Laurus nobilis / Laurier

Laurus nobilis is de Latijnse naam voor de echte laurier. De plant komt oorspronkelijk uit het oostelijk gedeelte van het Middellandse Zeegebied. In landen als Turkije en Griekenland groeit deze laurier volop. In de geschiedenis stond de laurier voor overwinning en trots. Iedereen kent wel de beelden uit de tijd van het Romeinse Rijk waar Caesar en diverse zogenaamde helden worden afgebeeld met lauwerkransen. In de Nederlandse en Belgische tuinen is deze echte laurier minder bekend. De naam laurier wordt vaak ten onrechte gebruikt voor de Prunus laurocerasus (laurierkers). De Laurus nobilis wordt in Nederland en België vooral verkocht als kleine heester of als vormboom. De plant kan tegen zilte wind en is dus bijzonder geschikt voor tuinen langs de kust. Geef de Laurus nobilis een plaats in de zon of halfschaduw maar let wel op langdurige vorst. De bladeren zullen tijdens een te lange vorstperiode bevriezen. In een warme zomer zal de Laurus nobilis bloeien met crème witte stervormige bloemetjes. Later in het seizoen komen er rode vruchtjes die na verloop van tijd diepblauw naar paars-zwart verkleuren. In Nederland kom je de Laurus nobilis niet alleen in de tuin tegen. De blaadjes worden veelvuldig in sauzen, zuurkool, rode kool, stamppot, groentensoepen, marinades en gehakt gebruikt. Een andere eigenschap van de Laurus nobilis is het heerlijk geurend blad en dus wordt er ook een etherische olie uit gedistilleerd.

Stoomdistillatie van de gedroogde bladeren en takjes geeft een olie die in kleur varieert van diepgeel tot donkerbruin, met een warme, scherpe, kruidige geur. Het is een algemeen tonicum, sterk antiseptisch voor de luchtwegen. De blaadjes zijn opwekkend, anti-spasmodisch, maagversterkend. De hele plant is narcotisch. De Chinezen wisten dat reeds en gebruikten die eigenschap bij operaties in combinatie met opium, alruin en bilzekruid. 

Sterkste werking van de etherische olie bij aften++  anticataraal+++ artritis+++   expectorant+++  griep+++, krampstillend+++,  luchtwegenaandoeningen+++  pijnstillend+++   

Inwendig bij: reuma, schimmelinfecties, menstruatiepijn, huidziekten, flatulentie, spijsverteringsmoeilijkheden, astma, griep, bronchitis, gebrek aan eetlust, psoriasis: 3 maal daags 2 druppels na de maaltijd innemen mengen met honing en oplossen in warme melk of kruidenthee.

Toepassingen ethersche olie:
*bij dof, futloos haar: meng 2-3 druppels laurier in de voor het wassen benodigde hoeveelheid neutrale shampoo. Was het haar hiermee 1 maal per week. Goed in laten werken.
*bij keelpijn: 3-5 druppels laurier in een glas gekookt, tot lauw afgekoeld water. Gorgel hiermee 2-3 keer per dag.
*bij verkoudheid, griep, bronchitis, sinusitis: doe 1-3 druppels laurier in een schaaltje heet water en damp hiermee 2 maal per dag.
*verdampen: 6-10 druppels laurier in de aromalamp helpen bij het concentreren.

Contra indicatie van de etherische olie:
kan dermatitis veroorzaken. Narcotische eigenschappen door de methyleugenol. Niet gebruiken tijdens zwangerschap. Niet bij baby’s en kinderen.  Niet gebruiken op een gevoelige en/of beschadigde huid. Spaarzaam gebruiken en niet gedurende lange tijd. Het blad kan bij sommige mensen een allergische reactie veroorzaken.

