Prunus domestica / Pruim

Tot de cultuurpruim Prunus domestica behoren zowel de tafelpruimen, die groot en vaak sappig zijn, als de kleinere en nogal droge kwetsen, die veel in bereidingen van jam (moes) of jenever gebruikt worden. De mirabellen of kroosjespruimen worden vaak tot een andere soort gerekend, namelijk Prunus insititia. Deze soort wordt echter niet altijd gezien als een aparte soort, maar soms ook als een ondersoort of slechts als een cultivar-groep van Prunus domestica. Hoe dan ook, Prunus domestica en Prunus insititia zijn zeer verwant aan elkaar.

De oorsprong van de soort Prunus domestica staat niet vast. Lange tijd is men ervan uitgegaan dat de soort is ontstaan uit een soortkruising tussen de sleedoorn (Prunus spinosa) en de kerspruim of myrobalaan (Prunus cerasifera). Deze soortkruising zou bij toeval kunnen zijn ontstaan in de Kaukasus, waar de verspreidingsgebieden van de beide oudersoorten elkaar overlappen. Volgens deze theorie zouden in het genoom van Prunus domestica vier sets chromosomen (4x) van Prunus spinosa en twee sets chromosomen (2x) van Prunus cerasifera aanwezig zijn.
Door de resultaten van latere onderzoeken wordt de bovenstaande theorie in twijfel getrokken. Volgens deze onderzoeken zouden 2x, 4x en 6x vormen van de kerspruim aan de basis staan van de soort Prunus domestica.



Gewone pruim ook super
Superfruit is een ware rage. Superfruit zou kanker en andere ziekten bestrijden doordat het ontzettend rijk is aan antioxidanten. Enkele voorbeelden van superfruit zijn blauwe bessen, granaatappels, graviola, gojibessen, Afrikaanse mango’s, mangostenen, açaí-bessen, zwarte bessen en frambozen. Helaas zijn deze fruitsoorten doorgaans erg duur en bovendien moeilijk verkrijgbaar. Maar vrees niet, want er is een makkelijk, goedkoop en bovendien gezond alternatief… Pruimen blijken namelijk gezonder te zijn dan nagenoeg alle andere fruitsoorten.

1. Pruimen leveren veel antioxidanten
Recent onderzoek wijst uit dat de welbekende pruim een heus superfruit is. Pruimen hebben een ietwat saai imago, maar zijn desalniettemin nog rijker aan gezonde en beschermende antioxidanten dan bijvoorbeeld zwarte bessen. Zodoende kunnen pruimen je efficiënt en actief beschermen tegen verscheidene ziekten en aandoeningen.

2. Gedroogde pruimen
Gedroogde pruimen hebben een hogere antioxidant-capaciteit dan iedere andere fruitsoort. Hierbij de antioxidant-waarde van pruimen volgens de zogenaamde ORAC-meting:
Gedroogde pruimen: 5.770
Blauwe bessen: 2.234
Zwarte bessen: 2.036
Aardbeien: 1.536
Frambozen: 1.227
Gedroogde pruimen zijn super rijk aan anti-oxidatieve stoffen, waaronder vitamine C, vitamine E, bètacaroteen, flavonoïden en glutathion. Bovendien hebben gedroogde pruimen niet de laxerende werking van verse pruimen. Ze zijn lekker zoet en goed te combineren met bijvoorbeeld kwark of yoghurt. Zodoende kunnen pruimen uitstekend door als gezond tussendoortje of toetje!
Let wel: een gedroogde pruim is doorgaans overrijp, wat betekent dat nagenoeg alle zetmeel van de pruim door rijpingsgassen en rijpingsenzymen is omgezet in fruitsuiker. Gedroogde pruimen zijn dus relatief suikerrijk en leveren beduidend méér calorieën per 100 gram dan verse pruimen. Je kunt er dan ook niet onbeperkt van eten.

3. Pruimen beschermen tegen kanker
Onderzoek door de ‘Tufts University’ in het Amerikaanse Boston wijst uit dat pruimen veel gezonder zijn dan men voorheen dacht. Pruimen hebben een ongekend hoge voedingswaarde die ten goede komt aan talloze lichamelijke aspecten. Zo beschermen de antioxidanten in pruimen tegen ziekten zoals kanker. Bovendien blijken pruimen het verouderingsproces van je lichaam en je hersenen te vertragen en beschermen ze tegen hart- en vaatziekten. Pruimensap blijkt overigens een beduidend sterkere kankerremmende werking te hebben dan gedroogde pruimen of pruimenextract.

