Santolina sp. / Heiligenbloem

SANTOLINA CHAMAECYPARISSUS  L.  -   DWERGDUIZENDBLAD/ HEILIGENBLOEM /CIPRESSENKRUID.
Familie: asteraceae (compositae).Gebruikt deel: zaden en bloeiende toppen. Stoomdestillatie geeft een lichtgele vloeistof met een kruidige bijtende geur. Frankrijk. Opbrengst 0,1%, dus 1000 kilo materiaal voor 1 liter essence. In de parfumindustrie een middennoot in mannengeuren.

Het is een groenblijvende struik of heester met zilverachtige grijsgroene bladeren, scherp aromatisch en kleine gele balvormige bloemen, op een lange stengel, gevolgd door droge langwerpige doosvruchten. De hele plant ruikt een beetje ranzig. Hij groeit op open plaatsen en droge grond met grind, wordt 30-40 cm hoog en bloeit in juli – augustus. Hij houdt van zonnig, kalkrijk, droge normale grond, is zoutbestendig en matig winterhard. 

De struik is inheems in Spanje en Italië en nu overal in het Middellandse Zeegebied. De Grieken kenden het kruid als abrotonon en de Romeinen als abrotanum. Alle twee de namen verwijzen naar de boomachtige vorm van de halfheester. De Arabieren gebruikten het heestertje eeuwenlang voor medicinale doeleinden. In de Middeleeuwen was het populair als insecten werend  en wormdrijvend middel. De struik is populair als borderstruik, sierplant, wonderkruid, strooikruid, mottekruid en heggenplant. Het geslacht bestaat uit zo’n 15 soorten aromatische altijdgroene struikjes. De plant heeft meerdere stengels en in de zomer heeft elke stengel een bloeiend geel bloemhoofdje. Gedroogd wordt hij veel gebruikt in potpourri’s en om motten te weren uit kleding, beddengoed, linnengoed, tapijten en boeken, enz. en om insecten met name muggen te weren. De gedroogde bladeren worden verwerkt in tabak. John Culpeper heeft de plant in de 17e eeuw al beschreven als middel bij giftige insectensteken/beten, wormen en bij irritaties van de huid of huidontstekingen. De geur lijkt een beetje op die van de roomse kamille. In de volksgeneeskunde werd het gebruikt als antidotum tegen allerlei soorten gif en om wormen uit te drijven, vooral ook in de veeartsenij. Ook werd het gebruikt als insecticide tegen motten en muggen en als middel tegen insectenbeten en wratten. Bloem- en bladwater is goed tegen schurft en ringworm. Het kruid is een goed middel om wondjes en insectenbeten snel mee te helen. Het kruid stimuleert het lichaam om littekenweefsel te maken. Wordt in Engeland Cotton Lavender genoemd, maar het is geen echte lavendel.

Werkzame bestanddelen in de hele plant:
6-methoxy-flavonen – a-terpineol – caffeic acid – catechin – cis-2-(4-(5-formyl-2-thienyl)but-3-yn-1-enyl)-furan – crypton – eo – hispidulin – limoneen – luteolin – menth-1-en-4-ol – myrceen – nepetin – o-coumaric acid – p-coumaric acid – p-cymol – patuletin – pectolinarigenin – phellandral – phellandreen – pineen – resin – tanninen – thujeen – trans-2- (4-(5-formyl-2-thienyl)-but 3-yn—1-enyl)-furan – vannilic acid.

Specifiek werkzaam:
Anthelmintisch - antibacterieel  -  anticonvulsant  -  antidotisch -   insecticide  -   menstruatiebevorderend  -  spasmolytisch -  stimulerend.
De olie wordt ook wel toegepast bij jeuk, ontstekingen, ascaris, schurft. Voorzichtig gebruiken. Goed voor insectenbestrijding en motten.



Plants For A Future 
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=santolina+chamaecyparissus

Medicinal Uses
Antispasmodic;  Disinfectant;  Emmenagogue;  Stings;  Vermifuge.

The leaves and flowering tops are antispasmodic, disinfectant, emmenagogue, stimulant and vermifuge[4, 7, 11, 201]. Cotton lavender is rarely used medicinally[238], though it is sometimes used internally as a vermifuge for children and to treat poor digestion and menstrual problems[4, 238]. When finely ground and applied to insect stings or bites, the plant will immediately ease the pain[7]. Applied to surface wounds, it will hasten the healing process by encouraging the formation of scar tissue[7]. The leaves and flowering stems are harvested in the summer and dried for later use[238].