Mechanism of Action
  • Constituents: One of the main active constituents of Laurus nobilis is 1,8-cineole.9 Other constituents include sesquiterpenes (costunolide and zaluzanin D), two guaianolides (dehydrocostus lactone and zaluzanin D), p-menthane hydroperoxides (including (1R,4S)-1-hydroperoxy-p-menth-2-en-8-ol acetate), costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, reynosin, santamarine, 3alpha-acetoxyeudesma-1,4(15),11(13)-trien-12,6alpha-+ ++olide, and 3-oxoeudesma-1,4,11(13)-trien-12,6alpha-olide.3,10,8
  • ACE inhibitory effects: In an in vitro study, an ethanolic extract of Laurus nobilis, showed a high ACE inhibition value of 64% (1mg/mL).7
  • Antibacterial effects: In an in vitro study, Laurus nobilis L. essential oil exhibited very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (p<0.05).11 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that 1,8-cineole (60.72%) was the predominant constituent in bay laurel.
  • Anticonvulsive effects: In an animal study, the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis seemed to protect mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock and by pentylenetetrazole.4 Components responsible for this effect may be the methyleugenol, eugenol, and pinene present in the essential oil. At anticonvulsant doses, the essential oil produced sedation and motor impairment, which may be related to cineol, eugenol, and methyleugenol.
  • Anti-fungal effects: In a laboratory study, the essential oil of Laurus nobilis was found to inhibit the growth of Phytophthora infestans in a dose-dependent manner.12 Complete growth inhibition of the pathogen by laurel essential oil was observed at 0.4-2.0μg/mL air concentration. For the contact phase, laurel essential oil was contact inhibitory at 51.2μg/mL. 1,8-cineole appears to be the dominant anti-fungal constituent in Laurus nobilis.9
  • Anti-leukemia effects: In an in vitro study, sesquiterpenes (costunolide and zaluzanin D) isolated from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) induced cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia HL-60 cells.3 In another in vitro study, hot water soluble (HWS)-sesquiterpenes [anhydroperoxycostunolide and 3-oxo-eudesma-1,4(15),11(13)triene-12,6alpha-olide] purified from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) displayed strong growth inhibitory effect against human promyelotic leukemia HL-60 cells.1 Apoptotic morphological changes of the nucleus, including chromatin condensation were induced in the HL-60 cells treated with the sesquiterpenes. In an in vitro study, concentration- and time-dependent specific induction of apoptosis by 1,8-cineole was observed in human leukemia Molt 4B and HL-60 cells, but not in human stomach cancer KATO III cells.2
  • Antioxidant effects: In in vitro study, antioxidative activity of Laurus nobilis leaves, bark, and fruit methanolic extracts (crude and defatted) were studied on the level of lipid peroxidation in liposomes, induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate system and measured spectrophotometrically by the TBA-test.5 The most significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation was obtained with methanolic extracts of laurel bark (70.6% of inhibition was obtained with 1.0mg of crude extract). In an in vitro study, the free radical scavenger activity of Laurus nobilis water extract was around 90%.7
  • Ethanol absorption effects: In an animal study, several active principles of Laurus nobilis leaves appeared to selectively inhibit ethanol absorption in oral ethanol-loaded rats.8
  • Neuromuscular effects: In an animal study, the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis produced sedation and motor impairment, which may be related to cineol, eugenol, and methyleugenol at anticonvulsant doses.4
  • Sedative effects: In an animal study, the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis produced sedation and motor impairment, which may be related to cineol, eugenol, and methyleugenol at anticonvulsant doses.4
  • Wound healing effects: In an animal study using excision and incision wound models in rats, Laurus nobilis treated animals had a moderately high (p<0.05) rate of wound contraction, weight of the granulation tissue, and hydroxyproline content, which was better than the control group.6
References
  1. Komiya, T., Yamada, Y., Moteki, H., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K., and Hibasami, H. Hot water soluble sesquiterpenes [anhydroperoxy-costunolide and 3-oxoeudesma-1,4(15),11(13)triene-12,6alpha-olide] isolated from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) induce cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia cells. Oncol Rep  2004;11(1):85-88. 14654907
  2. Moteki, H., Hibasami, H., Yamada, Y., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K., and Komiya, T. Specific induction of apoptosis by 1,8-cineole in two human leukemia cell lines, but not a in human stomach cancer cell line. Oncol Rep  2002;9(4):757-760. 12066204
  3. Hibasami, H., Yamada, Y., Moteki, H., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K., Yoshioka, K., and Komiya, T. Sesquiterpenes (costunolide and zaluzanin D) isolated from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) induce cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia HL-60 cells. Int J Mol Med 2003;12(2):147-151. 12851709
  4. Sayyah, M., Valizadeh, J., and Kamalinejad, M. Anticonvulsant activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis against pentylenetetrazole- and maximal electroshock-induced seizures. Phytomedicine  2002;9(3):212-216. 12046861
  5. Simic, M., Kundakovic, T., and Kovacevic, N. Preliminary assay on the antioxidative activity of Laurus nobilis extracts. Fitoterapia 2003;74(6):613-616. 12946729
  6. Nayak, S., Nalabothu, P., Sandiford, S., Bhogadi, V., and Adogwa, A. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Allamanda cathartica. L. and Laurus nobilis. L. extracts on rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:12. 16597335
  7. Ferreira, A., Proenca, C., Serralheiro, M. L., and Araujo, M. E. The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal. J Ethnopharmacol  4-28-2006;16737790
  8. Matsuda, H., Shimoda, H., Uemura, T., and Yoshikawa, M. Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying. Bioorg Med Chem Lett  9-20-1999;9(18):2647-2652. 10509909
  9. Simic, A., Sokovic, M. D., Ristic, M., Grujic-Jovanovic, S., Vukojevic, J., and Marin, P. D. The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities. Phytother Res 2004;18(9):713-717. 15478207
  10. Uchiyama, N., Matsunaga, K., Kiuchi, F., Honda, G., Tsubouchi, A., Nakajima-Shimada, J., and Aoki, T. Trypanocidal terpenoids from Laurus nobilis L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2002;50(11):1514-1516. 12419922
  11. Dadalioglu, I. and Evrendilek, G. A. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens. J Agric Food Chem 12-29-2004;52(26):8255-8260. 15612826
  12. Soylu, E. M., Soylu, S., and Kurt, S. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans. Mycopathologia 2006;161(2):119-128. 16463095



Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis)

While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms
1,8-Cineole, alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety, bay laurel, bay tree, costunolide, daphne, dehydrocostus lactone, Grecian laurel, guaianolides, Lauraceae (family), laurel, laurel oil, laurus, Laurus nobilis L., Laurus nobilis var. angustifolia, Laurus azorica, Mediterranean bay, Mediterranean laurel, noble laurel, p-menthane hydroperoxide, reynosin, Roman laurel, santamarine, sclerophyllous shrubs, sesquiterpenes, sweet bay, sweet laurel, true bay, trypanocidal terpenoids, zaluzanin D.
Note: Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) may be confused with California bay leaf (Umbellularia californica), also known as "California laurel" or "Oregon myrtle," or Indian bay leaf (Cinnamoma tamala). California bay leaf (Umbellularia californica), Indian bay leaf (Cinnamoma tamala), cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), and laurel (Ocotea puberula) are not covered in this monograph, which covers bay leaf (Laurus nobilis), as well as the closely related Laurus azorica.

Bay leaf has been used since ancient Greece as a symbol of praise or scholarship for heroes and poets. Bay leaf is primarily used to flavor foods, and it is used by chefs of ethnic cuisines, from Italian to Thai. It is also frequently used in salt-free seasonings.
Bay leaf is thought to be useful for gastric ulcers, high blood sugar, migraines, and infections. Bay leaves and berries have been used as astringents, to promote sweating and relief of intestinal gas, and to tone and strengthen the stomach. In the Middle Ages, bay leaf was believed to induce abortion. Traditionally, the berries of the bay tree were used to treat boils. The leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis has been used as an antiepileptic remedy in Iranian traditional medicine.
Bay leaf may have beneficial effects on glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol ("bad cholesterol"), HDL cholesterol ("good cholesterol"), and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Currently, scientific evidence supporting the use of bay leaf to treat any condition in humans is lacking.

