Potentilla tormentilla / Tormentil

Tormentil is een buitenbeentje in de plantenfamilie van de Ganzeriken, hij lijkt met z'n handvormig gedeelde bladeren op Vijfvingerkruid maar heeft viertallige bloemen. Tormentil groeit in heel Europa op vochtige grond in natte graslanden, heidevelden en venen en aan bosranden. Bij mooi weer kunnen insecten, vooral vliegen, de bloemen bestuiven, bij slecht weer blijven de bloemen gesloten en treedt er zelfbestuiving op.

Etymologie
De soortnaam "erecta" betekent rechtop, verwijst naar de groeiwijze, dus met opstijgende bloeiende stengels en niet wortelend op de stengelknopen zoals andere potentillasoorten. Tormentil komt van Latijnse "tormentilla, tormentum", dat kwelling, buikpijn, krampen betekent. De wortel van het kruid is goed tegen dergelijke kwalen. Dioscorides en Plinius noemden het Pentaphyllon en Quinquefolium omwille van de 5-tallige bladvorm. Met de diep-ingesneden steunblaadjes is het blad precies 7-tallig, vandaar ook de naam Heptaphyllon om het te onderscheiden van Potentilla reptans, het Vijfvingerkruid. Het blad vormt precies een mensenhand, vandaar ook de namen Manus Martis en Mercurius digitis.

Dodonaeus over tormentil
Dodonaeus schrijft over de "oorsaecke des naems: dit cruyt is genoemt Tormentilla omdat het poeyer van de wortel oft het water daer die in ghesoden is geweest de pijne van de tanden die ygentlijck torment in de Romaansche talen pleegt genoemt te wesen, verdrijven can." Hij schrijft ook dat het goed is tegen "quade ende pestighe kranckheden". Fuchsius noemde het Berckwortel en Hildegard von Bingen Birckwurz, omdat het kruid graag in berkenbosjes groeit. Engelse volksnamen zijn Septfoil, Bloodroot, English sarsaparilla.

De wortelstok kleurt roodachtig na doorsnijden, volgens de signatuurleer zou die dan ook werkzaam zijn tegen allerlei bloedingen. De boeren gebruikten het kruid vroeger trouwens tegen bloedpissen bij het vee.

In Midden-Europa diende de wortel van Tormentil als vervanger voor de alruinwortel, die in de Oude wereld en de Oriënt de belangrijkste toverplant was en zelfs tot op vandaag nog een mythische reputatie heeft. Deze verwisseling heeft alleen te maken met de grillig gevormde wortel van de beide planten. En niets met overeenkomstige kwaliteiten.

Inhoudstoffen van de wortel
De wortelstok, bekend als Radix of Rhizoma Tormentillae wordt verzameld van maart tot april. Catechinelooistoffen (tot 20%), triterpeenglycoside (tormentilline), flavonoïden, bitter chinorinezuur en een rood pigment zijn de voornaamste inhoudstoffen van deze bloedwortel.

Gebruik
Zoals bij de meeste looistofplanten, wordt de wortel gebruikt om alles wat in het lichaam te los zit weer vast te maken. Dat betekent dat hij bij verwondingen een bloedstelpende werking heeft, bij diarree stoppend werkt en ‘los’ of bloedend tandvlees weer vast kan maken. Misschien de meest hoopgevende toepassing is zijn gebruik bij colitis ulcerosa en de ziekte van Chrohn. Wordt nader onderzocht.

