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Coriolus / Trametes / Elfenbankje

Coriolus versicolor of Trametes versicolor of Gewoon elfenbankje

Beschrijving

Vruchtlichaam éénjarig, waaier- tot rozetvormig, meestal in grote groepen in rijen of dakpansgewijs groeiend. Hoed 2-7 x 1-5 cm, 1-5 mm dik. Bovenzijde concentrisch gezoneerd, golvend, fluwelig, met zwarte, blauwige, bruine, roodachtige en gelige zones, vaak met weerschijn, met een scherpe, gekerfde, wittige rand.
Buisjes 0,5-4 mm lang, wittig. Poriën 2-4 per mm, rond tot hoekig, wit of crème tot gelig-oker. Vlees dun, leerachtig taai, wittig, met een zwart laagje onder het hoedoppervlak.
Sporeekleur wit.

Voorkomen
Op stronken, stobben, stammen en takken van loofbomen, soms op naaldhout (spar). In het hout is rechtsboven witrot zichtbaar. Saprofiet.

Gebruik
Preparaten van de Coriolus versicolor behoren tot de best onderbouwde natuurlijke preparaten bij kanker. Diverse studies met cellijnen en bij dieren en mensen, waarvan een aantal fase III-studies, laten een significant antimicrobieel, antiviraal en antitumor effect zien wanneer het naast chemotherapie en/of radiotherapie wordt ingezet. Zo zien we een significante verlenging van de levensduur met 15% bij mensen met darmkanker (stadium Dukes C) wanneer zij gebruik maken van de PSK-fractie van de coriolus versicolor. In andere fase III studies wordt dit bevestigd] en we zien ook in een aantal gerandomiseerde studies een vermindering van de sterfte bij oesafuguscarcinomen en maag- en darmcarcinomen, een langere overleving bij primair leverkanker, bij non-lymfatische leukemie, bij acute leukemie, bij nasopharynxcarcinoom en bij borstkanker. Het gunstige effect bij kanker wordt toegeschreven aan zowel cytoxische als cytostatische effecten van de PSK-fractie, als wel een stimulatie van de cellulaire afweer. Ook zijn er aanwijzingen voor een anti-metastatisch effect dankzij een remming van de vorming van nieuwe bloedvaten (neo-angiogeneseremmend effect). Aangezien bij veel vormen van kanker een verbetering van het immuunsysteem en remming van neo-angiogenese nuttig kan zijn, is deze Coriolus versicolor goed te gebruiken in een kankertherapie.

De werkzame bestanddelen worden met heet water geëxtraheerd uit het mycelium van deze paddestoel en bestaat uit twee aan eiwitgebonden polysacchariden; polysaccharide K (PSK, ook wel Krestin genoemd) en Polysaccharide-Peptide (PSP). Het vruchtgedeelte van de paddestoel is vrij houtachtig en vezelrijk en wordt niet gegeten, maar wel gebruikt voor tincturen en thee. De gebruikelijke dosering van het myceliumextract en van het extract van de jonge bovengrondse delen is drie gram per dag, voor tenminste de eerste twee weken en dan eventueel verminderen naar anderhalf gram als onderhoud. Het kan als thee worden ingenomen of in capsules. In de literatuur worden nauwelijks bijwerkingen gemeld, behalve wat maag- of darmklachten. Verder is er een melding van verkleuring van de vingernagels.

Enkele wetenschappelijke onderzoeken
  • Chu KK, Ho SS, Chow AH. Coriolus versicolor: a medicinal mushroom with promising immunotherapeutic values. J Clin Pharmacol 2002 Sep;42(9):976-84.
  • Ho CY, Lau CB, Kim CF, Leung KN, Fung KP, Tse TF, et al. Differential effect of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract on cytokine production by murine lymphocytes in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol 2004 Nov;4(12):1549-57.
  • Ng TB. A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae). [Review] [35 refs]. General Pharmacology. 1998 Jan;30(1):1-4.
Meer info op 

Le Coriolus versicolor (CV) est le chef de file des immunostimulants. Il est utilisé avec succès comme adjuvant des radiochimiothérapies dans les cancers digestifs, ORL, du sein, du système nerveux, de la peau, du poumon, du foie... Il stimule la voie TH1 avec libération d’IL2, de TNF et d’interférons. Il empêche la dégradation de l’immunité vers la voie TH2 (allergie) ou TH3 (auto-immunité). En corollaire, il peut éviter les effets secondaires inhérents à la vaccination (stimulation excessive TH2 ou TH3). Le CV possède des propriétés antivirales bien établies contre l’herpès et le papillomavirus. Son activité anti-VIH constatée in vitro reste à prouver chez les patients. C’est un excellent hépatoprotecteur, propriété précieuse chez les patients qui subissent une chimiothérapie.

