   Traditionally all season (permanent) rivers drying out and becoming seasonal e.g. Tiva and Thunguthu rivers River Nzeuu; R. Thunguthu; R. Mukameni (Kyuso); R. Thua (Kitui-Mutomo); R. Kivou (Mwingi); R. Tyaa (Mwingi)

·   Water in shallow wells becoming scarce, and saline

·   Rock catchment harvesting little water and reservoirs drying out


Since 1992 there has been severe and frequent droughts

















·   Scarcity of water,

·   Long distances covered to collect water

·   Children forced out of school to fetch water.

·   Outbreaks of cholera due to lack of water.

·   Increased waterborne diseases

·   Increased conflict over scarce water between wild animals and people



·   Women

·   School going children

·   People with disabilities

·   The aged.



·   More time spend fetching water by women

·   More work lord for on water

·    Raising illiteracy levels among youth.

·   Increasing drug and alcohol abuse among youth

·   Unwanted pregnancies

·   Leads to STDs and HIV/AIDS – leading to untimely deaths

·   Increased stress among the elderly.

·   Increased domestic violence

·   Increased child labour


Food situation

·         Frequent in crop failures

·         Increased pest and diseases infestations of crops

·         Disappearance of some indigenous tree species, low production of e.g. fruits

·         Decreased Pastures

·         Notable reduction in number of livestock, reduction in animal produce e.g. milk,


·   Increased hunger months and food insecurity (for both people and livestock)

·   Increased poverty,

·   Increased  school drop out rates

·   Increased cost of living, particularly high food prices

·   Reduced household incomes Increased dependency on other income earners

·   Young women resorting to disparate survival measures including prostitution for cash

·   Family instability leading to divorce

·   Rising levels of  crime and insecurity

·   Unemployment rates up

·   Migration of young men to towns


·   Women

·   Under 5 year old children

·   School going children

·   Orphaned children

·   People with disabilities

·   The aged.

·   Increased cases of malnutrition

·   Increase in early marriages

·   Raising illiteracy levels.


Migration of wild animals from reserved areas into community areas and local farms

·   Poaching of wild animals for meat

·   Rising human attacks by wild animals including elephants.

·   conflict over resources both animal and human



More short and heavier downpours (flash rains)

·   Increased soil erosion



More warmer (high temperatures)





2.2           Day 2: Local Climate Change Adaptation Responses and Efforts to Mitigate 


2.2.1           Local climate change adaptation responses

Day two began with a recap of previous day’s proceedings.  Participants were asked to remain in their previous day’s groups to talk about the following three questions:


1.             Are there things related to livestock, crops, water and community organization that are being done differently due to droughts or excessive rain by yourself; your neighbour or the community that you work with?

2.             What would you do differently if we had a three year drought?

3.             Identify cases of individuals who are using innovative water management practices that enable them to have water over long drought periods.


Each group presented their discussions in a plenary on the question: “Are there things related to livestock, crops, water and community organization that are being done differently due to droughts or excessive rain by yourself; your neighbour or the community that you work with?” Table 2 summarizes the presentations.


 Table 2: Summary of presentations by groups on adaptation responses




Community organization

·       Selling of relief grass pastures in Kitui or Kabati and Tulia, Kyuso and Mutomo

·       Migration/transferring animals to following hills: yenini, Kasiluni, Kyatune, Ikutha

·       Movement of livestock over long distances (e.g. Julius Matei, 70km from Kyuso to Tsewkuri division)

·       Removal of grass from thatched houses for feeding of livestock

·       Digging of indigenous root tubers for both food and water for livestock sustenance

·       Migrating the animals to government reserves/national parks e.g. in Kyuso, Mumoni and Kore Park

·       Regulating the stock at throw-away prices to escape dying of livestock due to drought and poor health

·       Posting the livestock freely to look for food on their own (leads to theft)

·       Buying of hay (fodder)

·       Relief of hay (by government)

·       Giving the animals tubers, and pods e.g. acacia pods



·       Increased terracing of land

·       Planting of cover grasses

·       Applying manure

·       Digging to increase water infiltration

·       Agro-forestry

·       Uprooting of trees that use a lot of water – e.g. baobab

·       Crops: Planting of early maturing varieties e.g. millet, sorghum, cow peas

