Spilanthes / Acmella / ABC kruid

Spilanthes oleracea of PARAKERS, CHAMPAGNEBLAD (Eng: Sechuan),of ABC kruid

Een origineel gewas met breed lancetvormig blad en gele bolvormige bloeiwijze. Pikante smaak en pittig als peper. De blaadjes van deze populaire groente in Madagaskar en rond de hele Indische Oceaan zijn lekker in pittige salades met rucola en korianderblad. Te gebruiken voor het genezen van chronisch droge ogen (bijv. na een oogoperatie) gebruik de uitgebloeide bloemknoppen en neem daar een héél klein stukje van.
Kauw dit in zijn geheel op, je ogen zijn dagenlang geactiveerd. Wanneer je een hele knop neemt heb je een aardige overdosis en voor enkele minuten een gevoelloze mond. De bloemen worden ook Buzz Buttons, Szechuan buttons, sansho buttons, en electric buttons genoemd.

Teelt: Half mei voorzaaien en eind juni op 40 cm uitplanten.

Wat merkwaardige, interessante, twijfelachtige info? http://sayara.be/
Gelaatsverzorging met natuurlijk BOTOX-effect : zonder injecties ! Eén van de nieuwigheden die u kan ontdekken tijdens de opendeurdag zijn de gelaatsverzorgingen met de kaviaarcosmetica van Belimarin. Deze producten bevatten tevens het extract van het champagneblad of ABC-kruid waarvan bewezen is dat het een natuurlijk BOTOX-effect geeft, zonder dat u voor injecties naar de plastisch chirurg moet stappen. Het resultaat is reeds na 1 beurt zichtbaar. De behandeling is heel exclusief en geeft een onmiddelijk resultaat. Het voordeel in vergelijking met Botox is dat de contractie van de spieren wordt afgezwakt maar niet wordt stilgelegd. Daardoor verminderen de uitdrukkingsrimpels maar is er geen onnatuurlijk effect. Momenteel heeft Sayara in België de exclusiviteit op deze behandelingen.
Parakers (ook wel champagneblad of ABC-kruid genoemd), is een Zuid-Amerikaanse plant waarvan het extract een 'natuurlijke Botox™ bevat en doet de huid ontspannen. De actieve bestanddelen verminderen de samentrekking van de spieren, gezichtsplooien en rimpels worden gladgestreken en de huid ziet er jonger en steviger uit.
Kaviaar bevat de hoogste concentratie van waardevolle elementen: vitaminen, eiwitten, lipiden en sterolen, evenals alle natuurlijke voedingsstoffen en sporenelementen. De kwaliteit van de werkzame bestanddelen van kaviaar stimuleren de functies van de huid en herstellen de vochtbalans.
Als één van de belangrijkste componenten van bindweefsel verzamelt hyaluronzuur het vocht in de huid. Fijne rimpels worden opgevuld en depressies bijgevuld. Het hyaluronzuur vormt een beschermende film op het huidoppervlak, die uitdrogen voorkomt en een zacht en glad uiterlijk geeft.

Wetenschappelijk onderzoek Spilanthes
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Spilanthol from Spilanthes acmella on Murine Macrophage by Down-Regulating LPS-Induced Inflammatory Mediators - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)
Diuretic activity of Spilanthes acmella flowers in... [J Ethnopharmacol. 2004] - PubMed result

  • Holetz FB, Pessini GL, Sanches NR, Cortez DA, Nakamura CV, Filho BP (2002). "Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases". Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 97 (7): 1027–31. doi:10.1590/S0074-02762002000700017. PMID 12471432

  • Ratnasooriya WD, Pieris KP, Samaratunga U, Jayakody JR (2004). "Diuretic activity of Spilanthes acmella flowers in rats". Journal of ethnopharmacology 91 (2-3): 317–20. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.01.006. PMID 15120455

  • Ley JP, Blings M, Krammer G, Reinders G, Schmidt CO, Bertram HJ (2006). "Isolation and synthesis of acmellonate, a new unsaturated long chain 2-ketol ester from Spilanthes acmella". Nat. Prod. Res. 20 (9): 798–804. doi:10.1080/14786410500246733. PMID 16753916.



http://www.aseanbiodiversity.info/abstract/51008592.pdf
The most widely reported use of A. oleracea, on the internet and in journals, is medicinal. Indeed, Baker (1884) was apparently enthusiastic about the plant describing its properties as .Contra odontalgiam remedium sisit notissimum, etiam in apparatum medicaminum Europaeorum aliarumque gentium receptum; praterea contra faucium et linguae astheniam atque gingivae laxitatem commendatur.. As one of its common names suggests, toothache plant, it has a reputation as a cure for problems of the mouth, especially the teeth and gums. Indeed many of my colleagues when seeing this plant in the Herbarium recognized it (or at least knew of the related species in Africa) and reported remedies for toothache.

