Leucanthemum vulgare / Gewone margriet

Botanical: Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (LINN.) in A Modern Herbal / Grieve 
Family: N.O. Compositae
---Synonyms---Great Ox-eye. Goldens. Marguerite. Moon Daisy. Horse Gowan. Maudlin Daisy. Field Daisy. Dun Daisy. Butter Daisy. Horse Daisy. Maudlinwort. White. Weed. Leucanthemum vulgare. (Scotch) Gowan. 
---Parts Used---Whole herb, flowers, root.

The Ox-Eye Daisy is a familiar sight in fields. In Somersetshire there is an old tradition connecting it with the Thunder God, and hence it is sometimes spoken of as the 'Dun Daisy.'
It is to be found throughout Europe and Russian Asia. The ancients dedicated it to Artemis, the goddess of women, considering it useful in women's complaints. In Christian days, it was transferred to St. Mary Magdalen and called Maudelyn or Maudlin Daisy after her. Gerard terms it Maudlinwort.

The genus derives its name from the Greek words chrisos (golden) and anthos (flower), and contains only two indigenous species this and the Corn Marigold, in which the whole flower is yellow, not only the central disc of florets, as in the Daisy. The specific name of the Ox-Eye signifies 'white flower,' being like the generic name, Greek in origin. The old northern name for the Daisy was Baldur's Brow, and this, with many other species of Chrysanthemum became dedicated to St. John.

---Description---The plant generally grows from 1 to 2 feet high. The root is perennial and somewhat creeping; the stems, hard and wiry, furrowed and only very slightly branched. The leaves are small and coarsely toothed; those near the root are somewhat rounder in form than those on the stem, and are on long stalks, those on the stem are oblong and stalkless.

By the middle of May, the familiar yellowcentred white flower-heads commence to bloom, and are at their best till about the close of June, though isolated specimens may be met with throughout the summer, especially where undisturbed by the cutting of the hay, as on railway banks, where the plant flourishes well. Beneath each flower-head is a ring of green sheathing bracts, the involucre. These not only protect and support the bloom, but doubtless prevents insects trying to bite their way to the honey from below. They, as well as the rest of the plant, are permeated with an acrid juice that is obnoxious to insects.

The young leaves are said to be eaten in salads in Italy. According to Linnaeus, horses, sheep and goats eat the plant, but cows and pigs refuse it on account of its acridity.

---Part Used Medicinally---The whole herb, collected in May and June, in the wild state, and dried. Also the flowers.
The taste of the dried herb is bitter and tingling, and the odour faintly resembles that of valerian.

---Medicinal Action and Uses---Antispasmodic diuretic, tonic. Ox-Eye Daisy has been successfully employed in whooping-cough, asthma and nervous excitability.
As a tonic, it acts similarly to Chamomile flowers, and has been recommended for nightsweats. The flowers are balsamic and make a useful infusion for relieving chronic coughs and for bronchial catarrhs. Boiled with the leaves and stalks and sweetened with honey, they make an excellent drink for the same purpose. In America, the root is also employed successfully for checking the night-sweats of pulmonary consumption, the fluid extract being taken, 15 to 60 drops in water.

Externally, it is serviceable as a lotion for wounds, bruises, ulcers and some cutaneous diseases.

Gerard writes:
'Dioscorides saith that the floures of Oxeie made up in a seare cloth doe asswage and washe away cold hard swellings, and it is reported that if they be drunke by and by after bathing, they make them in a short time wellcoloured that have been troubled with the yellow jaundice.'
Culpepper tells us that it is 'a wound herb of good respect, often used in those drinks and salves that are for wounds, either inward or outward' . . . and that it is 'very fitting to be kept both in oils, ointments, plasters and syrups.' He also tells us that the leaves bruised and applied reduce swellings, and that
'a decoction thereof, with wall-wort and agrimony, and places fomented or bathed therewith warm, giveth great ease in palsy, sciatica or gout. An ointment made thereof heals all wounds that have inflammation about them.'
Country people used formerly to take a decoction of the fresh herb in ale for the cure of jaundice.

Plants for a Future / Leucanthemum vulgare - Lam.
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Root.
Edible Uses: 

Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 115]. The young spring shoots are finely chopped and added to salads[4, 7, 183]. Rather pungent[9], they should be used sparingly or mixed with other salad plants[183]. Root - raw[5]. Used in spring[207].

Medicinal Uses
Antispasmodic;  Antitussive;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Emmenagogue;  Tonic;  Vulnerary.

The whole plant, and especially the flowers[7], is antispasmodic, antitussive, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, tonic and vulnerary[4, 7, 21]. It is harvested in May and June then dried for later use[4]. The plant has been employed successfully in the treatment of whooping cough, asthma and nervous excitability[4]. Externally it is used as a lotion on bruises, wounds, ulcers and some cutaneous diseases[4, 7]. A decoction of the dried flowers and stems has been used as a wash for chapped hands[257]. A distilled water made from the flowers is an effective eye lotion in the treatment of conjunctivitis[7].

