Malva sylvestris / Kaasjeskruid

Groot, klein, gekruld, vijfdelig en muskuskaasjeskruid. De Kaasjeskruiden bestaan natuurlijk weer in vele soorten. Wij mensen zijn weer ijverig geweest in het benoemen. En waarom hebben ze nu juist deze namen?

Kaasjeskruid ook eetbaar
De plant Kaasjeskruid heeft niets met een echte kaas te maken, de naam slaat op de platte, ronde zaden, die samen plakken en zo op een mini-bolletje kaas gelijken. Onrijp zijn ze wel eetbaar, maar smaken zeker niet naar kaas. Als kind heb ik het nog veel gegeten en ook nu proef ik het wel eens, maar dan meer uit principe. Het smaakt nogal groen, je vind het ook niet veel meer in de natuur en het groeit dan nog voornamelijk langs wegkanten. Niet direct de plaats om je voedsel te oogsten.

Een variëteit met gekruld blad is beter eetbaar als een soort sla. De eerbiedwaardige Cats schreef 400 jaar geleden ‘Laat Maluw (kaasjeskruid) en Latou (Latuw of sla) tot uwen dis genaken’. Het blijft toch verwonderlijk hoe in verschillende landen dezelfde namen voor een plant ontstaat. Fransen noemen het ‘herbe à fromage, Engelsen iets romantischer ‘fairy-cheese. Andere volkse namen van bij ons zijn Broodjes, mastellekenskruid, ook een soort broodje, en paternosterkruid omdat de zaden wel aan mekaar werden geregen.

Pappel, pleisters en papjes
Pappel is een naam die we in de 13de eeuw bij Jan Yperman terugvinden. ‘ nemt papple ende alsene ende ziedste in water en legt optie swillinge, die saelt sachten ende slanken’. De naam Pappel werd zowel gebruikt voor kaasjeskruid als voor populier. Zou pappel van pap komen? Uit kaasjeskruid getrokken in water, komen slijmstoffen vrij die dan een gel vormen en dan ook als verzachtend papje op de huid konden gebruikt worden.
Er zijn in het verleden dan ook vele eenvoudige maar wel wonderbaarlijke middeltjes geweest met kaasjeskruid en verwante slijmstofplanten. Enkele voorbeelden:
Bij zevenoog bijvoorbeeld kon je een papje maken samen met Muur en tarwebrood, dat moest dan met rivierwater gekookt worden. Bij tranende ogen hielp een papje van de wortel, al zal men dan eerder de verwante soort Heemst gebruikt hebben.
Een schoonheidsrecept voor witte tanden daterend uit 1681. ‘Een seldsaem middel om de jufferlijke schoonheit te bewaren: Neem kaasjesbladeren en wortel, vrijft daar dagelijks de tanden mee, zo worden zij blinkend en schoon’. Zou daarom de naam jufferrooske nog wel eens gebruikt worden?
Ook de magiër Albertus Magnus is altijd weer goed voor bijzondere recepturen. Om iets heets uit het vuur te nemen, moest je, volgens hem, de handen wassen in bonenwater waar kalk en kaasjeskruid aan toegevoegd was.
Straffe kost dat wel, maar Kaasjes kruid blijft toch nog bijzonder voor een droge, geïrriteerde huid, om de ruwe slijmvliezen van de keel te verzachten en om geprikkelde darmen weer tot rust te brengen.

Voor verdere studie
Gürbüz I, Ozkan AM, Yesilada E, et al. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of some plants used in folk medicine of Pinarbasi (Kayseri, Turkey) (waaronder Malva neglecta). J Ethnopharmacol 2005 Oct 3; 101(1-3):313-8.
Plant pigments (antioxidants) of medicinal plants Malva silvestris L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae). Redzić S, Hodzić N, Tuka M. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2005 May;5(2):53-8.
Classen B, Blaschek W. High molecular weight acidic polysaccharid from Malva sylvestris and Alcea rosea. Planta Med. 1998 Oct;64(7):640-4.
Gonda R, Tomoda M, Shimizu N, Yamada H. Structure and anticomplementary activity of an acidic polysaccharide from the leaves of Malva sylvestris var. mauritiana. Carbohydr Res. 1990 May 1;198(2):323-9. (immuunmodulerende werking)
Talbourdet S, Sadick NS, Lazou K, Bonnet-Duquennoy M, Kurfurst R, Neveu M, Heusèle C, André P, Schnebert S, Draelos ZD, Perrier E.J. Modulation of gene expression as a new skin anti-aging strategy. Drugs Dermatol. 2007 Jun;6(6 Suppl):s25-33. (huidverjongend?). LVMH Recherche - Parfums Christian Dior, St. Jean de Braye, France.

