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Literacy Strategies and Activities

 Table of Contents

Strategy #1: Anticipation Guide – p. 3-5

Strategy #2: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction – p. 6

Strategy #3: Graphic Organizers – p. 7-8

Strategy #4: I-Search – p.9

Strategy #5: Reflective Dialogue Journal – p.10-11

Strategy #6: Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) – p.12-13

Strategy #7: The ReQuest Procedure – p.14

Strategy #8: Semantic Mapping – p.15-16

Strategy #9: SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review) – p.17

Strategy #10: Text Walk – p.18

Strategy #11: Think Alouds – p.19-20

Strategy #12: Prereading Plan (PREP) – p.21

Strategy #13: Think Sheet – p.22

Strategy #14: Discussion Web – p.23
Strategy #15: Augmented Activation Activity – p.24

 

 
Strategy #1:
Anticipation Guides

 

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to direct student’s attention to specific facts related to the assigned reading before reading it, which helps them focus their attention on those facts during reading.

 

Procedure/Activity:

  1. Provide students with a number of statements that are either true or false on a separate worksheet.
  2. Students will mark whether or not they think the statement is true, and then read the assigned text to find out what the author says.

 

Evaluation: 

After reading the assigned text, students should be able to correctly answer the statements on the worksheet, and correct any mistakes.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

Elie Wiesel biography retrieved November 23rd from:
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/HOLO/ELIEBIO.HTM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name: ________________________

Determine whether these statements are true/false by indicating in the space provided:

 

1.     ___  William Faulkner wrote Night.

2.     ___  Elie Wiesel grew up in a small village in Romania.

3.     ___  Elie Wiesel is Jewish.

4.     ___  James Joyce once said: "...to remain silent and indifferent is the greatest sin of all..."

5.     ___  Night is about animal life in a dark forest.

6.     ___  Elie Wiesel believed that it is moral responsibility of all people to fight hatred, racism and genocide.

7.     ___  In 1965, Wiesel’s family was deported from his village.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assigned text: Elie Wiesel Biography

 

From the United States Holocaust Memorial website:

Elie Wiesel's statement, "...to remain silent and indifferent is the greatest sin of all..."stands as a succinct summary of his views on life and serves as the driving force of his work. Wiesel is the author of 36 works dealing with Judaism, the Holocaust, and the moral responsibility of all people to fight hatred, racism and genocide.

Born September 30, 1928, Eliezer Wiesel led a life representative of many Jewish children. Growing up in a small village in Romania, his world revolved around family, religious study, community and God. Yet his family, community and his innocent faith were destroyed upon the deportation of his village in 1944. Arguably the most powerful and renowned passage in Holocaust literature, his first book, Night, records the inclusive experience of the Jews:

“Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky.
Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever.
Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never.”

 

And Wiesel has since dedicated his life to ensuring that none of us forget what happened to the Jews.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strategy #2: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction

 

Rationale/Objective: Using this strategy, students will be able to list characteristics and themes of transcendentalist poetry.

 

Procedure/Activity:

  1. Give students the concept of “transcendentalist poetry”
  2. Prepare a pile of poetry books by transcendentalist authors like Walt Whitman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and William Wadsworth.
  3. Give students time to look over the materials.
  4. Have them list characteristics of transcendentalist poetry such as nature, social change, and individualism, and integrate them into a graphic organizer of their choice (semantic mapping, venn diagram, etc.)
  5. Students will then generate questions about the topic, which they will attempt to answer through further reading, experimentation, and observation.

 

Evaluation:

Students should be able to describe the characteristics and themes of transcendentalist poetry using the books provided and a graphic organizer.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                               

 

Strategy #3: Using Graphic Organizers

 

Rationale/Objective: Students will be able to compare and contrast the qualities of the character’s Peter Keating and Howard Roark in Ayn Rand’s The Fountainhead visually.

 

Procedure/Activity:

  1. Have the students compare the two characters by using the venn diagram given on the attached worksheet which is to be handed out.
  2. Group students into groups of 3-4 and have them share their work.
  3. Discuss outcomes through an entire class discussion afterwards.