·       Planting pits for harvested water

·       Planting fruit trees which can bear drought conditions

·       Planting drought resistance crops such as cassava, millet, sorghum, tubers, mango fruits, pigeon peas, cow peas, black grams

·       Storage of green vegetables such as kales and cowpea leaves to use in future

·       Rock catchments eg in Mutomo and Kyuso

·       Roof catchment

·       Run-off harvesting

·       Road catchment

·       Water rationing and selling

·       Proper water utilization

·       More water harvesting

·       People are now protecting the catchment area

·       Digging of water ponds and shallow wells

·       Sub-surface dam to raise the water table



·       Participation in food for work

·       Increased group cohesion

·       Men’s groups have emerged for the first time

·       Youth groups have emerged due to unemployment

·       Brick Making e.g. Kamumwongo, Kyuso; Muna at TSK; Kalundu Co-operative Society, Kitui

·       Tree planting e.g. Tseikuru Young Farmer’s Association (TSK); Green Growers Elhuguthu (Kyuso); Kalundu Tree and Fruit Growers (Kitui)



Table 3 summarizes presentations on the question, “what would you do differently in relation to water and food (crops and livestock) if you had a three year drought?”

 Table 3: Summary of presentations





·       Intensify water rationing

·       Increase the amount of water reserves for storage

·       Appeal to government and other organisations to intervene relief water

·       Buy more donkeys for longer distances for walking to search for water

·       Pool together all resources towards food

·       Stop all other family projects and focus on securing food

·       Ration food – one meal per day

·       Change eating habits (one meal a day)



·       Intensify irrigation measures

·       Resolve planting of traditional crops and drought resistant varieties

·       Appeal to government for relief food to be leased specifically for work purposes

·       Migrate as climate refugees


·       De-stock livestock and bank the money for food

·       Appeal for assistance from the government

·       Consultation with government and other stakeholders for strategic planning

·       Relocation/migration to other areas for survival

·       Alternative income generating activities e.g. business


2.2.2           Identified cases of community adaptation innovations in water harvesting and storage

Question 3 required the three groups to identify cases of individuals who are using innovative water management practices that enable them to have water over long drought periods. The following cases were identified:


Case 1: Nyamai Kaskati – 60 yrs (over); from Mutomo

Nyamai has dug a surface dam about 10 m of circumference to harness water from the forest.  In the middle of the dam he has dug a 70 feet well.  When the dam is filling up, the water first flows into the well and fills it up. Whenever there is adequate rainfall, both the well and the dam overflow with water. This way, he is able to harvest enough water that last him from one rainfall season to another and even see him through very severe droughts. He uses water for irrigation, livestock drinking and domestic purposes. Other similar cases include; Mr. Mama Kimondo and Ali Mulei in Mutomo district.


Other farmers using similar practices include; Ben Kitheka Tundu in Bote sub-location (Mutomo); Ngilumi Village who has dug a shallow well, Kisinga W. Musya in Itiva-Nzou sub-location in Kyuso District, Mulandi Kathambula in Nguuku, Syumukii village, Kyuso District, Agnes Mughi in Gai-Kyuso District, Ikaie bore-hole (community) in Kyuso and Mwendwa Ngwele – Ndooni, Kyuso, who is even bottling and selling water.



Case 2: Flora Nzambuli; Kibwea Mutomo. She harvests water from the runoff to sand dam and earth ponds.  Also drains to a shallow well.  Formerly she used to have water year round but currently it lasts half a year.  They scoop in the shallow well when it dries


Case 3: Kalia in Katulani village and Kitu, in Lakalie village; They constructed shallow wells along subsurface damns and provides water throughout the year to the community.


Case 4: Ngomeni Rock catchments in Kyuso: The rock catchment is channeled to a big dam.  There is no ‘watering’ of animals directly and it is fenced around.  It supplies water throughout the year


2.2.3           Mitigation at the community level

Participants were asked to discuss the following three questions in their respective three groups.


Question 1: What are the major sources of CO2 emissions in your household/community?

Question 2: What measures are you taking to help reduce the emissions at household/community level?

Question 3: What is constraining you and/or your community from realizing the measures of CO2 reduction? CO2 emissions


Each group presented their discussions in a plenary session. Table 4 summarises plenary presentations. 