De tuin als huisapotheek: Heemst en Kaasjeskruid
Een mooie tuin kan ook een nuttige en gezonde tuin zijn. In het volgend artikel bespreek ik de teelttechnische, esthetische en gezondheidsaspecten van Heemst, een plant die in zo een kruidige siertuin thuishoort.

De Echte heemst, zoals hij officieel wordt genoemd, is een 1 tot 1,5m stevige rechtopstaande vaste plant die overleeft met zijn penwortels. Hij groeit in vochtige weilanden rijk aan minerale zouten, langs sloten en oevers, maar is zeer zeldzaam. Zelf heb ik hem in de vrij natuur nog nooit gezien. Gelukkig groeit hij goed in mijn eigen tuin, zelfs op wat droge en arme zandgrond. Scheuren is de gemakkelijkste methode om hem te vermeerderen maar zaaien gaat ook goed. Zowel de Heemst als de verwante Kaasjeskruiden (Malva) zijn mooie en nuttige deelnemers in een kruidige siertuin, al gedragen ze zich totaal verschillend.

Het Groot kaasjeskruid (Malva sylvestris L.) is een echte zwerver, die zich overal uitzaait en dan ook steeds weer op andere plaatsen in de tuin opduikt, terwijl de Heemst altijd trouw op hetzelfde plekje te voorschijn komt. Het Kaasjeskruid is een flamboyante kleurige wildebras, de Heemst een statig heertje in grijs en wit.

De Heemst was ooit de trots van de Belgische kruidenteelt. Vóór 1914 was de jaarlijkse opbrengst aan bloemen, bladeren en wortels gemiddeld 75.000kg en was de goede kwaliteit van onze heemstwortel over heel Europa bekend. Nu, moeten we ons tevreden stellen met de planten uit eigen tuin.




Mallow Flower – ESCOP Herbal Monograph 2016

Malvae Flos
Mallow Flower
Malva sylvestris L
Published 2016

SUMMARY:

The herbal monograph selects and summarises scientific studies and textbooks regarding efficacy, dosage and safety to support the therapeutic uses of mallow flower. This herbal drug by definition consists of the whole or fragmented dried flowers of Malva sylvestris L. or its cultivated varieties. Studies with its main characteristic constituents mucilage polysaccharides and anthocyanins are included. The therapeutic indications are dry cough; irritation of the oral, pharyngeal or gastric mucosa. Administration of mallow flower addresses posology; its duration of use; contra-indications; special warnings; special precautions for use; interactions with other medicinal products; other forms of interaction; in pregnancy and lactation; its effects on ability to drive; undesirable effects; overdose. In vitro experiments with mallow flower demonstrated its antioxidant activity by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, as well as its antibacterial and antifungal activities. In vivo experiments with a methanolic extract of mallow flower demonstrated the antitussive properties of mucilages isolated from mallow flower in cats, as well as the antioxidant effects of isolated anthocyanins on plasma lipids and free radicals in rats. A controlled clinical trial demonstrated its use for functional constipation in patients. The selection of literature cited in the monograph is aimed at bringing together relevant information about the possible physiological roles of mallow flower and its major constituents. Examples are given below.

KEYWORDS:
Malva sylvestris L. and cultivated varieties
Malvae flos
Mallow flower
Cough, dry; Irritation of the oral, pharyngeal or gastric mucosa

REFERENCES:
– Franz G. Die Schleimpolysaccharide von Althaea officinalis und Malva sylvestris. Planta Med 1966;14:90-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1100032
– Karawya MS, Balbaa SI, Afifi MS. Investigation of the carbohydrate contents of certain mucilaginous plants. Planta Med 1971;20:14-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1099659
– Nosálová G, Capek P, Kardosová A, Strapková A. Changes in cough reflex induced by administration of polysaccharides from flowers of Malva mauritiana L. Pharm Pharmacol Lett 1994;3:245-8.
– Razavi SM, Zarrini G, Molavi G, Ghasemi G. Bioactivity of Malva sylvestris L., a medicinal plant from Iran. Iranian Journal of basic Medical Sciences 2011;14:574-9.
– Wang ZY. Impact of anthocyanin from Malva sylvestris on plasma lipids and free radical. J Forestry Research 2005;16:228-32.



