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Armillaria mellea / Honingzwam

Kenmerken
– Plaatjeszwam uit de familie van Physalacriaceae
– Groeit in grote bundels uit hout
– Hoed licht geschubd tot geschubd
– Plaatjes staan dicht opeen en zijn eerst witgelig, later vleeskleurig
– De steel is vlezig
– De steel heeft een vlezige ring
– De zwam heeft een bruine tot honingachtige kleur
– Het vlees ruikt aangenaam naar paddenstoel
– De hoed kan tot 10 centimeter groot worden

Algemeen in bossen en parken, overal waar hout aanwezig is. Groeit uit bomen  en ook uit de ondergrondse wortels van bomen daardoor lijkt het dat hij ook op gras groeit (dat zijn dus de wortels). Overal op het Noordelijk Halfrond.

Seizoen
Te vinden van september tot en met november.

Gebruik
Gebruik alleen de hoeden, de stelen zijn taai. Verwerk ze in quiche, sauzen en soepen. Je kunt ze ook goed bakken en tot poeder verwerken, nadat ze gerookt en gedroogd zijn.

Te verwarren met
verwisseling kan optreden met de gewone zwavelkop. Let vooral op de lamellen bij het determineren: deze zijn bij de gewone zwavelkop groenig. Bij de eetbare dennenzwavelkop wit ( ook eetbaar ). Verwarring met de zeer giftige (dodelijk giftig zelfs) Cortinarius rubellus is denkbaar, maar die groeit niet in bundels en ook niet op hout.

Int J Med Mushrooms. 2013;15(1):1-8.
Antioxidant and antiedema properties of solid-state cultured honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (higher Basidiomycetes), extracts and their polysaccharide and polyphenol contents.
Lai MN1, Ng LT.

Culinary-medicinal honey mushroom or Mi-Huan-Ku, Armillaria mellea (AM), is a popular ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine for treating diseases of geriatric patients. This study aimed to examine the effect of cultured substrates on the mycelial growth of AM and evaluate its antioxidant and antiedema activities as well as its total polysaccharide and polyphenol contents. Results showed that AM grew best on the maize medium and worst on the potato medium. AM ethanol extract (AM-EtOH) showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than AM aqueous extract (AM-H₂O). However, they were weak in metal chelation and reducing power. AM-EtOH but not AM-H₂O at 200 mg/kg showed antiedema activity in rats. The total β-glucan content of AM-H₂O and AM-EtOH was 21.95% and 3.50%, respectively. AM-EtOH showed higher phenol but lower flavonoid content than AM-H₂O. These results indicate that maize is a good source of substrate for mass production of AM mycelia, and its potency of DPPH radical scavenging and antiedema activities was contributed mainly by the phenolic compounds, not the level of polysaccharide content.

Int J Med Mushrooms. 2011;13(2):167-75.
Chemical, pharmacological, and biological characterization of the culinary-medicinal honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. (Agaricomycetideae): a review.
Muszyńska B1, Sułkowska-Ziaja K, Wołkowska M, Ekiert H.

Recently, studies have been conducted on the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of the culinary-medicinal Honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) P. Kumm. (higher Basidiomycetes). It is considered in Europe and Asia as edible and medicinal, when appropriately prepared, and has demonstrated the presence of different groups of organic compounds, including carbohydrates, sterols, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sesquiterpenes, non-hallucinogenic indole compounds, peptides, enzymes, adenosine derivatives, and many other components. Most of these metabolite groups possess potential therapeutic and dietary values. The results of quantitative analyses of indole compounds and heavy metals signal potential health hazards for humans. Some of the studies reviewed herein describe in detail the mechanism of symbiosis between A. mellea and the orchid species Gastrodia elata. This orchid is native to Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, and is used in therapeutics in official Chinese medicine.

Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(2):161-8.
Armillaridin, a Honey Medicinal Mushroom, Armillaria mellea (Higher Basidiomycetes) Component, Inhibits Differentiation and Activation of Human Macrophages. Liu TP1, Chen CC2, Shiao PY3, Shieh HR3, Chen YY4, Chen YJ5.
Armillaridin (AM) is an aromatic ester compound isolated from honey medicinal mushroom, Armillaria mellea, which has anti-cancer potential. This study was designed to examine the effects of AM on differentiation and activation macrophages, the major ontogeny of innate immunity. Macrophages were derived from CD14+ monocytes which were sorted from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test. Cells were stained with Liu's dye for observation of morphology. Expression of surface antigens was examined by flow cytometric analysis. Phagocytosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as functional assays, were evaluated by counting engulfed yeasts and DCFH-DA reaction. The viability of macrophages was not significantly reduced by AM. AM at nontoxic concentrations markedly increased cytoplasmic vacuoles. The expression of surface CD14, CD16, CD36, and HLA-DR was suppressed. The phagocytosis function, but not ROS production, of macrophages was inhibited by AM. Armillaridin could inhibit the differentiation and activation of human macrophages. It may have potential to be developed as a biological response modifier for inflammatory diseases.
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