Coriolus versicolor (CV) is the strongest immunostimulating agent currently used. It is successfully added to protocoles including radio-chimiotherapy regimens in digestive, upper respiratory, breast, nervous system, skin, lung or hepatic cancers. It stimulates immunity (TH1) with IL2, TNF or interferons release. It hinders the switch to TH2 (allergy) or TH3 (auto-immunity). It therefore may limitate the adverse reactions related to vaccination. (excess in TH2 or TH3 stimulation). CV is a potent antiviral agent against herpes and papillomavirus. Its anti-HIV activity observed in vitro requires further clinical investigations. It is an efficacious hepatoprotective agent, which is quite usefull in patients undergoing chemotherapy and receiving many medications.



Turkey tails (Trametes versicolor L.) is the most widely researched of the immune-enhancing mushrooms. Studies of the physiological effects of this mushroom demonstrate that among other things it: 1) acts as an immunomodulator of NK cells1 and an activator;2,3 2 ) increases thymus weight and evidences restorative effects;4 and 3) supports healthy physiologic responses during chemotherapy and radiotherapy;5 including support of white blood cell count.6 1 The immunomodulator PSK induces in vitro cytotoxic activity in tumour cell lines via arrest of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis. Jiménez-Medina E, Berruguilla E, Romero I, et al. BMC Cancer. 2008 Mar 24;8:78. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8366723; Free full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291471/?tool=pubmed 2 Activation of human natural killer cells by the protein-bound polysaccharide PSK independently of interferon and interleukin 2. Kariya Y, Inoue N, Kihara T, et al. Immunol Lett. 1992 Feb 15;31(3):241-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1372283 3 Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) induces cytotoxic activity in the NKL human natural killer cell line. Pedrinaci S, Algarra I, Garrido F. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1999;29(4):135-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10784373 4 Involution of the thymus in tumor-bearing mice and its restoration by PSK. II. Mechanism of the involution and its restoration. Oguchi Y, Morita I, Fujii T, et al. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1987 Oct;24(2):93-99. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3437442 5 Antimetastatic Effects of P5K (Krestin), a Protein-bound Polysaccharide Obtained from Basidiomycetes: An Overview. Kobayashi H, Matsunaga K, Y Oguchi. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1995 Apr-May;4(3):275-281. Free full text auto-download: cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/4/3/275.full.pdf 6 A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae). Ng TB. Gen Pharmacol. 1998 Jan;30(1):1-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9457474



Turkey Tail / Coriolus / Trametes

Botany
The turkey tail fungus is commonly found throughout North America, Asia, and Europe. Its fruiting bodies overlap one another, forming a dense mass that grows on tree trunks, stumps, and fallen trees. The colors of the distinctive layers created by these bodies may be light to dark brown or gray. The polysaccharides of the fruiting bodies are commercially marketed as a tea that is commonly used in Asian and European traditional medicine. 1

History
Folklore remedies of turkey tail include the treatment of lung and liver infections. In China, turkey tail has been used as a preventive and curative agent for liver infections and liver cancer. In Japan, it is considered a panacea for a variety of cancers. Overall, the mycelium and fruiting body of the mushroom is considered an immune stimulant and is believed to have anticarcinogenic activity. 1 , 2 , 3

Chemistry
The water-extracted protein-bound polysaccharide krestin (PSK) and polysaccharide peptide (PSP) polysaccharides of C. versicolor have immunomodulating and antitumor activity. They are chemically similar but distinguished by fucose in PSK and rhamnose and arabinose in PSP. PSP has a molecular weight of 100 kDa. The polypeptide component contains mostly glutamic and aspartic acids and the polysaccharides contain primarily alpha-1,4 and beta-1,3 glucosidic linkages. 2 , 3 , 4

Uses and Pharmacology
Clinical research with PSK began around 1970 and has focused on its immunotherapeutic efficacy in stomach, colorectal, esophageal, nasopharyngeal, lung, and breast cancers. Overall, the polysaccharides in PSK reportedly increase gamma-interferon production, interleukin-2 production, and T-cell proliferation, therefore improving immune system functioning. Other studies have focused on the antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant properties of PSK. 1

Immune system stimulant
Animal data
Research reveals little or not information regarding immune system stimulants with the use of this product.