 

Evaluation:

Students will hand in their worksheets at the end of class, and should demonstrate the ability to compare and contrast qualities of the two characters.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Venn Diagram Worksheet                                

Name: _________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                         EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #4: The I-Search

 

Rationale/Objective:

Use this strategy as a starting point to help students practice research-writing.

 

Procedure/Activity:

Ask the students to write a report with the following criteria:

  1. In the introduction, have the student describe something that he or she already has knowledge about, concluding with the goal to learn something new.
  2. In the second part of the report, have the student describe the process of searching and learning new knowledge about his or her topic.
  3. In the third part of the report, the findings, have the students tell a story about the information researched and what it means beyond conclusive findings.
  4. In the conclusion of the report, students should reflectively assess what they’ve learned by researching, and how the gathered information can be utilized.

 

Ask students:

  1. What did you learn from writing this report?
  2. How does doing actual research to learn something differ from simply reading about it?

Evaluation: 

Using the structured framework of the I-Search, students should be able to write a cohesive research paper of their own chosen topic, and articulate why researching is an important tool in literacy.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                        

Strategy 5: Reflective Dialogue Journal

 

Rationale/Objective: Journals can be powerful assistive tools in a students learning. This post-reading strategy helps students reflect on what they read, allowing them to think about what they’ve learned, often resulting in better learning.

 

Procedure/Activity:

Have students read the introductory article on Walden, and write a reflective dialogue journal afterwards. To assist with the journal, provide a list of questions which the student should ask him or herself:

1. What did I learn reading this article?

2. What did I already know before I read this article? And how has reading it affected my understanding of what I knew?

3. What was hard to read about this article?
4. Was there a bias in the article?

5. How do I feel about this article?

6. What do I want to know now after having read this article?

 

Evaluation: 

Student’s journals will be collected and read.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

Walden article retrieved on November 25th, 2006, from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walden

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Article on Walden, retrieved from wikipedia:

Walden (also known as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau is one of the best-known non-fiction books written by an American.

Published in 1854, it details Thoreau's life for two years, two months, and two days in second-growth forest around the shores of Walden Pond, not far from his friends and family in Concord, Massachusetts. Walden was written so that the stay appears to be a year, with expressed seasonal divisions. Thoreau called it an experiment in simple living.

Walden is neither a novel nor a true autobiography, but a social critique of the Western World, with each chapter heralding some aspect of humanity that needed to be either renounced or praised. Along with his critique of the civilized world, Thoreau examines other issues afflicting man in society, ranging from economy (the first chapter of the book) and reading to solitude and higher laws. He also takes time to talk about the experience at Walden Pond itself, commenting on the animals and the way people treated him for living there, using those experiences to bring out his philosophical positions. This extended commentary on nature has often been interpreted as a strong statement to the natural religion that transcendentalists like Thoreau and Emerson were preaching.

More than a century later, Walden remains a touchstone for Americans seeking to "get in touch with Nature" and is a major cultural icon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                         EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #6: Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)

 

Rationale/Objective: This strategy is useful in teaching students how to answer questions from a textbook. Students will identify different types of questions, which will in turn help them answer questions from textbooks. This strategy also contributes to students metacognition skills (thinking about thinking), and help them improve the quality of their questions.

 

Procedure/Activity:

1. Using direct-instruction techniques, identify the three types of questions described by the instructional practice of QAR:
            a. “right there” questions – questions that simply require information                                                                                                                                                       supplied by the author.

b. “think and search” questions – questions that require you to take information from the text and reorganize it.

c. “in my head” questions – questions that combine the students prior                                                                                  knowledge with the information provided by the author.

            d. “on my own” – questions that rely mostly on students prior knowledge.