Literatuur
  • Bos MA, Vennat B, Meunier MT, Pouget MP, Pourrat A, Fialip J. Procyanidins from tormentil: antioxidant properties towards lipoperoxidation and anti-elastase activity. Biol Pharm Bull. 1996 Jan; 19(1): 146-8.
  • Wichtl M and NG Bisset (eds). 1994. Tormentillae rhizoma - Tormentil, Potentilla. In Herbal Drugs and Phyto-pharmaceuticals. (English translation by Norman Grainger Bisset). CRC Press, Stuttgart, pp. 499-501.
  • Potentilla, a review of its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Michał Tomczyka, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Białystok, ul. Mickiewicza 2a, 15-089 Białystok, Poland
Referenties
  • Bos, M. A., Vennat, B., Meunier, M. T., et al. Procyanidins from tormentil: antioxidant properties towards lipoperoxidation and anti-elastase activity. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 1996;19(1):146-148. View Abstract
  • Drozd, J. and Anuszewska, E. The influence of plant raw materials, containing ellagic acid and selected antibiotics on immunological response in mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2005;62(3):237-240. View Abstract
  • Fecka, I. Development of chromatographic methods for determination of agrimoniin and related polyphenols in pharmaceutical products. J.AOAC Int. 2009;92(2):410-418. View Abstract
  • Huber, R., Ditfurth, A. V., Amann, F., et al. Tormentil for active ulcerative colitis: an open-label, dose-escalating study. J.Clin.Gastroenterol. 2007;41(9):834-838. View Abstract
  • Kite, G. C., Porter, E. A., and Simmonds, M. S. Chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J.Chromatogr.A 5-4-2007;1148(2):177-183. View Abstract
  • Langmead, L., Dawson, C., Hawkins, C., et al. Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 2002;16(2):197-205. View Abstract
  • Moss, A. C. and Cheifetz, A. S. Reducing the torment of diarrhea: tormentil for active ulcerative colitis. J.Clin.Gastroenterol. 2007;41(9):797-798. View Abstract
  • Nikitina, V. S., Kuz'mina, L. I., Melent'ev, A. I., et al. [Antibacterial activity of polyphenolic compounds isolated from plants of Geraniaceae and Rosaceae families]. Prikl.Biokhim.Mikrobiol. 2007;43(6):705-712. View Abstract
  • Spiridonov, N. A., Konovalov, D. A., and Arkhipov, V. V. Cytotoxicity of some Russian ethnomedicinal plants and plant compounds. Phytother.Res. 2005;19(5):428-432. View Abstract
  • Subbotina, M. D., Timchenko, V. N., Vorobyov, M. M., et al. Effect of oral administration of tormentil root extract (Potentilla tormentilla) on rotavirus diarrhea in children: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Pediatr.Infect.Dis.J. 2003;22(8):706-711. View Abstract
  • Tomczyk, M. and Latte, K. P. Potentilla--a review of its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J.Ethnopharmacol. 3-18-2009;122(2):184-204. View Abstract
  • Tunon, H., Olavsdotter, C., and Bohlin, L. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Swedish medicinal plants. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced exocytosis. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1995;48(2):61-76. View Abstract
  • Vennat, B., Bos, M. A., Pourrat, A., et al. Procyanidins from tormentil: fractionation and study of the anti-radical activity towards superoxide anion. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 1994;17(12):1613-1615. View Abstract
  • Volodina, E. V., Maksimovskii, IuM, and Lebedev, K. A. [The combined treatment of lichen ruber planus of the mouth mucosa]. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1997;76(2):28-32. View Abstract
  • Zaiteva SI, Matveeva SL, Gerasimova TG et al. Efficacy and safety of phytoconcentrate Dzherelo (Immunoxel) in treatment of patients with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) in comparison to standartd chemotherapy. Research Journal


Tormentillae rhizoma consists according to the European Pharmacopoeia of the dried rhizome, freed from the roots of Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch. It contains not less than 7% of tannins, expressed as pyrogallol (C6H6O3, Mr126.1) with reference to the dried herbal substance. 
Tormentil (Potentilla erecta syn. Tormentilla erecta, Potentilla tormentilla) is an herbaceous perennial belonging to the rose family (Rosaceae). 
Constituents (according to Hänsel & Sticher 2007, Blaschek at al. 2008, Wichtl 2009): 
1. Tannins: 15-22% total tannins (15-20% condensed tannins, about 3.5% hydrolysable tannins) 
- Condensed tannins: (–)- gallo- or (–)-epigallocatechingallat, the dimeric catechin derivatives [6,6′]-all-trans-bi-(+)-catechin, [4,8]-all-trans-bi-(+)-catechin (= procyanidin B3), [4,6]-all-trans-bi-(+)-catechin (= procyanidin B6) and [4,8]-2,3-trans-3,4-cis-bi-(+)-catechin 
- Hydrolysable tannins: After hydrolysis gallic acid and ellagic acid were found. The main compound of the hydrolysable tannins is agrimoniin, a dimeric ellagitannin, with a content of about 1% in the herbal substance. Further hexahydroxy diphenic acid, pedunculagin, laevigatin B and laevigatin F were isolated.
2. Flavonoids: kaempferol, cyanidinglucoside and leucoanthocyanidin and the tannin monomers catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin and epigallocatechin 
3. Phenol carboxylic acids: p-coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, sinapic acid and caffeic acid 
4. Triterpene saponins: quinovic acid, tormentillic acid and tormentosid (glycoside of tormentillic acid) 
5. Fatty acids: in extracts prepared with supercritical CO2 the following constituents are found: lauric acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, pentadecanoic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid. 