The plant is said to have antiseptic and bacteriostatic properties as well as being topically anaesthetic, a combination that helps to fight tooth decay and, if that fails, to relieve pain. It was amusing to read in one web site that the Toothache plant was so called because the capitula .do look like a sore tooth.! Really! Recommendations vary from chewing the leaves, roots or capitula. The latter (apparently fresh or dry!) have a more noticeable effect.
Hooker (1881) described it, as Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea, as .having a hot burning taste which causes salivation. and that the capitula are sometimes chewed to relieve toothache and are considered by Indians as a powerful stimulant and sialogogue (a herb that promotes an increased flow of saliva). Atincture of the fresh or dried herb, as S. oleracea, is still used against toothache and gum problems in India (Anon., 1976). Whereas the boiled leaves and roots are used by Chinese herbalists in Malaya and the dried capitula are sold in Javanese markets for the same reason (Burkill, 1935), Jansen (1985) personally observed people in Guatemala and Ecuador chewing the capitula to relieve toothache.

Some of the other reported claims for the species are diverse: it has antifungal (recommended for use against Candida albicans) and antiviral
properties; as a sialagogue, like galanga root (Alpinia galanga, in the ginger family), it improves the appetite and digestive functions and overcomes nausea and vomiting; recommended for flatulence and even to remove intestinal worms; for gout and rheumatic affections; enhances the immune system.s resistance to infections, whether bacterial or viral and stimulates wound healing. The .Common Heritage Corporation., in an extensive site on Haiti.s medicinal plants, attributed our species as .an enhancer of the immune system and a prophylactic against malaria ... . Many of the www sites comment on the fact that the leaves have a similar flavour to Echinacea, or coneflower, and some of the medical properties are similar, particularlythe immune-enhancing activity.

 Another interesting use is that of an insecticide. Insecticidal properties have been reported for the species (see Jansen, 1985 for summary) with positive affects on both the Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. It appears that in all of these instances (both medical and insecticidal) spilanthol (N-isobutyl-4,6-decadienamide) is the active constituent. In Africa a decoction of dried pulverized capitula (4 per cent) with Lippia chevalieri and Senna occidentalis is taken as a remedy against malaria (Neuwinger, 2000).

A recent survey undertaken in five towns in Amazonas, Brazil, which has a high incidence of tuberculosis and resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, looked at the plants used by the lay population to treat this disease. Results showed that the majority of patients in the sample had used medicinal plants either before or after diagnosis. Spilanthes acmella D.C. [sic!], or Jambu, was among the top three plants used. A handful of the fresh leaves and flowers .taken ad libetum in 500 ml of water, juice or condensed milk. (Storey, 1997). However, the study did not include any tests or information on the effectiveness of the plant.
  • Burkill, I.H. (1935). A dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula 2(1 . 2). Governments of the Straits Settlements & Federated Malay States.
  • Hooker, J.D. (1881). Flora of British India 3:307. Reeve & Co., London.
  • Jansen, R.K. (1985). The systematics of Acmella (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Systematic Botany Monographs 8: 1 .115.
  • Lamarck, J.B.A.P. de M de. (1785). Encyclop.edie m.ethodique. Botanique ... Paris (Chez Panckoucke), Li—ege (Chez Plomteux, ...). Vol. 1(2).
  • Neuwinger, H.D. (2000). African Traditional Medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm, Stuttgart.
  • Storey, C. & J.I. Salem (1997). Lay use of Amazonian plants for thetreatment of tuberculosis. Acta Amazonica 27(3): 175 . 182.

Beschreibung Parakresse / Spilanthes

Eine Kresse für Salate mit prickelndem Geschmack aus Südamerika. Die kriechende, in Töpfen überhängende Staude aus der Korbblütlerfamilie ist fast das ganze Jahr über mit großen, gelben, zungenlosen Blüten mit roter Mitte bedeckt. Abwehrsteigernde Wirkung wie Echinacea. Ein Brei aus Blättern und Blüten hilft bei Rheuma, Gicht und Pilzinfektionen. Frische Blätter kauen ist gut bei Mund- und Rachenentzündungen.