4. Heel veel voedingsvezels in pruim
Pruimen staan erom bekend dat ze helpen tegen obstipatie/ constipatie (verstopping van de darmen). Dat komt omdat pruimen zeer rijk zijn aan vezels c.q. voedingsvezels. Eet echter niet meer dan 3 (gedroogde) pruimen per dag; overmatige consumptie van pruimen kan namelijk maag- en darmklachten zoals winderigheid en diarree veroorzaken.



Wat wetenschappelijk onderzoek Prunus

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2006 Oct;52(5):389-91.
Prune extract (Prunus domestica L.) suppresses the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of human colon carcinoma Caco-2.
Fujii T1, Ikami T, Xu JW, Ikeda K.
Prunes are the dried fruits of certain cultivars of Prunus domestica L., and are recognized as a health food. The separated ethanol fraction from concentrated prune juice by DIAION HP-20 (PE) was investigated for cytotoxic effects on two different cancer cell lines in vitro. PE dose-dependently reduced the viable cell number of Caco-2, KATO III, but does not reduce the viable cell number of human normal colon fibroblast cells (CCD-18Co) used as a normal cell model. PE treatment for 24 h led to apoptotic changes in Caco-2 such as cell shrinkage and blebbed surfaces due to the convolutions of nuclear and plasma membranes and chromatin condensation, but this was not observed in CCD-18Co. PE induced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis in Caco-2 after 24 h of treatment. These results show that PE induced apoptosis in Caco-2. Furthermore, by Caco-2 treatment with H2O2 chelator catalase and Ca2+-chelator BAPTA/AM, the PE-induced cytotoxic pathway was completely blocked, and the viable cell number of Caco-2 was not affected.

J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jun 19;50(13):3708-12.
Antioxidant activity of prune (Prunus domestica L.) constituents and a new synergist.
Kayano S1, Kikuzaki H, Fukutsuka N, Mitani T, Nakatani N.
Ethanol extract of prune was separated into hexane-soluble and H(2)O-soluble fractions, and the H(2)O-soluble fraction was further separated into a methanol (MeOH) eluate and an H(2)O eluate by Diaion HP-20 column chromatography. The MeOH eluate exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity among the separated fractions evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Further purification of the MeOH eluate led to isolation of a novel compound, 4-amino-4-carboxychroman-2-one, together with four known compounds (p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid beta-glucoside, protocatechuic acid, and caffeic acid), structures of which were identified by NMR and MS analyses. The ORAC values of these isolated compounds showed 0.15-1.43 units (micromol of Trolox equiv)/micromol, and the new compound showed a remarkable synergistic effect on caffeoylquinic acid isomers. The antioxidant activity of the MeOH eluate was highly dependent on the major prune components, caffeoylquinic acid isomers, with a contribution from the new synergist.

Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):309-13.
Antioxidant properties of prunes (Prunus domestica L.) and their constituents.
Kayano S1, Kikuzaki H, Yamada NF, Aoki A, Kasamatsu K, Yamasaki Y, Ikami T, Suzuki T, Mitani T, Nakatani N.
Prunes contain large amounts of phenolics and show high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to clarify the contents of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) isomers, and to estimate the contribution of these isomers to the antioxidant activity of prunes. Furthermore, structural elucidation and evaluation of antioxidant activity of prune components were also performed. CQA isomers in prunes were quantified by HPLC analysis, and it has become apparent that prunes contain relatively high amount of 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The contribution of CQA isomers to the antioxidant activity of prunes was revealed to be 28.4% on the basis of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); hence, it was indicated that residual ORAC is dependent on unknown antioxidant components. Total 28 compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. Four abscisic acid related compounds, a chromanon, and a bipyrrole were novel. Each CQA isomer in prunes showed high antioxidant activities when measured by the oil stability index (OSI) method, O2- scavenging activity, and ORAC. Other isolated compounds such as hydroxycinnamic acids, benzoic acids, coumarins, lignans, and flavonoid showed high ORAC values. Furthermore, a novel chromanon indicated a remarkable synergistic effect on ORAC of CQA isomers.