Since no specific risks are known regarding the oral and oromucosal use of herbal preparations of tormentil, there are no limitations from the herbal preparation when used in adults. 
Only limited data is available regarding the use of tormentil in children and adolescents in the case of diarrhoea. Astringents like purified tannins are recommended in standard literature for children because of their safety compared to therapeutic alternatives (Mutschler et al. 2008). However, acute diarrhoea may be life-threatening especially for young children when not properly treated. Therefore the use of tormentil in the case of diarrhoea in children and adolescents is not suitable for a traditional herbal medicinal product. Moreover, no data on the safe use in children and adolescents are published for the herbal preparations which are included in the monograph. Therefore the use should be restricted to adults. 
The use as a gargle in the case of inflammations in the mouth does not show any limitations. However, there are no data regarding a posology in children and adolescents available. Therefore the use should be limited to adults. 
No data are available on the safe use during pregnancy and lactation. Therefore the use of tormentil is not recommended during pregnancy and lactation. 



J Med Food. 2009 Oct;12(5):1173-6. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0281.Determination of acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of Potentilla erecta (Tormentil) rhizomes in rats and mice. Shushunov S1, Balashov L, Kravtsova A, Krasnogorsky I, Latté KP, Vasiliev A.
Potentilla erecta, the tormentil, and its rhizome extracts have been known for a long time in traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of inflammations, wounds, and gastrointestinal disorders. Tormentil rhizomes have also been used as part of alcoholic beverages in Germany, the Ukraine, and Russia. Acute toxicity of an aqueous P. erecta rhizome extract was evaluated with a single dose administered by the intragastric route to rats and mice in dosages of 2.5 g/kg and 6.8 g/kg of body weight, respectively. Further, a single dose of this extract was applied intraperitoneally to rats and mice in dosages of 3.8 and 14.5 g/kg of body weight, respectively. After an observation period of 2 weeks after intragastric administration and 3 days following intraperitoneal administration, no mortality or any changes in appearance, behavior, or body weight occurred for both rats and mice in the high dosages mentioned. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of the internal organs of these rodents revealed no pathological changes. The data are in line with the long-time traditional use of P. erecta rhizome extracts and results from recent clinical trials in which no signs of any toxic effects have been known after the administration of a P. erecta rhizome extract for the treatment of ulcerative colitis in adults and rotavirus-induced diarrhea in children. Thus P. erecta rhizome extracts should be considered safe with respect to acute toxicity when applied to humans

Tormentil / A Modern Herbal
Botanical: Potentilla Tormentilla (NECK.) 
Family: N.O. Rosaceae
Botanical.com - A Modern Herbal, by Mrs. M. Grieve 

---Synonyms---Septfoil. Thormantle. Biscuits. Bloodroot. Earthbank. Ewe Daisy. Five Fingers. Flesh and Blood. Shepherd's Knapperty. Shepherd's Knot. English Sarsaparilla. 
---Parts Used---Root, herb.

In Potentilla Tormentilla the flowers are yellow as in P. reptans, but smaller, and have four petals instead of five, and eight sepals, not ten so separated as to form a Maltese cross when regarded from above.
From the root-stock come leaves on long stalks, divided into three or five oval leaflets (occasionally, but rarely, seven, hence the names Septfoil and Seven Leaves), toothed towards their tips. The stem-leaves, in this species, are stalkless with three leaflets.
A small-flowered form is very frequent on heaths and in dry pastures, a larger-flowered, in which the slender stems do not rise, but trail on the ground, is more general in woods, and on hedge-banks. From the ascending form, 6 to 12 inches high, this species has been called P. erecta, but even in this case the long stems are more often creeping and ascending rather than actually erect.
The name Tormentil is said to be derived from the Latin tormentum, which signifies such gripings of the intestines as the herb will serve to relieve, likewise the twinges of toothache.
The plant is very astringent, and has been used in some places for tanning.
It has been official in various Pharmacopoeias and was formerly in the Secondary List of the United States Pharmacopoeia.
It is considered one of the safest and most powerful of our native aromatic astringents, and for its tonic properties has been termed 'English Sarsaparilla.'

All parts of the plant are astringent, especially the red, woody rhizome.
The rhizome is 1 to 2 inches long, as thick as the finger, or smaller, tapering to one end, usually with one to three short branches near the larger end, ridged, with several strong, longitudinal wrinkles between them, bearing numerous blunt indentations. It is brown or blackish externally; internally, light brownish red; the fracture short and somewhat resinous, showing a thin bark, one or two circles of small, yellowish wood-wedges, broad medullary rays and a large pith. It has a peculiar faint, slightly aromatic odour and a strongly astringent taste.

---Chemical Constituents---It contains 18 to 30 per cent of tannin, 18 per cent of a red colouring principle - Tormentil Red, a product of the tannin and yielding with potassium hydroxide, protocatechuic acid and phloroglucin. It is soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in water. Also some resin and ellagic and kinovic acids have been reported.

---Medicinal Action and Uses---There is a great demand for the rhizome, which in modern herbal medicine is used extensively as an astringent in diarrhoea and other discharges, operating without producing any stimulant effects. It also imparts nourishment and support to the bowels.