Other Uses
Disinfectant;  Dye;  Essential;  Hedge;  Pot-pourri;  Repellent;  Hedge.

Plants can be grown as a low formal hedge and used as an edging plant[200]. The plant is very tolerant of shearing[200]. In less exposed areas the plants can be trimmed in the autumn, otherwise they need to be cut by early April if they are to be allowed to flower[245]. Plants can also be grown for ground cover[190]. They are best spa
ced about 60cm apart each way[208]. The leaves are strewn amongst clothes to repel moths etc[4, 15, 18, 20, 100]. The growing plant repels various insect pests, especially cabbage moths[201]. The dried leaves are used in pot-pourri[238]. An essential oil from the leaves is used in perfumery[4], the oil is also obtained from the flowers[168].



Pharm Biol. 2016;54(4):667-73. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1071853. Epub 2015 Oct 9.
Immunomodulatory effects of Santolina chamaecyparissus leaf extracts on human neutrophil functions.
Boudoukha C1, Bouriche H1, Ortega E2, Senator A1.

Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic plant wide spread in the Mediterranean region. It is used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties.
OBJECTIVE:
The effects of S. chamaecyparissus aqueous extract (SCAE) and polyphenolic extract (SCPE) on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) degranulation, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbicidal capacity were examined in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Aqueous and polyphenolic extracts were prepared from S. chamaecyparissus leaves. The elastase release was used as a marker for measuring PMN degranulation, while chemotaxis was performed using a 48-microwell chemotaxis chamber. The phagocytosis and the microbicidal capacity were evaluated using fresh cultures of Candida albicans.
RESULTS:
The treatment of neutrophils with different concentrations (10-200 µg/ml) of SCAE and SCPE caused a significant (p < 0.001) and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on elastase release in fMLP/Cytochalasin B (CB)-stimulated neutrophils. Indeed, 100 µg/ml of SCAE exerted an inhibitory effect of 51.97 ± 6.2%, whereas SCPE at the same concentration abolished completely PMN degranulation. Moreover, both extracts inhibited markedly (p < 0.01) fMLP-induced chemotactic migration. At 200 µg/ml, SCAE and SCPE exerted an inhibitory effect of 54.61 ± 7.3% and 57.71 ± 7.44%, respectively. In addition, a decline in both phagocytosis and microbicidal capacity against Candida albicans was observed when PMNs were exposed to 100 and 200 µg/ml of SCAE or SCPE.
CONCLUSION:
The exerted effects on neutrophil functions support the anti-inflammatory activity and show new mechanisms of action and effectiveness of S. chamaecyparissus leaf extracts. This plant may be considered as an interesting source of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents.



J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Jan;55(2):151-9.
Anticandidal activity of Santolina chamaecyparissus volatile oil.
Suresh B1, Sriram S, Dhanaraj SA, Elango K, Chinnaswamy K.
A search for naturally occurring drugs with antifungal activity lead to Santolina oil, a volatile oil distillate of Santolina chamaecyparissus. The studies revealed that Santolina oil was effective in controlling experimental candidiasis in vitro and in vivo. It had a synergistic effect on clotrimazole in controlling Candida albicans in vitro. It significantly controlled experimental vaginal candidiasis and experimental systemic candidosis. Santolina oil was able to control the superficial cutaneous mycoses. It is recommended as a potential candidate for further studies, including clinical studies.



Saudi J Biol Sci. 2017 May;24(4):875-882. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.03.005. Epub 2016 Mar 26.
Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of flowerhead and root essential oils of Santolina chamaecyparissus L., growing wild in Tunisia.
Bel Hadj Salah-Fatnassi K1,2, Hassayoun F1, Cheraif I3, Khan S2, Jannet HB4, Hammami M3, Aouni M1, Harzallah-Skhiri F5.

The antimicrobial properties of essential oil from various Santolina species have not been investigated enough in the previous studies dealing with the biological activities of medicinal plants. In Tunisia, Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) is the only Santolina species recorded and is used as vermifuge and emmenagogue. The chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils from the flowerheads and roots of spontaneous S. chamaecyparissus growing in Tunisia and the chemical composition which leads to the Tunisian chemotype are investigated here for the first time. Essential oils isolated by hydro distillation from flowerheads and roots of S. chamaecyparissus were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Two methods served for antimicrobial assays of the essential oils: diffusion in a solid medium and micro-well dilution assay. Antifungal tests were carried out by the agar incorporation method. Sixty-seven constituents were identified from the essential oil of the flowerhead. The major constituents were: 1,8-cineole and β-eudesmol. Two non identified compounds were present at the highest concentration in root oil. Flowerhead oil was characterized by high contents in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes oxygenated compounds. The flowerhead essential oil demonstrated potent of antibacterial properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC, with MIC of 0.625 μg/ml. These findings demonstrate that the flowerhead essential oils of S. chamaecyparissus have excellent antibacterial properties and for this reason they could contribute to decrease the problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics.