J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012 Feb;64(2):172-89. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01383.x. Epub 2011 Nov 4.
Ethnobotanical and scientific aspects of Malva sylvestris L.: a millennial herbal medicine.
Gasparetto JC1, Martins CA, Hayashi SS, Otuky MF, Pontarolo R.
OBJECTIVES:
Malva sylvestris L., known as common mallow, is native to Europe, North Africa and Asia. In the Mediterranean region, this species has a long history of use as food, and due to its therapeutic relevance, some parts of this plant have been employed in traditional and ethnoveterinary medicines. The leaves in particular have been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-complementary, anticancer and skin tissue integrity activity. Additionally, an anti-ulcerogenic effect was recently proven, demonstrating that the aqueous extract was more effective than cimetidine, a potent medicine used to treat gastric ulcers. Due to its wide use and medicinal importance, many studies have been conducted; however, the information in the literature is very extensive and disseminated, making it difficult to use.
KEY FINDINGS:
A complete review involving the ethnobotanical and scientific aspects of M. sylvestris has been made. The research has provided evidence that M. sylvestris has potential use as a medicinal plant and has highlighted a need for more studies involving clinical and toxicological aspects of its use.
SUMMARY:
This review can contribute to the field with its historical context, and by describing the progress made, new ideas for researchers can arise.



A literature study reported various pharmacological properties for M. sylvestris and other species of Malva. It is well-known that M. sylvestris can be utilized as an anti-inflammatory substance for the respiratory tract, GI tract, and the skin (11). The plant can be used topically or in a bath to treat abscesses, bruises, burns, dermatitis, swellings, and various ulcers (12,13).

It is assumed that this pharmacological and biological activity of the plant should be attributed to presence of anthocyanidines, naphthaquinones, flavonoides or mucilaginous polysaccharides that are in high amounts in the plant fruits, flowers, leaves, and roots.

A naphtaqiunone, namely, malvone A has been reported from stems of M. sylvestris. It was also shown that malvone A was regarded as a phytoalexin and was induced by some plant pathogen microorganisms (4). Therefore, this compound could be responsible for high antimicrobial activity of the M. sylvestris against different plant and human pathogen microorganisms. Therefore, the M. sylvestris extracts could be a good candidate for making a biopesticide. Nowadays, in spite of the successful pest control achieved with synthetic pesticides, the use of these chemicals has negative effects on environments and human being. Therefore, the use of the natural compounds for pest control might be one of the alternatives for environmentally friendly agriculture.

Our results revealed that M. sylvestris possesses antibacterial effects on methicillin resistant strain of staph. aureus (E38). At the recent years, the development of bacterial resistance to presently available antibiotics has caused a serious problem for global hygienic and health programs. This problem has necessitated the search for new antimicrobial agent with natural navigate.

The results herein reported, showed that M. sylvestris extracts exhibits high cytotoxic activity. Therefore, this plant could be considered as an antiproliferative agent. The plant has a rich ethnomedicinal history and has been used since ancient Greece and Roman times. The above ground portions of the plant have been used in pancakes and salads, cooked as greens and used as stuffing in some countries. The immature fruits may be consumed raw as a snack, as well (14). Therefore, high consumption of the plant leaves, flowers or fruits could be associated with a reduced risk of cancer.

Conclusion
It was concluded that M. sylvestris indicated considerable bioactivities. This Iranian native plant can be used as an antiseptic agent to eliminate antibiotic resistance microorganisms.