Summary of "Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. crude oil phytoremediation."
Sites with crude oil pollution have been successfully treated using phytoremediation, but expanding the range of plants that can be used and understanding how exposure impacts the plants are two areas of study that are important to continue. Leucanthemum vulgare has been shown to grow well under a variety of stressful conditions. To examine L. vulgare's ability to both survive crude oil exposure and to reduce crude oil concentrations in soil, plants were placed in soil containing 0, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% or 10% w/w crude oil. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration, peroxidase and catalase activity, proline and phenol content in roots and leaves were determined at the start of planting and every 2 months for six months. L. vulgare roots were successfully colonized with mycorrhizae under all conditions. Results showed positive correlation between antioxidant compound concentration and crude oil contamination. Also, a significant reduction occurred in TPH content of soil over time in planted pots as compared to controls. The lowest TPH content was recorded after 6 months under all treatments. Results showed L. vulgare could survive crude oil exposure and enhance reducing of crude oil from soil.

"Flower heads used like dandelion in home wine making." [EMNMPV.7]
Finely chopped young spring shoots can also be added to salads, as can the root. The unopened buds can be marinated and used like capers as a condiment. [Tilford]
Leaves can be eaten raw when young. It has a rather pungent taste, so they should be consumed sparingly or added to mixed green salads. [Tilford]
“...the leaves of this plant are among the most palatable fresh wild greens available. The young basal leaves are best and have a sweet flavor with a texture much like romaine lettuce; gourmet restaurants sometimes serve them in salads.” [Gardenweed]
"The leaves in the spring are one of the best edibles available.... The flavour is reminiscent of green apples and sage with a sweet aftertaste." [Jones TDFB]

“The rootstalks of the ox-eye daisy were reportedly eaten as a potherb in spain.” [Gardenweed] Root - raw[5]. Used in spring[207].[PFAF]

Other Uses

"Ray florets contain glycoside apiin which yields the coloring mater apigenin.... The plant is cultivated on commercial scale in peninsular India, particularly around Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Bangalore, and Ahmad Nagar." [Singh HNDP]
“The preparations of the flowers are fairly useful insecticides, as the flowers contain pyrethrins.... The powder can be fluffed into the fur of pets for repelling fleas”. [Tiford] Preparation: As an insecticide, Fresh Flower Tincture, 1:2, add 1 tablespoon dish detergent per cup of finished tincture for spraying; as a powder; the recently dried flowers, ground in a blender, then stored in a closed container in the freezer.” [MPPW]?

Medicinal Uses

"Oxeye Daisy decreases secretions when taken internally, and dries up and disinfects when applied externally. It is usually best when taken warm (not hot) or simply at room temperature. Use it for bronchitis or asthma characterized by moist, hypersecreting mucosa, with copious watery secretions, and red, inflamed membranes. It has some of the anti-inflammatory effects found in its relative Feverfew, although not enough to induce possible side effects." [MPPW] Menomini Indians used it for fevers (H H Smith. 1923). [DPL Watts] The whole plant, and especially the flowers[7], is antispasmodic, antitussive, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, tonic and vulnerary[4, 7, 21]. It is harvested in May and June then dried for later use[4]."[PFAF]
Dosages (Oxeye Daisy) — 1 cup 3 ×/day (PH2).

Juice: "In the Highlands, the juice boiled with honey was used for coughs, and the same preparation was applied to wounds..." [DPL Watts] "In Ireland the boiled juice has similarly been applied for coughs, more especially tubercular ones.... sore eyes were also bathed with the cooled boiled juice. " [MPFT]

Tea: the plant was sometimes made into a tea to treat asthma. [DPL Watts] "
Externally: in Russia, it was used as a household remedy for external haemorrhages [DPL Watts] "Externally it is used as a lotion on bruises, wounds, ulcers and some cutaneous diseases[4, 7]. A decoction of the dried flowers and stems has been used as a wash for chapped hands[257]." [PFAF]

Jaundice: “A decoction of the whole herb in ale was used by rural Americans as a folk remedy for jaundice.” [Tilford]

Tea: The tea is a good douche, mixed with California Bayberry, or Hedge Nettle for an astringent.”It is antifungal and antibacterial, and besides being a useful douche, it may be used as a cleansing, disinfecting wash. It can be used as a hair and beard rinse for scalp and skin fungal infections.” [MPPW] "In Tyrone and Monaghan, on the other hand, a tea formerly much drunk there (to ward off a chill) was made from an infusion of the ray florets." [MPFT] "A distilled water made from the flowers is an effective eye lotion in the treatment of conjunctivitis[7]." [PFAF]
Collecting: "Gather flowering stems and dry them". "The plant is strongest when first flowering (usually mid-June), but it is serviceable up until early September. Discard dead flowers and leaves before drying. Include the stems with the herb." [MPPW]
Stability: “Oxeye Daisy will stay effective for about a year as the dried herb.” [MPPW]
Standard Infusion: “2 to 4 fluid ounces, up to three times a day. Dry Herb Tincture (recent herb only), 1:5, 50% alcohol, ½ to 1 teaspoon, up to three times a day." [MPPW]

Nightsweats: “Nightsweats associated with [TB] were treated with a glass of water in which 15-60 drops of the fluid root extract were added. [MPPW]