Immunomodulatory effects of Santolina chamaecyparissus leaf extracts on human neutrophil functions
Chahra Boudoukha, Hamama Bouriche, Eduardo Ortega. Journal Pharmaceutical Biology 
Volume 54, 2016 - Issue 4

Context: Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic plant wide spread in the Mediterranean region. It is used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties.

Objective: The effects of S. chamaecyparissus aqueous extract (SCAE) and polyphenolic extract (SCPE) on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) degranulation, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbicidal capacity were examined in vitro.

Materials and methods: Aqueous and polyphenolic extracts were prepared from S. chamaecyparissus leaves. The elastase release was used as a marker for measuring PMN degranulation, while chemotaxis was performed using a 48-microwell chemotaxis chamber. The phagocytosis and the microbicidal capacity were evaluated using fresh cultures of Candida albicans.

Results: The treatment of neutrophils with different concentrations (10–200 µg/ml) of SCAE and SCPE caused a significant (p < 0.001) and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on elastase release in fMLP/Cytochalasin B (CB)-stimulated neutrophils. Indeed, 100 µg/ml of SCAE exerted an inhibitory effect of 51.97 ± 6.2%, whereas SCPE at the same concentration abolished completely PMN degranulation. Moreover, both extracts inhibited markedly (p < 0.01) fMLP-induced chemotactic migration. At 200 µg/ml, SCAE and SCPE exerted an inhibitory effect of 54.61 ± 7.3% and 57.71 ± 7.44%, respectively. In addition, a decline in both phagocytosis and microbicidal capacity against Candida albicans was observed when PMNs were exposed to 100 and 200 µg/ml of SCAE or SCPE.

Conclusion: The exerted effects on neutrophil functions support the anti-inflammatory activity and show new mechanisms of action and effectiveness of S. chamaecyparissus leaf extracts. This plant may be considered as an interesting source of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents.



Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic plant wide spread in the Mediterranean region. It is used in folk medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, digestive, and vulnerary properties (Akerreta et al., 2007Akerreta S, Cavero SY, López V, et al. (2007). Analyzing factors that influence the folk use and phytonomy of 18 medicinal plants in Navarra. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 3:16. doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-3-16[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Da Silva, 2004Da Silva JAT. (2004). Mining the essential oils of the Anthemidea. Afr J Biotechnol 3:706–20 [Google Scholar]). This plant is also used in herbal medicine to treat different types of dermatitis (Da Silva, 2004Da Silva JAT. (2004). Mining the essential oils of the Anthemidea. Afr J Biotechnol 3:706–20 [Google Scholar]). Moreover, the essential oil from the aerial parts of this plant has antifungal properties (Suresh et al., 1997Suresh B, Sriram S, Dhanaraj SA, et al. (1997). Anticandidal activity of Santolina chamaecyparissus volatile oil. J Ethnopharmacol 55:151–9[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]) and is used in perfumery and cosmetics. Photochemical studies of S. chamaecyparissus yielding a number of secondary metabolites such as essential oils (Sala et al., 2000Sala A, Recio MC, Giner RM, et al. (2000). Antiphosphoupase A2 and anti-inflammatory activity of Santolina chamaecyparissus. Life Sci 66:35–40[PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]), flavonoids (Giner Pons & Rios Canavate, 2000Giner Pons RM, Rios Canavate JL. (2000). Santolina chamaecyparissus: Especie mediterranea con potenciales aplicaciones terapeuticas en procesos inflamatorios y transtornos digestivos. Revista de Fitoterapia 1:27–34 [Google Scholar]), coumarins (Ferrari et al., 2005Ferrari B, Tomi F, Richomme P, et al. (2005). Two new irregular acyclic sesquiterpenes aldehydes from Santolina corsica essential oil. Magn Reson Chem 43:73–4[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]), and polyacetilenic compounds (Sacchetti et al., 1997Sacchetti G, Romagnoli C, Ballero M, et al. (1997). Internal secretory structures and preliminary phytochemical investigation on flavonoid and coumarin content in Santolina insularis(Asteraceae). Phyton (Horn, Austria) 37:219–28[Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]).

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