Neuerdings wurde eine botoxähnliche, glättende Wirkung auf Gesichtsfalten entdeckt, daher ist Parakresse inzwischen auch in vielen Kosmetika enthalten. „Mit natürlichem Botox®“ heißt es dann. Der Extrakt liftet, strafft, und glättet die Hautoberfläche. weil es die Muskelspannung verringert.

Bei älteren Menschen hilft es gegen einen zu trockenen Mund. In Brasilien heißt es Jambu, und man kocht ein Gemüse aus den Blättern der Parakresse. Auch gegart erzeugen die Blätter noch das ungewöhnliche Prickeln auf der Zunge. Die Parakresse wurde nach der nordbrasilianischen Provinz Para benannt. 



Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 423750, 9 pages
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Spilanthes acmella: A Review

1. Introduction

The increasing demand on herbal medicines and their acceptance in international market because of potent pharmacological potential and high therapeutic value have been proving to be real blessing to the people. However, efforts are needed to explore, standardise, and validate ayurvedic medicines for their potency, safety, and efficacy in order to bring them to market as main line therapeutics. Spilanthes acmella refers to the important medicinal plant distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions around the world with rich source of therapeutic and medicinal constituents. The main constituents, namely, “spilanthol” and “acmellonate”, are sometimes used to reduce the pain associated with toothaches and can induce saliva secretion [1, 2]. Other important traditional uses of this herb are the following: treatment of rheumatism, as a sialagogue for stammering, tongue paralysis, antipyretic, sore throat, and gum infections [3], and as an antipyretie herb. Spilanthes acmella has been well documented for its uses as spices, as antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antimalarial, treatment, and as remedy for toothache, flu, cough, rabies diseases, and tuberculosis [2, 4].

2. Traditional Uses

This plant is very popular among the ancient tribal community; special food item is prepared from this plant in religious festival. The poor people offered this plant along with the “Ajeng Dues” in Dobur Uie [5]. In particular, this plant is famous as a folklore remedy for toothache and for throat and gum infections [6]. The flowers are crushed and applied at the site of toothache, particularly in “Irula tribe of Hasanur hills in Erode district of Tamilnadu” where it is known by the local name “Mandal Poo Chedi” [7]. Apart from Tamil Nadu, root paste of the plant is used in throat problems in Chindwara and Betul district of Madhya Pradesh [8]. The plant is also known to be used as panacea (Sumatra), as stimulant, for toothache (Sudan), for stomatitis (Java), and for wound healing (India) [9]. In Cameroon, the plant is used as a snakebite remedy and in the treatment of articular rheumatism [10]. It is supposed to be useful in cases of tuberculosis [4]. In India, S. acemella flower heads are used to treat stammering in children. Leaves and flowers of the plant are also used to treat leucorrhoea in females among people of tribes in Bangladesh [9]. The whole plant paste of Spilanthes acmella is also used as “poisonous sting” in Chittagong hill tracts of Bangladesh where the plant is also known as Jhummosak [11].

3. Phytochemistry

It is necessary to explore the phytochemical constituents of any medicinal plant to establish a relation between pharmacology and chemistry of the plant. Many studies have been carried out for chemical analysis and structural determination of pungent alkamides from Spilanthes acmella. The major pungent constituent reported in this plant S. acemella is “spilanthol,” which is an isobutylamide and is well known for its insecticidal properties [12, 13]. The flower head and root part of the plant have been reported to be the rich source of active principles. Triterpenoids have also been found in the plant [14]. Spilanthol is chemically N-isobutylamide which is bitter in taste and could stimulate salivation. The molecular formula of spilanthol was determined as (2E,6Z,8E)-N-isobutylamide-2,6,8-decatrienamide [15]. Spilanthol has a strong pungent taste; it may produce local astringency and anaesthetic effects. Spilanthes acmella contains secondary metabolites which are summarised in Table 1. Spilanthol can be concentrated in the ethanol extract, which has once been found to contain 9.04% of total N-alkylamides yet 88.84% spilanthol [16].

The local anaesthetic activity of Spilanthes acmella has been carried out using two different animal models: (i) intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs using nupercaine as standard (suitable for determining degree of anaesthesia) and (ii) plexus anaesthesia in frog using cocaine as standard (used for determining onset of anaesthesia). The mean onset of local anaesthetic action was very potent which could be attributed to the presence of alkylamides.

4.2. Antipyretic Effects [18]

Chakraborty et al. (2010) studied the antipyretic activity of Spilanthes acmella which was carried out by yeast induced method as yeast is commonly used for the induction of pyrexia. The dose varies accordingly in various studies. Various workers used different concentrations and different doses of yeast. The antipyretic activity of Spilanthes acmella demonstrated in the study is attributed to the presence of flavonoids which are predominant inhibitors of either cyclo-oxygenase or lipo-oxygenase [19].