2. Hand out worksheet with sample paragraph and sample questions.

3. Based on the text, have students identify what type of questions are being asked.

 

Evaluation: 

Students should be able to write their own questions, writing at least one of each type of question discussed in class.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name: _______________________________

 

Read the paragraph below and identify the type of question being asked (“right there”, “think and search”, “in my head”):

 

Questions:

1. What is the concept of liminality?

 

2. What is the main idea of this passage?

3. Compare and contrast the image of clowns in the text to your own image of a clown.

 

4. What does the passage suggest about the symbolism of a clown?

 

5. Think of someone you know who you think is a class clown, why do you think he acts the way he does?

 

6. How can clowning be used in social activism?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                         EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #7: The ReQuest Procedure

 

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to help students identify qualities of good questions.

 

Procedure/Activity:

1.      Give students a text to read (below), have them read it silently, then ask for one student to volunteer to read the text orally.

2.      Have students prepare and ask the teacher all the questions they can think of about the text which they just read.

3.      When students can’t think of any more questions, the teacher will then ask questions to the class, concentrating on open-ended, thought-provoking questions that call for critical thinking and creativity.

4.      Analyze and discuss the qualities of the questions asked.

5.      Encourage students to ask more provocative questions, now that they have practiced good question-making skills.

 

 

Evaluation:

Based on the class discussion, students should be able to identify the qualities of good questions.

 

References:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

Text retrieved November 25th, from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarlet_letter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                         EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #8: Semantic Mapping

 

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy before, during or after reading to help develop the thinking processes of students and construct meaning about The Scarlet Letter.

 

Procedure/Activity:

 

  1. Give semantic mapping handout for students to fill out.
  2. Read the words and phrases out loud, asking students which is the most general.
  3. Engage in whole-class discussion about why they think any particular word is the most general.
  4. Have students brainstorm other ideas that relate to each other, and map out agreed upon ideas.
  5. Have students read the assigned text, and compare the predictions made in their semantic maps to the author’s own connections.
  6. Lead class discussion about comparing student’s predictions to what they’ve read.
  7. Re-draw semantic map to include terms introduced by the text.

 

Evaluation: 

 Students will be able to draw a semantic map showing the most general concept of The Scarlet Letter and relating ideas, backed up by textual evidence.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semantic Mapping Worksheet: The Scarlet Letter
Name: _______________________

 



TERMS

 

Adultery

“A” Symbol

 

Arthur Dimmesdale

Hester Prynne

Guilt

Community

Shame

Torture

Lust

Love

Religion


 
 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                         EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #9: SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review).

 

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to help students engage the text systematically.

 

Procedure/Activity:

  1. Handout a text for the class.
  2. Survey – have students skim the text, taking note of the headings, subheadings, important illustrations, and bold and italicized face type, which should give them a good idea about what the text is about.
  3. Question – have students write a couple of questions that they want the text to answer. This brings out students funds of knowledge, and what they really want to know.
  4. Read – have students read the text, concentrating on important passages that either offer new information, or answer their questions, and skimming over parts of the text that contain prior knowledge.
  5. Recite – have students put away their text and reflect on what they’ve learned. Students should be encouraged to use graphic organizers, and map their ideas from memory, not referring back to the text.
  6. Review – have students go back to the text and compare the answers which they formed with what was actually said in the text, which helps construct meaning.

 

Evaluation: 

Using SQRRR, students should be able to form thought-provoking questions about the text and have them answered by the end of the procedure.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                         EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #10: Text Walk

 

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to help students understand the different ways which text can be read, such as a narrative text versus an expository text. A text walk can help activate student’s prior knowledge, and helps set specific purposes for reading, which may also increase student interest in the reading.

 

Procedure/Activity:

1.      Since it is the first time the students will be exposed to the strategy, it will be teacher-guided. Skim the assigned text, pointing out features which the class should pay attention to.

2.      Choose specific features of the text and present them on an overhead projector.

3.      Have students follow along, describing what kind of text it is (narrative, expository, etc.) and how they should read it.

 

Evaluation: 

Students should be able to identify the type of text they are given, and how to approach it.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                         EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #11: Think Alouds

 

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to help students develop successful thinking strategies to use during pre-reading, reading, and post-reading.