Anc Sci Life. 2013 Jan-Mar; 32(3): 139–143.
Effect of Prunus domestica L. (mirabelle) on learning and memory in mice
Siamak Shahidi, Sara Setareye,1 and Minoo Mahmoodi1
Plums have been known to have various pharmacological activities.
Aims:
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of plum, using passive avoidance task.
Settings and Design:
Mice were divided into four groups (n = 7 each) one control and three plum (75, 100, 150 mg/kg) groups.
Materials and Methods:
The control group received saline and plum groups received the extract by oral gavage for 7 days. The number of trials to acquisition, step through latency (STLr) in the retention test and the time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) during the retention test were measured.
Statistical Analysis:
Differences between groups were tested by one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test.
Results:
A significant difference was found in the number of trials to acquisition between the groups. The results also indicated in the retention test, administration of 75 and 100 mg/kg plum caused an increased STLr (compared with the untreated control group). The results also showed that the total time spent in TDC by the animals of the extract groups was lower than that of the control group.
Conclusions
Hydro-alcoholic extract of plum has a beneficial effect on learning and memory in passive avoidance task. It can be concluded that its antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activities may be involved in the obtained effects.

Several studies have confirmed the positive effects of flavonoids found in fruits including anthocyanin and flavanols on learning and memory.[1,2,3] Antioxidants are known for their neurological action[4] and also flavonoids can exhibit neuroprotective action,[5] fruits that are rich in these compounds have been noted. Because of the numerous side-effects of the chemical drugs effective on the nervous system, there is a tendency to use the natural agents to treat the cognitive and learning deficits. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba,[6] Panax ginseng[7] and Dinh lang (Policias fruticosum L.) root extract,[8] have shown beneficial effects on cognition and memory. Prunus domestica L. subsp. Syriaca Janch. is one of the species of plum. It belongs to Rosacea family and prunus genus. Plums have been known to have various pharmacological activities and have also been used in folk Iranian medicine as sedatives, for neurasthenia and also for prevention of anemia,[9] aging (to prevent Alzheimer's disease),[10] hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular diseases.[11] It has also been demonstrated that plums have anti-inflammatory[12] and anxiolytic effects.[13] Several studies have acknowledged the positive effects of plums in the improvement of blood lipid profile, osteoporosis, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and alleviation of constipation.[14] However, until now, there have not been any reports of its hydro-alcoholic extract effects on cognition. Studies have confirmed high levels of antioxidants in plums in comparison with the other fruits.[15,16,17] With regard to the antioxidant and antidyslipidemic effects of plums, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term administration of (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg) hydro-alcoholic extract of plum, in mice using the passive avoidance test.

1. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Bielinski D, Martin A, McEwen JJ, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci. 1999;19:8114–21. [PubMed]
2. Shukitt-Hale B, Lau FC, Joseph JA. Berry fruit supplementation and the aging brain. J Agric Food Chem.2008;56:636–41. [PubMed]
3. Williams CM, El Mohsen MA, Vauzour D, Rendeiro C, Butler LT, Ellis JA, et al. Blueberry-induced changes in spatial working memory correlate with changes in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;45:295–30. [PubMed]
4. Martin A, Prior R, Shukitt-Hale B, Cao G, Joseph JA. Effect of fruits, vegetables, or vitamin E - Rich diet on vitamins E and C distribution in peripheral and brain tissues: Implications for brain function. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55:B144–51. [PubMed]
5. Vauzour D, Vafeiadou K, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Rendeiro C, Spencer JP. The neuroprotective potential of flavonoids: A multiplicity of effects. Genes Nutr. 2008;3:115–26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
6. Diamond BJ, Shiflett SC, Feiwel N, Matheis RJ, Noskin O, Richards JA, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract: Mechanisms and clinical indications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81:668–78. [PubMed]
7. Ni XH, Ohta H, Watanabe H, Matsumoto K. Panax ginseng extract improves scopolamine-induced deficits in working memory performance in the T-maze delayed alternation task in rats. Phytother Res.1993;7:49–52.
8. Tran Ty Yen. Improvement of learning ability in mice and rats with the root extract of dinh lang (Policias fruticosum L.) Acta Physiol Hung. 1990;75:69–76. [PubMed]
9. Cho E, Seddon JM, Rosner B, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:883–92. [PubMed]
10. Egbekun MK, Akowe JI, Ede RJ. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of formulated syrup from black plum (Vitex doniana) fruit. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1996;49:301–6. [PubMed]
11. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Kondale JE, Robson JR. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986. Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia.
12. Gaware VM, Dhamak KB, Kotade KB, Dolas RT, Somwanshi SB, Nikam VK, et al. Prunes as health boosters: A review. Pharmacology Online. 2011;1:705–11.
13. Bouayed J, Rammal H, Dicko A, Younos C, Soulimani R. Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenol from Prunus domestica (Mirabelle), with coupled anxiolytic and antioxidant effects. J Neurol Sci. 2007;262:77–84.[PubMed]
14. Walkowiak-Tomczak D. Characteristics of plums as a raw material with valuable nutritive and dietary properties: A review. Pol J Food Nutr Sci. 2008;58:401–5.
15. Auger C, Al-Awwadi N, Bornet A, Rouanet JM, Gasc F, Cros G, et al. Catechins and procyanidins in Mediterranean diets. Food Res Int. 2004;37:233–45.
16. Nakatani N, Kayano S, Kikuzaki H, Sumino K, Katagiri K, Mitani T. Identification, quantitative determination, and antioxidative activities of chlorogenic acid isomers in prune (Prunus domestica L.) J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:5512–6. [PubMed]
17. Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE, Prior RL. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:4026–37.[PubMed]