Scientific Evidence

Uses
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Grade*
Diabetes
Bay leaf may have beneficial effects on glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol ("bad cholesterol"), HDL cholesterol ("good cholesterol"), and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additional research is needed in this area.
C
High cholesterol
Bay leaf may have beneficial effects on glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol ("bad cholesterol"), HDL cholesterol ("good cholesterol"), and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additional research is needed in this area.
C
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

Tradition/Theory
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.

Abortifacient (inducing abortion), alcoholism (damaging effects), amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), analgesic (pain reliever), antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic, antiviral, appetite stimulant, arthritis, astringent, bile flow stimulant, blood-clotting disorders, breast cancer, bronchitis, cancer, carminative (relieves gas), circulation, CNS stimulant, colic, dandruff, detoxification, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), digestive, diuretic, ear pain, emetic (induces vomiting), emmenagogue (promotes menstruation), epilepsy (seizures), food uses, furuncles (skin boils), galactagogue (promotes flow of breast milk), gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, herpes simplex-1 virus, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), hysteria, immune system modulation, influenza, insect repellant (mosquitoes), insecticide, leukemia, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), migraine headaches, narcotic, nightmares, parasite infection, preservative, rheumatism, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), sprains, stimulant, stomach ulcers, tuberculosis, wound healing.

Dosing
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)
For diabetes, 1-3 grams of bay leaves has been used daily for 30 days.
For high cholesterol, 1-3 grams of bay leaves has been used daily for 30 days.
Children (younger than 18 years)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for bay leaf in children.
Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies
Avoid in patients with known allergy to bay leaf, its constituents, or plants in the Lauraceae or Compositae/Asteraceae families. Contact dermatitis (including airborne contact dermatitis), hand and face eczema, occupational asthma, perioral dermatitis with eczematous stomatitis, and cross-sensitization to Frullania have been reported.

Side Effects and Warnings
Overall, bay leaf has very few adverse effects and is likely safe when consumed in amounts normally used in foods.
Use caution when whole bay leaves are ingested with food. Leaves may become lodged in the gastrointestinal tract, causing tears or blockages, and they may also block breathing.
Use caution in patients using central nervous system (CNS) depressants. Drowsiness or sedation may occur. Use caution if driving or operating heavy machinery.
Bay leaf may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or those taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Bay leaf may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Use cautiously in pregnant or breastfeeding women, as bay leaf was historically used to induce abortions.
Avoid in patients with known allergy to bay leaf, its constituents, or plants in the Lauraceae or Compositae/Asteraceae families. Contact dermatitis (including airborne contact dermatitis), hand and face eczema, occupational asthma, perioral dermatitis with eczematous stomatitis, and cross-sensitization to Frullania have been reported.
Use cautiously in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to lack of available scientific evidence. Bay leaf has been used historically to induce abortion. In Italian folk medicine, bay leaf has been used to promote the flow of breast milk.

Interactions
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs
Bay leaf may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
Bay leaf may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking insulin or drugs for diabetes by mouth should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Bay leaf essential oil may have anticonvulsant (anti-epilepsy) effects. Individuals using bay leaf with other medications with anticonvulsant effects should consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist.
Use caution in patients taking central nervous system (CNS) depressants. Bay leaf essential oil may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some drugs. Examples include benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan®) or diazepam (Valium®), barbiturates such as phenobarbital, narcotics such as codeine, some antidepressants, and alcohol. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery.
Bay leaf may also interact with alcohol, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, antibiotics, anticancer drugs, antifungals, antivirals, gastrointestinal agents, lipid-lowering drugs, and quinolones, due to possible additive effects with bay leaf.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Bay leaf may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
Bay leaf may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
Bay leaf essential oil may have anticonvulsant (anti-epilepsy) effects. Individuals using bay leaf with other herbs and supplements with anticonvulsant effects should consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist.
Bay leaf may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some herbs or supplements.
Bay leaf may also interact with alcohol, antibacterials, anticancer herbs, antifungals, antioxidants, antivirals, coriander, gastrointestinal herbs, insect repellants, and lipid-lowering herbs.