Table 4: Mitigation at community level

Major sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions

Household/community measures to reduce

Constraints to realizing reduction of CO2 emissions by households/communities

·       Burning of charcoal and charcoal production

·       Use of firewood, especially the green ones that are not dry; using cow dung also produces waste

·       Using of koroboi lamps

·       Smoking

·       Burning the waste (biodegradable)

·       Burning of polythene bags and plastic waste

·       Use of perfumes

·       Use of kerosene stoves

·       Use of tractors

·       Use of generators, motorcycles, cars, posho mills (use of petrol/diesels)

·       Deforestation

·       Using an improved kiln with less waste

·       Use of treated charcoal and firewood

·       Using solar power, biogas, cooking gas, improved jiko

·       Stop smoking

·       Recycling of polythene bags

·       Stop using strong perfumes and sprays

·       Use solar cooker

·       There is lack of information on new technologies and the harm in burning charcoal, recycling etc

·       Poverty – unable to implement change

·       Some technologies may be too expensive

·       Ignorance and negligence

·       Time pressure; too many other priorities

·       Lack of water for biogas production

·       Addiction to smoking

·       Attitude of people – change attitude of people towards littering and not recycling

·       Government policies are weak and there is no implementation

·       Lack of recognition of value of trees (still alive as opposed to charcoal, firewood etc)

·       Emergence of herbal clinics leads to decline in indigenous herbal species

·       Short-term views; no long-term perspective

·       Competition for resources

·       Lack of ownership about who controls the forest


2.3           Day 3: Generating climate change messages at community level, workshop evaluation


Participants were asked to discuss and generate key climate change messages that communicate effects and responses at community level. They were also asked to identify message targets. Table 5 summarizes messages generated by the participants.


Table 5: Summary of messages




No Trees, No Rain

English, Kiswahil

General public

Maji Ni Uhai

Kikamba, English and Kiswahili

General Public

Conserve The Environment



Panda Mimea Inayostahimili Ukame


Groups of farmers

Panda Vyakula Vya Kiasil


Groups of farmers

Jivunie Chakula Cha Kiasili


General public

Adapt or perish


General public

Insure yourself against drought - Store water and food


General public/farmer groups


2.3.1           Brief comments on Eucalyptus Trees, C. O. Onyango, KEFRI

It was noted that the Kenyan government has been promoting plantation of eucalyptus trees because it wants to cut down the costs of importing electricity poles from South Africa and other countries. Genuine clone are imported from South Africa. He said that genuine clone seedlings are produced in only two places; at TBT Nairobi, and a farm in Thika. 


3.0  Conclusion

The workshop generated lots of information on the local situation. Impacts of climate change on water, food security and livestock resources were highlighted by the participants who also sited areas where the effects were being felt most.

The participants also identified cases of farmer adaptation responses, especially adaptation innovations related to water harvesting and management. There is need to visit the cases identified by the participants for detailed studies to document the cases.


Annex 1: Participants Expectations


The participants gave various expectations

·       To identify the impact (and threat) of climate change in the community we live in (both positive and negative)

·         To know how to cope with climate change and possibly how to solve the problems of climate change, and to understand various coping strategies tried and tested in various areas

·         To learn from other members from different centres what activities they undertake in their areas

·         To learn how to overcome climate change, what other communities have been doing to overcome climate change and how individuals can deal with climate change

·         To know more about ALIN and how it can help to gain more knowledge, and their plans for the community

·         To learn and understand the main causes of climate change both locally and globally

·         To participate in or take a role in overall contribution in CAPS that will facilitate mitigation measures in Ukambani region

·         To explore collaboration areas between MoA and ALIN and other players

·         To know what assistance we can get to try and improve and care for our environment

·         To know more about keeping of livestock and community animal health care services

·         To know more about water conservation

·         To have more materials to educate our community

·         To gather information on perceptions on effects of climate change

·         To have a good experience sharing

·         To get a certificate

·         To include indigenous knowledge

·         Creation of strong and close networking among the participants

·         To meet old friends and make new ones


Annex 2 Workshop Evaluation analysis


At the end of the training, participants filled an evaluation form to gauge the workshop content and below are their responses:


1) Workshop preparations and general logistical arrangements

  • The workshop was well organized and the facilitators were very cooperative
  • Fairly well coordinated although there were incidences of lack of water for washing at the venue
  • Lack of power in the last day of the workshop
  • The invitation letters arrived in time
  • Transport was fairly catered for although the allowance was very minimal as compared to other workshops
  • Good but facilitation of the participants needs improvement