4.3. Anti-Inflammatory/Analgesic Activity [20]

The anti-inflammatory activity of Spilanthes acmella has been carried out by the researchers using carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. Carrageenan is a standard phlogistic agent to study anti-inflammatory activity. The extract was found to produce considerable dose-dependent inhibition of paw oedema which was less than the standard drug. They also demonstrated the analgesic activity of Spilanthes acmella using acetic acid induced abdominal constriction and tail flick method. The former procedure is often used to evaluate the activity of peripherally acting analgesics while the later indicates the involvement of central nervous system. The aqueous extract produced better results as compared to tail flick method which meant that the plant can be explored as peripherally acting analgesic. The activity was attributed to the presence of flavonoids which are potent inhibitors of prostaglandins at later stages of acute inflammation.

4.4. Antifungal Activity [21]

The effect of different concentrations of Spilanthes acmella flower head extract against four different fungi: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium moniliformi, was evaluated by Rani and Murty (2006). All the concentrations of the test solution inhibited the fungal species with varying degree of sensitivity. The maximum zone of inhibition was found to be for highest concentration and increased proportionally with the dose. Among the test organisms, high inhibition zones were observed in F. oxysporium and F. moniliformis followed by A. niger and A. paraiticus.

4.5. Diuretic Effect

The diuretic potential of Spilanthes acmella whole plant as well as freshflowers has been extracted using cold water extract method and shows that the highest dose of flowers tested possesses strong diuretic activity when given orally in a single dose [22, 23]. The diuresis induced by the Spilanthes acmella flowers was found to be strong with intensity similar to that of furosemide and accompanied by marked increases in both urinary Na+ and K+ levels. Researchers proposed that since the urine was slightly acidified, this suggests that it is acting as a loop diuretic. Phytochemically, Spilanthes acmella flowers are shown to contain N-isobutylamides [2], alkaloids [24], and amino acids [24, 25]. Therefore, Spilanthes acmella flowers may be useful as a nontoxic natural therapeutic agent in the treatment of such conditions by traditional practitioners. The onset of the diuretic action of the aqueous extract was extremely rapid, and it also had a fairly long duration of action. This is an appealing diuretic profile as it would curtail the frequency of administration.

4.6. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibition

Ethanolic extracts of the flowers of Spilanthes acmella are demonstrated to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity (40% at 2 mg/mL concentration in vitro) [26]. The activity was compared with Aframomum meleguetta (90% inhibition) and proved to be inferior, whereas 0.75 mg/mL extract inhibited more pancreatic lipase than Spilanthes.

4.7. Vasorelaxant (Effect on Blood Flow) and Antioxidant Activity [27, 28]

The plant extracts elicited vasorelaxations via partially endothelium induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin-I2 in a dose-dependent manner. However, the researchers suggested that other underlying mechanisms may participate. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract exhibited immediate vasorelaxation in nanogram levels and is the most potent antioxidant in the diphenylpicryl hydrazine assay. The chloroform extract displays the highest vasorelaxation with the highest antioxidant concentration. Antioxidant potential of leaves of Spilanthes acmella was also studied recently by the researchers and they found that the potent antioxidant activity in the crude ethanol extract of the leaves of the plant was attributed to the presence of tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds.

4.8. Antimalarial and Larvicidal Effects

Spilanthol is more effective even at low doses against eggs and pupae. In pupae, it seems to work on nervous system as evident by abnormal movement like jerks, spinning and uncoordinated muscular activity. This suggested that the drug disturbed the nerve conduction somewhere. The mortality of pupae in short span of time upon exposure to the drug also indicated that spilanthol greatly disturbs the ongoing processes of histolysis and histogenesis. Many researchers also reported spilanthol as a potent larvicidal agent [13].

4.9. Aphrodisiac Action (Interaction with Testosterone and Sexuality) [1]

Aphrodisiac effect of the plant extract has been studied in male rats by Sharma et al., 2011. They stated that mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation frequency, and postejaculatory interval were increased in a dose-dependent manner after oral administration of extract. Although exact quantification of these improvements was not given, estimation derived from graphs suggested that after 28 days of 150 mg/kg dose, the improvements were reduced in mount latency, intromission latency, and post ejaculatory latency. These benefits were more significant 28 days after supplementation relative to 14 days, suggesting a build-up effect. The plant proved to be superior to Viagra in all aspects studied except proerectile properties.