Clinical data
A multicentered, randomized clinical trial of 262 gastric cancer patients in Japan resulted in PSK improving the 5-year disease-free rate (p = 0.047) and 5-year survival rate ( P = 0.044) when combined as an adjuvant treatment with standard chemotherapy in patients after curative gastrectomy. 5 , 6 Another clinical study of 579 patients followed for 5 years also supports the use of PSK as an adjuvant immunochemotherapeutic agent for patients who have had curative gastric resection. 7 , 8 Meta-analysis of clinical trials provide evidence of a survival benefit for stage I gastric cancer with PSK. 9 , 10

A retrospective study of 185 patients with non-small cell lung cancer at stages I through III supports the use of PSK as adjuvant treatment after radiotherapy. The 5-year survival rates of patients were statistically significant. 11

Two randomized clinical trials found PSK useful as a maintenance therapy for patients following curative surgical operations for colorectal cancer. In both trials, the survival rate of patients was significantly increased ( P < 0.05) probably because of increased immune system response induced by PSK. 12 , 13

An in vitro study with PSP demonstrated antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (HIV-1). The mechanism of action is postulated to include PSK interfering with the binding of HIV-1 to its cellular target. 14 Other in vitro studies in mice suggest a protective effect of PSK against Candida infection mainly through TNF-alpha activity. 15

There are several review articles on PSK as a cancer chemo-preventative agent. The effect is postulated to include induction of immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors as well as antioxidant activity. 16 , 17 , 18 , 19

Dosage
There is no recent clinical evidence to support specific dosage of turkey tail.

Pregnancy/Lactation
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions
None well documented.

Adverse Reactions
Adverse effects observed in patients include diarrhea, darkened stools, and darkened nail pigmentation. PSK is considered to be very well tolerated by patients. 1 Additional scientific studies are needed to determine a profile of potential serious side effects.

Toxicology
Research reveals little or no information regarding toxicology with the use of this product.

Bibliography
1. Kidd PM. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Altern Med Rev . 2000;5:4-27.
2. Tsukagoshi S, Hashimoto Y, Fujii G, Kobayashi H, Nomoto K, Orita K. Krestin (PSK). Cancer Treat Rev . 1984;11:131-155.
3. Ng TB. A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae). Gen Pharmacol . 1998;30:1-4.
4. Kobayashi H, Matsunaga K, Oguchi Y. Antimetastatic effects of PSK (Krestin), a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained from basidiomycetes: an overview. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 1995;4:275-281.
5. Nakazato H, Koike A, Saji S, Ogawa N, Sakamoto J. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. Study Group of Immunochemotherapy with PSK for Gastric Cancer. Lancet . 1994;343:1122-1126.
6. Fukushima M. Adjuvant therapy of gastric cancer: the Japanese experience. Semin Oncol . 1996;23:369-378.
7. Niimoto M, Hattori T, Tamada R, Sugimachi K, Inokuchi K, Ogawa N. Postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy with mitomycin C, futraful and PSK for gastric cancer. An analysis of data on 579 patients followed for five years. Jpn J Surg . 1988;18:681-686.
8. Iguchi C, Nio Y, Takeda H, et al. Plant polysaccharide PSK: cytostatic effects on growth and invasion; modulating effect on the expression of HLA and adhesion molecules on human gastric and colonic tumor cell surface. Anticancer Res . 2001;21:1007-1013.
9. Kim R, Yoshida K, Toge T. Current status and future perspectives on chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer: can the clinical data from Japan lead to a standard international therapy? [in Japanese]. Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi . 2001;102:770-777.
10. Ogoshi K, Kondoh Y, Tajima T, Mitomi T. Effect of PSK on cell-mediated immune status in the patients of stomach cancer [in Japanese]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho . 1983;10:811-817.
11. Hayakawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Saito Y, et al. Effect of krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment on the prognosis after radical radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res . 1993;13:1815-1820.
12. Mitomi T, Tsuchiya S, Iijima N, et al. Randomized, controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer. The Cooperative Study Group of Surgical Adjuvant Immunochemotherapy for Cancer of Colon and Rectum (Kanagawa). Dis Colon Rectum . 1992;35:123-130.
13. Torisu M, Hayashi Y, Ishimitsu T, et al. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother . 1990;31:261-268.
14. Collins RA, Ng TB. Polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor has potential for use against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Life Sci . 1997;60:PL383-PL387.
15. Ohmura Y, Matsunaga K, Motokawa I, Sakurai K, Ando T. Protective effects of a protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, on Candida albicans infection in mice via tumor necrosis factor-alpha induction. Int Immunopharmacol . 2001;1:1797-1811.
16. Kobayashi H, Matsunaga K, Fujii M. PSK as a chemopreventive agent. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 1993;2:271-276.
17. Garcia-Lora A, Pedrinaci S, Garrido F. Protein-bound polysaccharide K and interleukin-2 regulate different nuclear transcription factors in the NKL human natural killer cell line. Cancer Immunol Immunother . 2001;50:191-198.
18. Ooi VE, Liu F. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr Med Chem . 2000;7:715-729.
19. Yang MM, Chen Z, Kwok JS. The anti-tumor effect of a small polypeptide from Coriolus versicolor (SPCV). Am J Chin Med . 1992;20:221-232.



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