It is employed as a gargle in sore, relaxed and ulcerated throat and also as an injection in leucorrhoea.
It may be given in substance, decoction or extract. The dose of the powdered root or fluid extract is 1/2 to 1 drachm.
The fluid extract acts as a styptic to cuts, wounds, etc.
A strongly-made decoction is recommended as a good wash for piles and inflamed eyes. The decoction is made by boiling 2 OZ. of the bruised root in 50 OZ. of water till it is reduced one-third. It is then strained and taken in doses of 1 1/2 OZ. It may be used as an astringent gargle.
If a piece of lint be soaked in the decoction and kept applied to warts, they will disappear.
The decoction for internal use should be made with 4 drachms to 1/2 pint of water, boiled for 10 minutes, adding 1/2 drachm of cinnamon stick at the end of boiling. Dose, 1 or 2 tablespoonsful.
Compound Powder of Tormentil. (A very reliable medicine in diarrhoea and dysentery.) Powdered Tormentil, 1 OZ; Powdered Galangal, 1 OZ.; Powdered Marshmallow root, 1 OZ.; Powdered Ginger, 4 drachms.
An infusion is made of the powdered ingredients by pouring 1 pint of boiling water upon them, allowing to cool and then straining the liquid. Dose, 1 or 2 fluid drachms, every 15 minutes, till the pain is relieved - then take three or four times a day.
A simple infusion is made by scalding 1 OZ. of the powdered Tormentil with 1 pint of water and taking as required in wineglassful doses for chronic diarrhcea, fluxes, etc.

A continental recipe for an astringent decoction is equal parts of Tormentilla, Bistort and Pomegranate.

Dr. Thornton declared that in fluxes of blood, 1 drachm of Tormentil given four times a day in an infusion of Hops did wonders.

Thornton tells of a poor old man who made wonderful cures of ague, smallpox, whooping cough, etc., from an infusion of this herb and became so celebrated locally that Lord William Russell gave him a piece of ground in which to cultivate it, which he did, keeping it a secret for long.
It was much given for cholera, and also sometimes in intermittent fevers, and used in a lotion for ulcers and long-standing sores. The juice of the fresh root, or the powder of the dried, was used in compounding ointments and plasters for application to wounds and sores.
The fresh root, bruised, and applied to the throat and jaws was held to heal the King's Evil.

Culpepper says:
'Tormentil is most excellent to stay all fluxes of blood or humours, whether at nose, mouth or belly. The juice of the herb and root, or the decoction thereof, taken with some Venice treacle and the person laid to sweat, expels any venom or poison, or the plague, fever or other contagious disease, as the pox, measles, etc., for it is an ingredient in all antidotes or counterpoisons.'. . . 'It resisteth putrefaction.' . . . 'The root taken inwardly is most effectual to help any flux of the belly, stomach, spleen or blood and the juice wonderfully opens obstructions of the spleen and lungs and cureth yellow jaundice. Tormentil is no less effectual and powerful a remedy against outward wounds, sores and hurts than for inward and is therefore a special ingredient to be used in wound drinks, lotions and injections. . . . It is also effectual for the piles. . . . The juice or powder of the root, put into ointments, plasters and such things that are applied to wounds or sores is very effectual.'
In the Western Isles of Scotland and in the Orkneys the roots were used for tanning leather and considered superior even to oak bark, being first boiled in water and the leather steeped in the cold liquor. The Laplanders employed the thickened red juice of the root for staining leather red.
The Americans use the name Tormentil for Geranium maculatum, the Spotted Cranesbill, which has similar properties.

Many other of the 150 species of Potentilla have been similarly used in medicine.


Scientific Evidence: Uses
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
- See more at: http://kroger.staywellsolutionsonline.com/Library/NaturalStandard/Herbs/153,tormentil#sthash.KedfeMKM.dpuf

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Grade*
Diarrhea
Tormentil root extract has been shown to shorten the duration of diarrhea caused by rotavirus and reduce the need for rehydration solution in children. Additional research is needed.
C
Skin rash (lichen planus, itchy rash in the mouth)
Tincture of Potentilla tormentilla as a gargle may be a useful adjunct, together with application of codfish oil, in the treatment of some cases of lichen planus (itchy rash in the mouth). Additional research with Potentilla tormentilla alone is needed.
C
Tuberculosis
In people with tuberculosis, an herbal extract containing tormentil, when used together with standard treatment, was shown to be more effective than standard treatment alone. Additional research with tormentil alone is needed.
C
Ulcerative colitis
In early research, tormentil extract was shown to improve some symptoms in people with ulcerative colitis (disease of the large intestine). Higher-quality studies are needed.
C
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
- See more at: http://kroger.staywellsolutionsonline.com/Library/NaturalStandard/Herbs/153,tormentil#sthash.KedfeMKM.dpuf

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