References
1. Davis PH. Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands. Vol2. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1966.
2. Pirbalouti AG, Yousefi M, Heshmetollah N, Karimi I, Koohpayeh A. Evaluation of burn healing properties of Arnehia euchroma and Malva sylvestris. Electron J Biol. 2009;5:62–66.
3. Ozkan AM, Kutselm O. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of some plants used in folk medicine of pinnarbasi. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;101:313–318. [PubMed]
4. Veshkorova O, Golubenko Z, Pshenichnov E, Avzanov I, Uzbekov V, et al. Malvone A, a phytoalexin found in Malva sylvestris (Family Malvaceae) Phytochemistry. 2010;67:2376–2379. [PubMed]
5. Fiorentino A. Terpenoides and phenol derivatives from Malva sylvestris. Phytochemistry. 2006;67:481–485. [PubMed]
6. Razavi SM, Zarrini G. Bioactivity of aviprin and aviprin-3''-O-glucoside, two linear furanocoumarins from Apiaceae. Bioorg Khim. 2010;36:359–362. [PubMed]
7. Razavi SM, Nejad-Ebrahimi S. Chemical composition, allelopatic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils of flowering tops and leaves of Crambe orientalis. Nat Prod Res. 2009;23:1492–1498. [PubMed]
8. Zarrini G, Mohammadi S. Biological activity of Prangos uloptera, a medicinal plants from Iran. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24:797–803. [PubMed]
9. Razavi SM, Ghasemiyan A, Salehi S, Zahri F. Screening of biological activity of Zosima absinthifolia fruits extracts. Eur Asia J Bio Sci. 2009;4:25–28.
10. Zahri S, Motamed Z, Ghasemi G. Bioscreening of oxypeucedanin, a known furanocoumarin. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2010;13:133–138.
11. Guarrera PM. Traditional phytotherapy in central italy (Marche, Abruzzo and Latium) Fitotrapia. 2005;76:1–25. [PubMed]
12. Camejo- RodriguesJ, Ascensao L, Bonet MA, Valles J. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and aromatic plants in the natural park of Serra de Sao Maeda (Portugal) J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89:199–209. [PubMed]
13. Wang ZY. Impact of anthocyanin from Malva sylvestris on plasma lipids and free radical. J For Res . 2005;16:228–232.
14. Dogan Y, Baslar S, Ay G, Mert HH. The use of wild edible plants in Western and Central Anatolia (Turkey) Econ Bot . 2004;58:684–690.



The protective effect of Malva sylvestris on rat kidney damaged by vanadium
Wafa Marouane123†, Ahlem Soussi1†, Jean-Claude Murat4, Sofiane Bezzine23* and Abdelfattah El Feki1
Background
The protective effect of the common mallow (Malva sylvestris) decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium metavanadate poisoning was evaluated. On the one hand, vanadium toxicity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, causing a lipid peroxidation and an alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant defence. On the other hand, many medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, thanks to the presence of flavonoids. These properties were confirmed in Malva sylvestris by two separate methods; namely, the Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and the Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction assay.

Results
In 80 rats exposed to ammonium metavanadate (0.24 mmol/kg body weight in drinking water) for 90 days, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in kidney. A significant increase in the formation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities was noticed. In addition, a histological examination of kidney revealed a structural deterioration of the renal cortical capsules and a shrinking of the Bowman space. In animals intoxicated by metavanadate but also given a Malva sylvestris decoction (0.2 g dry mallow/kg body weight), no such pathologic features were observed: lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological features appeared normal as compared to control rats.

Conclusion
Malva sylvestris is proved to have a high antioxidative potential thanks to its richness in phenolic compounds.

Effect of Malva sylvestris on Performance, Growth and Morphology ofbSmall Intestine in Broiler Chickens
Behnam Kiani*, Ardeshir Hafcy Kordestany* and Hossein Ansari**
*Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, Sanandaj Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, IRAN.
**Department of veterinary, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, IRAN.
(Corresponding author: Behnam Kiani)
(Received 16 March, 2015, Accepted 15 April, 2015)
(Published by Research Trend, Website: www.researchtrend.net amir9002001@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT: This study attempts to examine the effect of malva on performance, growth, cecal microflora 
and morphology of small intestine in broiler chickens. In this study, a total of 360 one-day broiler chickens
(Ross 308 strain) were purchased from a factory called Morghe-Madar based in Salim-Jujeh Miandoab, Iran.
There were 6 treatments each entailing 3 replications in which 20 one-day chickens were involved. The
experimental conditions were identical in all the treatments, except for the diets varying according to
additives. Moreover, the chickens were reared for 42 days, during which water was administered freely and
seeds were given in a standard way. The control treatment or basic diet (free of antibiotic, free of malva) and
the alternative treatment including the basic diet plus 150 mg of antibiotic in 1 kg of malva-free diet, while
there were 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg of malva present in one kilogram of the diet. The feed intake and weight
gain were recorded and performance traits were measured weekly. The broilers were slaughtered at 42 days
of age. Having done the weighing, data was registered and evaluated. 