 

Procedure/Activity:

  1. Using a teacher demonstration, describe the way you think about the text, and what strategies you use to approach the text. Pre-reading strategies should include establishing purpose, making predictions, and activating prior knowledge. Reading strategies should include mapping and graphic organizers. And post-reading strategies should include summarizing the text, and checking to see whether the purpose for reading has been fulfilled or not.
  2. Hand out think-aloud worksheet, and ask students to fill it in as they read an assigned text.
  3. Group students into groups of 3-4, and have them discuss the strategies which they used.

 

Evaluation: 

Students will be able to articulate and identify successful strategies to use while reading.

 

Reference:                          

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Think-Aloud Worksheet                  Name:__________________________

                                                                                                            EDUC 215, Fall 2006

 

Strategy #12: Prereading Plan (PREP)

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to tap into student’s prior knowledge on topics. Helpful in understanding the interests and background of individual students.

 

Procedure/Activity:

  1. Provide an image (below). Ask students what they think.
  2. Ask students what made them think of their responses, and discuss.
  3. Afterwards, ask students if discussing the topic has helped them think of anything else.

 

 

Evaluation:

Analyze the quality and quantity of each student’s responses. If the student’s associations are simple and nonsensical, the student most likely has little prior knowledge about the topic. If the student’s associations provide descriptions and complicated explanations, the student most likely has some prior knowledge about the topic. If the student provides general, overview concepts and analogies, the student most likely has much prior knowledge about the topic.

 

References:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

Image retrieved November 26, 2006, from Wilson’s Almanac:
www.wilsonsalmanac.com/images2/stalin_po2.jpg

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                            EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #13: Think Sheet

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to monitor student’s prior knowledge by contrasting their pre-instructional ideas with ideas from the text.

 

Procedure:

  1. Formulate a central question about the topic which is being studied.
  2. Write the question on the heading of a sheet of paper.
  3. Divide the sheet into three columns. In the first column, labeled “My Questions”, students will record any questions they have about the topic. In the second column, labeled “My Ideas”, students will record any pre-instructional ideas they have about the topic. In the third column, labeled “Text Ideas”, students will read the text and record ideas from the text that either answer their questions or affirm/disprove their pre-reading ideas.

 

Activity:

 

Evaluation:

Students will demonstrate their ability to compare and contrast their own ideas with ideas from the text.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                            EDUC 215, Fall 2006

Strategy #14: Discussion Web

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to produce a structured discussion with students around a central issue or concept from the text provided.

 

Procedure:

  1. Pair students up.
  2. Starting with a central concept, have each pair of students determine a pro or con stance in agreement or disagreement about the concept with evidence from the text.
  3. Take two pairs of students and group them together. Do this for the whole class.
  4. New groups of four students will try to convince each other of their positions and all members of each group will try to reach a consensus.
  5. Following their decision, group members are again asked to join another group, and again must try to convince the other group of their stance and reach consensus.
  6. Finally, each group of eight members selects a spokesperson who reports their stance to the class.

 

Activity:

 

Evaluation:

Students will be able to articulate their position on the given topic through a discussion web.

 

Reference:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

                                                                                                            EDUC 215, Fall 2006

 

Strategy #15: Augmented Activation Activity

Rationale/Objective: Use this strategy to activate and challenge a student’s prior beliefs about the treatment of Japanese-Americans in World War II. This strategy can also be used to correct preconceptions that are at odds with the accepted belief.

 

Procedure/Activity:

  1. Present a text (below) designed to surprise the student by opposing the common belief that Japanese-American citizens were treated civilly in World War II.
  2. Supplement the text with a verbal refutation of the commonly accepted belief, and a direction towards the correct alternative belief.
  3. Follow-up with a guided discussion between students, and between teachers and students.

 

 

Evaluation:

Through the text presented and in-class discussion, students will demonstrate how their prior beliefs were challenged.

 

References:

Anders, Patricia L & Guzzetti, Barbara J (2005).  Literacy Instruction the Content Areas. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

 

Text retrieved November 26, 2006, from:
http://www.infoplease.com/spot/internment1.html

 

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