Spirulina

Spirulina pacifica is een specifieke stam van de eetbare microalg Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) die zeer rijk is  aan voedingsstoffen. De blauwalg wordt gekweekt op Hawaii en is ’s werelds meest voedzame greenfood.

Spirulina pacifica is zeer eiwitrijk, waarbij alle essentiële aminozuren vertegenwoordigd zijn. Het is de rijkste bron van bètacaroteen en gemengde carotenoïden (waaronder zeaxanthine) ter wereld. Ook bevat spirulina het meeste vitamine E van alle natuurlijke grondstoffen en is het 49% actiever in het lichaam dan synthetische vitamine E. Bovendien bevat spirulina vitamine K2 waarvan steeds duidelijker wordt dat het een belangrijke rol speelt bij het behoud van sterke botten en schone bloedvaten. Er is geen betere bron van het omega-6 vetzuur gammalinoleenzuur (GLA). Spirulina bevat 3 keer meer GLA dan teunisbloemolie. In totaal bevat spirulina 9 belangrijke vitaminen, waaronder vitamine B1, B2, B3, B6 en B12. Bovendien bevat het meer dan 14 mineralen die zijn gebonden aan 8 essentiële aminozuren zoals methionine en cysteïne. Tot slot is het rijk aan chlorofyl en het antioxidantenzym superoxidedismutase (SOD).

Indicaties

aansterken tijdens/na ziekte
(chronische) vermoeidheid
sport (uithoudingsvermogen, spierherstel)
verminderde weerstand
bacteriële en virale infecties
allergieën (waaronder hooikoorts, voedselallergie)
leveraandoeningen (waaronder leververvetting)
zware metalen belasting
stralingsbelasting
ondersteuning ontgifting en reiniging
kanker(preventie)
ontstekingen
artritis
zweren/wondheling
bloedarmoede
trombose(preventie)
beroerte
neuroprotectie (geheugen, concentratie)
hyperlipidemie (hypercholesterolemie, hypertriglyceridemie)
overgewicht (eetlust, vetverbranding, energie)
diabetes type 2 (glycemische controle, bloedlipiden)
intestinale dysbiose (waaronder candidiasis)
hart- en vaatziekten

Contra-indicaties

overgevoeligheid voor spirulina
fenylketonurie

Gebruiksadviezen

Onderhoudsdosering: 1-3 gram per dag 
Therapeutische dosering: 3-8 gram per dag (of hoger)
Omdat spirulina gewoon voeding is, kan het veilig in hoge doseringen en op ongezette tijden genomen worden. Als men niet gewend is om veel greens te nuttigen is het raadzaam om de dosering geleidelijk op te voeren

Interactie

In dieronderzoek is aangetoond dat spirulina de nieren beschermt tegen beschadiging door gentamycine, kwik en cisplatine en het hart tegen beschadiging door doxorubicine.
Spirulina kan een additief effect hebben bij het gebruik van ACE-remmers, bloedverdunners, diabetesmedicatie, antihistaminica, cholesterolverlagers en antivirale medicijnen.
Spirulina kan de werking van immunosuppressiva verminderen door het stimuleren van het immuunsysteem.
Veiligheid

Spirulina is zeer veilig, ook in hoge doseringen (in dieronderzoek hadden orale doses spirulina tot 1 gram/kg/dag geen toxische effecten). 

Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2005 Oct;6(5):373-9.
Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina.
Khan Z1, Bhadouria P, Bisen PS.
Spirulina, a filamentous cyanobacterium, possesses diverse biological activities and nutritional significance due to high concentration of natural nutrients, having bio-modulatory and immuno-modulatory functions. Different Spirulina preparations influence immune system viz. increase phagocytic activity of macrophages, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines, increase accumulation of NK cells into tissue and activation and mobilization of T and B cells. Spirulina have also shown to perform regulatory role on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by exhibiting glucose and lipid profile correcting activity in experimental animals and in diabetic patients. Preparations have been found to be active against several enveloped viruses including herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus and HIV. They are capable to inhibit carcinogenesis due to anti-oxidant properties that protect tissues and also reduce toxicity of liver, kidney and testes.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jan;42(1):142-51. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ac7a45.
Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans.
Kalafati M1, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Paschalis V, Theodorou AA, Sakellariou GK, Koutedakis Y, Kouretas D.
PURPOSE:
Spirulina is a popular nutritional supplement that is accompanied by claiMSS for antioxidant and performance-enhancing effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of spirulina supplementation on (i) exercise performance, (ii) substrate metabolism, and (iii) blood redox status both at rest and after exercise.
METHODS:
Nine moderately trained males took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study. Each subject received either spirulina (6 g x d(-1)) or placebo for 4 wk. Each subject ran on a treadmill at an intensity corresponding to 70%-75% of their VO2max for 2 h and then at 95% VO2max to exhaustion. Exercise performance and respiratory quotient during exercise were measured after both placebo and spirulina supplementation. Blood samples were drawn before, immediately after, and at 1, 24, and 48 h after exercise. Reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined.
RESULTS:
Time to fatigue after the 2-h run was significantly longer after spirulina supplementation (2.05 +/- 0.68 vs 2.70 +/- 0.79 min). Ingestion of spirulina significantly decreased carbohydrate oxidation rate by 10.3% and increased fat oxidation rate by 10.9% during the 2-h run compared with the placebo trial. GSH levels were higher after the spirulina supplementation compared with placebo at rest and 24 h after exercise. TBARS levels increased after exercise after placebo but not after spirulina supplementation. Protein carbonyls, catalase, and TAC levels increased similarly immediately after and 1 h after exercise in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
Spirulina supplementation induced a significant increase in exercise performance, fat oxidation, and GSH concentration and attenuated the exercise-induced increase in lipid peroxidation.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Aug;51(7):593-604. doi: 10.1080/10408391003721719.
United States pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulina.
Marles RJ1, Barrett ML, Barnes J, Chavez ML, Gardiner P, Ko R, Mahady GB, Low Dog T, Sarma ND, Giancaspro GI, Sharaf M, Griffiths J.
The Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee (DSI-EC) of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reviews the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for the purpose of determining whether they should be admitted as quality monographs into the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF). The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has enforcement authority to pursue a misbranding action in those instances where a dietary supplement product indicates that it conforms to USP standards but fails to so conform. Recently DSI-EC undertook a safety evaluation of spirulina, a widely used dietary ingredient. DSI-EC reviewed information from human clinical trials, animal studies, and regulatory and pharmacopeial sources and analyzed 31 adverse event reports regarding spirulina to assess potential health concerns. At the conclusion of this review, DSI-EC assigned a Class A safety rating for Spirulina maxima and S. platensis, thereby permitting the admission of quality monographs for these dietary supplement ingredients in USP-NF. DSI-EC continually monitors reports concerning the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for which USP dietary supplement monographs are developed. The DSI-EC may revisit the safety classification of spirulina as new information on this dietary ingredient becomes available.

Benefits & Dangers of Spirulina
Last Updated: Jun 24, 2015 | By Tracey Roizman, D.C.
Benefits & Dangers of Spirulina
Spirulina, a type of blue-green alga, was first used as a food source by ancient Aztecs. In modern times, it earned widespread popularity as a dietary supplement when NASA began to include it in the space diets of astronauts. Spirulina contains more than 50 percent protein, and is a rich source of essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Recent research has revealed a number of health benefits and some risks of spirulina.

Antiviral
Spirulina's high concentration of nutrients that influence metabolism and immune function make it a particularly healthy food, according to a study conducted at the J.C. Bose Institute of Life Sciences, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, India. Spirulina improves the activity of white blood cells, stimulates antibodies and increases the population of natural killer cells, say the authors of the study, which was published in the October 2005 "Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology." Herpes, influenza and HIV virus have all been inhibited by spirulina. Blood sugar and cholesterol improve with spirulina supplementation as well, and its antioxidant properties make it protective for the liver and kidneys.

Liver Protective
Spirulina has remarkable liver-protective and antioxidant effects, according to a joint Indian and Malaysian study published in the December 2008 "International Journal of Integrative Biology." In the study, laboratory mice with acetaminophen poisoning were given 800mg per kg body weight of Spirulina fusiformis. The researchers noted decreases in markers of stress, including elevated liver enzymes, damaged lipid molecules and tumor necrosis factor -- a sign of inflammation -- after the spirulina treatment. Also, spirulina restored levels of antioxidants depleted by acetaminophen.

Antihistamine
Inhibiting the release of the pro-inflammatory molecule histamine is the key to spirulina's immune boosting, anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic effects, according to a U.K. study published in the September 2008 "Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Studies using spirulina have shown the alga to improve several symptoms according to the authors.

Risks
While spirulina has been used as a source of protein for centuries, it carries with it certain health risks, according to a U.S. study conducted at the University of Pittsburgh. Traces of neurotoxins have been detected in samples of commercially prepared spirulina, report the authors of the study, which was published in the 2008 "Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology." 

Another study, conducted by the Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, and published in the June 2008 "Phytomedicine," reported a case of rhabdomyolysis -- a life-threatening condition in which muscle tissue breaks down -- after ingestion of a dietary spirulina supplement. In rhabdomyolysis, muscle cell contents travel through the bloodstream and may cause kidney failure.
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