The results indicated that malva leaves
insignificant effect on weekly feed intake and weight gain, i.e. the conversion ratio is little (P<0.05). Although
the increased feed intake in the fourth and sixth weeks was significant, the weight gain and conversion ratio
were insignificant. Therefore, it can be argued that the difference was due to experimental error, i.e. malva
was ineffective on higher feed intake and palatability. Furthermore, the mean of body weights at 42 days of
age showed no significant difference, which was also due to ineffectiveness of malva on increased feed and
weight. In morphological terms, however, the villi colon length and crypt depth showed a significant
difference at day 42. The highest increase was observed in the sixth and fifth treatments, which was
significantly different from the control treatment. It can be inferred from this experiment that malva at 400
mg leaves an effect similar to that of virginiamycin at 150 mg/kg, thus leading to improved intestinal villi
length and crypt depth, and ultimately greater absorption brought about by malva's anti-inflammatory and
anti-microbial properties.



Mauve sylvestre
Nom latin : Malva sylvestris L.
Noms communs : Grande mauve, mauve sauvage, fromageon
Famille : Malvacées

Parties utilisées : Fleurs

Origine : Spontanée dans les haies, au pourtour des habitations et dans les lieux incultes en Europe, la mauve a été introduite sur de nombreux continents et parfois même cultivée. La drogue est importée de Bulgarie, d'Albanie et du Maroc.

Description de la drogue sèche (Cahier n°3 de l'Agence du Médicament, 1998) :
• Calice (env. 5-8 mm de haut) à 5 sépales triangulaires, gris verdâtre, soudés par leur base
• Présence à la base du calice d'un calicule à 3 pièces oblongues-lancéolées plus courtes
• Corolle (formée de 5 pétales 3 à 4 fois plus longs que le calice), chiffonnée, bleu-violet foncé après séchage

Description de la plante à l'état frais : Herbacée vivace par sa souche, à tige forte dressée, souvent rameuse
Taille : Jusqu'à 1,5 m
Feuilles : Feuilles alternes, réniformes à arrondies, isolées, pétiolées, présentant 3 à 7 lobes dentés à nervure palmée et à bord crénelé ; feuilles munies de 2 stipules foliacées latérales
Fleurs : Fleurs actinomorphes de type 5, 2-5 cm, pédicellées, roses à pourpres avec des veines plus sombres, par 2 ou plus en grappes axillaires ; calice et calicule à pièces elliptiques, poilues
Fruits : Fruits capsulaire composé de plusieurs carpelles oligospermes (méricarpes) disposés circulairement

Constituants :

• Mucilages : polysaccharides neutres et acides (galactose, rhamnose, acides glucuronique et galacturonique)
• Anthocyanosides (malvine, 6"-malonylmalvine, delphinide)
• Autres constituants : coumarines, tanins

Indications (Cahier n°3 de l'Agence du Médicament, 1998) :

• Voie orale :
- Traditionnellement utilisé comme traitement adjuvant de la composante douloureuse des troubles fonctionnels digestifs
- Traditionnellement utilisé dans le traitement symptomatique de la toux

• Usage local :
- Traditionnellement utilisé en usage local comme traitement d'appoint adoucissant et antiprurigineux des affections dermatologiques, comme trophique protecteur
- Traditionnellement utilisé en cas d'irritation ou de gêne oculaire due à des causes diverses (atmosphère enfumée, effort visuel soutenu, bain de mer ou de piscine...)
- Traditionnellement utilisé par voie locale (collutoire, pastille), comme antalgique dans les affections de la cavité buccale et/ou du pharynx
- Traitement symptomatique de la constipation

Effets indésirables :

Aucun connu à ce jour

Spécialités : Arkogélules mauve, Arkolax tisane, Pectoflorine tisane, Tisanes Boribel n°1, n°6, n°13, Tisanes Médiflor n°5, n°8, Tisanes Santane C6, O1, Tisane Saint-Urbain, Tussipax sirop, Yerbalaxa tisane...

Références bibliographiques

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