4.10. Antinociceptive Activity [29, 30]

Antinociceptive activity of the crude ethanol extract of S. acemella using acetic acid induced writhing model in mice is available elsewhere in literature. The animals of test groups received test substance at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Positive control group was administered Diclofenac sodium (standard drug) at the dose of 25 mg/kg body weight, and vehicle control group was treated with 1% Tween 80 in water at the dose of 10 mL/kg body weight. Test samples, standard drug, and control vehicle were administered orally 30 min before intraperitoneal administration of 0.7% acetic acid. After an interval of 15 min, the mice were observed to be writhing (constriction of abdomen, turning of trunk, and extension of hind legs) for 5 min. Crude ethanol extract of S. acemella leaves was found to possess significant antinociceptive activity.

4.11. Immunomodulatory Activity [31]

Hexane and chloroform extracts of Spilanthes acmella were found to suppress nitric oxide production in stimulated macrophages at 80 mcg/mL by 72% and 85%, respectively. Isolated spilanthol demonstrated dose-dependent prevention of macrophage activation with 60% and 20% production of nitric oxide at 90 and 360 μM concentrations, respectively. These inhibitory properties were accompanied by less nitric oxide synthetase and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein content, less cytokine production from macrophages, and less nF-kB activation in the nucleus.

4.12. Bioinsecticide and Convulsant Activity

The genus Spilanthes consists of 42 known species and several insecticidal compounds which have been reported in Spilanthes mauritiana, S. alba, S. ocymifolia, S. oleracea, and Spilanthes acmella [2, 12, 32]. Hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella plant in rats was reported to induce full tonic-clonic convulsions accompanied by typical electrographic seizures in the electroencephalogram [25].

5. Toxicology

5.1. Evaluated on Zebrafish

It was found that plant contained a high yield of phytotestosterone [33]. Testosterone has an influence on growth rate and feed utilization in low dose-dependent variation in sheep and cattle [34]. Because the zebrafish embryo test is a highly sensitive toxicity test of chemical substances on animals, the result can be used as basic data for the toxicity test in higher animals and environmental contamination regulation. A study shows that Spilanthes acmella Murr. does not have any lethal effect on zebrafish embryo at 20% v/v, which was the highest concentration of the study, while significantly the lowest observable sublethal effect concentration was 10%. According to this study, crude extract of Spilanthes acmella Linn. Murr. can be used in animal feed at 0.01% v/v and 1% v/v, respectively, without any lethal, sublethal, and malformation effect [35].

5.2. Insecticidal Toxicity of Spilanthol

Extract of Spilanthol from the flower heads of Spilanthes acmella was found to be active against P. xylostella [36]. The extracts from Spilanthes acmella were most toxic against different mosquito species (i.e., Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes). The insecticidal property was attributed to spilanthol and alkamides. Besides, nonvolatile sesquiterpenoids and saponins were also reported [14, 32]. Ethanol extract of flower heads of Spilanthes acmella has shown a potent ovicidal, insecticidal, and pupacidal activity at dose of 7.5 ppm concentration with 100% of Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquito [37]. The hexane extract of dried flower buds of Spilanthes acmella (3 N-isobutylamides: spilanthol, undeca-2E,7Z,9E-trienoic acid isobutylamide and undeca-2E-en-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide) was found active against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ethanolic extracts of Spilanthes acmella (whole plants) were screened against early 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus [38]. Spilanthol was shown to be toxic against adults of P. americana. It is one of the most potent compound when compared with conventional insecticides such as carbaryl, lindane, and bioresmethrin with a potency found to be 1.3, 3.8, and 2.6 times, respectively [36].

6. Summary and Conclusion

Spilanthes acmella is a well known plant in Indian traditional system of medicine with multiple pharmacological action and minor side effects. In this review, we concluded ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology in a descriptive manner. The summary of phytochemicals and pharmacological actions is tabulated in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Extracts and phytoconstituents isolated from this plant have shown to produce different pharmacological response, which includes anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, vasodilation, diuretic, and antimalarial effects. The most traditional use of this plant is to reduce toothache all over India as well as South America. Other traditional uses of Spilanthes acmella are as stomachic, stimulant, and antidiarrhoeal and is used rarely against tuberculosis. Many researchers proposed that whole plant has local anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, antinociception, immunomodulator, and insecticidal effect. On the other hand, flower part has shown to produce diuretic, vasorelaxation, antifungal and pancreatic lipase inhibition properties. Its multiple traditional use and pharmacological responses allow us to write a review of Spilanthes acmella. This review will give all the scientific information in a concise manner to the scientific community.

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