The Workd Most Healthy Foods – Fruits – Prunes (Prunus domestica ) Health Benefits and Side Effects
Posted on October 31, 2011 by kylenorton
Prune is a dried plum, therefore it is a genus of Prunus with many species, belong to family Rosaceae with unknown origin. Plum is cultivated for commercial drying called dried plum or prune. Prune is a sticky chewy texture and very nutritious.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fiber
3. Vitamin A
4. Vitamin B3
5. Vitamin B6
6. Vitamin C
7. Vitamin E
8. Copper
9. Iron
10. Magnesium
11.Manganese
13. Phosphorus
14. Potassium
15. Etc.

Health Benefit
1. Immune system
Since prune contains high amount antioxidants, it enhances the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radical thus reducing the risk of irregular cell growth, inflammation and infection, according to the study of “[Antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger vitamins in tropical medicine].[Article in French]” by Clerc M., posted in PubMed(1)

2. Antioxidants and cardivascular health
Antioxidant also deceases the risk of heart diseases and strike by guarding our body against cholesterol oxidation and breaking off of capillaries and hardening of arterial walls, according to the study of “Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases” by Ibarra-Alvarado C, Rojas A, Mendoza S, Bah M, Gutiérrez DM, Hernández-Sandoval L, Martínez M., Posted in PubMed(2). For more information of Antioxidant and Cancers and Diseases, visit http://the-anti-aging-guide.blogspot.com/2011/03/anti-aging-guide.html

3. Potassium
Potassium in prune helps to maintain normal blood pressure by making blood vessels less sensitive to substances, such as hormones, causing blood vessel to contract, thus cauinging hypertension of that can lead to cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of “Blood pressure lowering efficacy of potassium-sparing diuretics (that block the epithelial sodium channel) for primary hypertension” by Heran BS, Chen JM, Wang JJ, Wright JM., posted in PubMed(3)

4. Fibers
High amount of fibers helps to regulate blood sugar by releasing glucose slowly into bloodstream thus reducing pancreas stress cause of insulin sensitive, according to the study of “Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients” by Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Lasorella G, Giacco A, D’Episcopo L, Riccardi G., posted in PubMed(4)

5. Cells nourishment
Prune contains high amount of iron, the mineral that enhances the reproduction of red blood cells and formation of hemoglobin, thus increasing the the oxygen absorption from the lung to nourish the body’ cells, according to the study of “Iron deficiency in women: assessment, causes and consequences” by Coad J, Conlon C., posted in PubMed(5)

6. Etc.
Side Effects
As plum, it may cause problem for people with untreated kidney and gallbladder diseases and reduce the absorption of calcium.

Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1303294
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20645769
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091662
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11023137
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21934611



Recept: Pruimentaartjes met amandel in bladerdeeg 

6 VELLEN BLADERDEEG
12 RIJPE PRUIMEN
30 GRAM AMANDELBLOEM
40 GRAM AMANDELSCHAAFSEL
1 EETLEPEL KANEEL
2 EETLEPELS RIETSUIKER
Verwarm je oven voor op 200 graden. Laat de vellen bladerdeeg ontdooien. Halveer ze en leg ze op een bakplaat met bakpapier. Halveer en ontpit de pruimen. Snijd ze vervolgens in dunne plakjes.
Strooi wat amandelbloem over de vellen bladerdeeg. Leg hier het fruit op en bestrooi met de suiker. Strooi er wat kaneel of amandelschaafsel overheen en bak gedurende 20-25 minuten, totdat ze goud bruin en luchtig zijn.

Comments