2) Delivery of the resource people

  • The right message was passed across
  • They delivered although some of them seemed not to have been well prepared or lacked the techniques of delivering the message
  • Yes, each activity in the program was given enough time
  • The resource persons were open in their deliberations and accommodated the contributions of the participants


3) Lessons, skills or knowledge gained

  • Importance of planting trees
  • Adaptation of the community or coping to the climatic changes in various aspects of their lives
  • Water harvesting
  • Purification of dirty water
  • Effects and adaptation to climate change
  • Social impacts of climate change
  • Systems of mitigation
  • Systems of communication

·         The reality of climate change impacts on the environment


4) Workshop venue, meals and accommodation

  • The meals and accommodation were great
  • The meals needed some balancing
  • The venue was in a good environment
  • Accommodation was classic
  • More indigenous food and sugar free products should be introduced


5) Were the expectations of the participants met?

  • The information gained is very important  to the community
  • Expectations were partially met, I was expecting certificates and notes for the workshop which were not available
  • Expectations were partially met, the time was short with too many activities to cover and lack of notes or handouts
  • Yes, however, emphasis should be put on government to operationalize policies related to climatic change
  • Partially met, what we learnt was theory, lack of practical

6) All the participants agreed that the following topics were well covered and understood:

  • Course objectives, expectations and program overview
  • Introduction to ALIN and climate change projects
  • Discussions on coping and adaptation strategies
  • Identification of cases of vulnerabilities coping and adaptation
  • Way forward and strategies on networking and sharing climate change information


7) The following topics were partially understood:

  • An overview of climate change issues and relevance to local context
  • Discussions on impacts of climate change and vulnerabilities at community level
  • Ways to mitigate climate change at community level
  • Generation of key communication messages for IEC materials


8) Positive Comments:

  • The workshop was one of the best we have ever attended
  • The workshop was quite good especially on the function of informing the participants on climate change awareness
  • The workshop was participatory
  • Good facilitation


9) Negative Comments:

  • Short time frame
  • A visit to one of the affected areas was omitted from the program
  • We need to meet people at the grassroots level
  • Time keeper was not active
  • Lack of gender balance in facilitation
  • Allowance rate was too small


10) Recommendations 

  • Improve on the area of calling the participants to capture all the stakeholders in the issues of climate change awareness
  • In future, more time should be allocated to such workshops
  • We need money in our pockets and not accommodation
  • Participants should be allowed to spend wherever they wish rather than to be accommodated in dorms
  • Have more fun to make the workshop interesting
  • Participants should stay together in the next workshop
  • CIV’s should liaise with focal group committee and advisory when determining who to attend workshops


Annex 3   List of participants - Climate change awareness Workshop, Kitui







Dorothy Amboka

ALIN, Kyuso




Karogo Gichuki

MOA, Mwingi



Anne James

Chairperson, Mutomo




Maimuna Kabatesi




Diana Kaloki

Mutomo FG




Thomas Kiema

Mutomo FG




Jackson King’ondu

Mutomo FG




Eric Kisiangani

Practical Action, NBI




Paul Mutua Kisilu

OP- Administration




Rose K. Kisinga

Kyuso FG




Mathew I. Kitema

SASOL Foundation




Jennifer Kyambati

Kyuso FG




Samuel Maluki S.





Noah Lusaka




Karimi Maina

Kyuso fruit growers




Japheth Kinyua M.

MOA,  Mwingi




Julius Matei

CKF, Kyuso



Elizabeth Matuku

Mutomo FG




Andrew Mwendo

CIV, Mutomo



Ali H. Mulei

Kyuso FG




Patrick B Mumali





Maluki Enock Mumo

MOA, Mwingi




Janet Mumo

Kitui Development Centre




Agnes Muthaka

Ngomola WG, Kyuso




Mutui P. muthengi

Kyuso sec. school




Joseph m. Mwanzwii

MOA, mutomo



Katana Mwendwa

Kitui Farmers Asso.




Peter Muindi




John Njue

ALIN, Kyuso




Solomon Nyenze

Adult Education Mutomo




Flora N Nzambuli

Mutomo FG




Chrisitine Nzuki

Mutomo FFS




C. Omondi Onyango

Kitui energy Centre



Esther Musau

MYWO, Mutomo




Williamson M Katwii

Kyuso youth officer




Agnes K Mughi

Kyuso FG/ Adult Edu