References
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
  • Ferreira A, Proenca C, Serralheiro ML, et al. The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 108(1):31-7.View Abstract
  • Hibasami H, Yamada Y, Moteki H, et al. Sesquiterpenes (costunolide and zaluzanin D) isolated from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) induce cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia HL-60 cells. Int J Mol Med 2003;12(2):147-151. View Abstract
  • Khan A, Zaman G, Anderson RA. Bay leaves improve glucose and lipid profile of people with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2009;44(1):52-56. View Abstract
  • Komiya T, Yamada Y, Moteki H, et al. Hot water soluble sesquiterpenes [anhydroperoxy-costunolide and 3-oxoeudesma-1,4(15),11(13)triene-12,6alpha-olide] isolated from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) induce cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia cells. Oncol Rep 2004;11(1):85-88. View Abstract
  • Matsuda H, Shimoda H, Uemura T, et al. Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1999;9(18):2647-2652. View Abstract
  • Moteki H, Hibasami H, Yamada Y, et al. Specific induction of apoptosis by 1,8-cineole in two human leukemia cell lines, but not a in human stomach cancer cell line. Oncol Rep 2002;9(4):757-760. View Abstract
  • Nayak S, Nalabothu P, Sandiford S, et al. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Allamanda cathartica. L. and Laurus nobilis. L. extracts on rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:12. View Abstract
  • Sayyah M, Saroukhani G, Peirovi A, et al. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn. Phytother Res 2003;17(7):733-736. View Abstract
  • Sayyah M, Valizadeh J, Kamalinejad M. Anticonvulsant activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis against pentylenetetrazole- and maximal electroshock-induced seizures. Phytomedicine 2002;9(3):212-216. View Abstract
  • Simic A, Sokovic MD, Ristic M, et al. The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities. Phytother Res 2004;18(9):713-717. View Abstract
  • Simic M, Kundakovic T, Kovacevic N. Preliminary assay on the antioxidative activity of Laurus nobilis extracts. Fitoterapia 2003;74(6):613-616. View Abstract
  • Soylu EM, Soylu S, Kurt S. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agentPhytophthora infestans. Mycopathologia 2006;161(2):119-128. View Abstract
  • Tsang TK, Flais MJ, Hsin G. Duodenal obstruction secondary to bay leaf impaction. Ann Intern Med 1999;130(8):701-702. View Abstract
  • Uchiyama N, Matsunaga K, Kiuchi F, et al. Trypanocidal terpenoids from Laurus nobilis L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2002;50(11):1514-1516. View Abstract
  • Van der Veen JE, De Graaf C, Van Dis SJ, et al. Determinants of salt use in cooked meals in The Netherlands: attitudes and practices of food preparers. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53(5):388-394. View Abstract



Il y a bien longtemps, les temps mythologiques brumeux, le dieu du soleil Apollon poursuivis avec beaucoup de ténacité la nymphe Daphné, qui est resté hors de lui et craint manières. Cela a duré jusqu'à ce que les dieux étaient miséricordieux Daphné et ses veran et timides, d'autres dans un arbre de laurier. Ce qu'on appelle «la miséricorde? La Grèce est appelée le laurier encore Daphne Arbre.
Laurier dans l'Antiquité
Dans les temps anciens, il a été utilisé en Grèce et à Rome, les feuilles de laurier et brindilles pour faire des héros et les vainqueurs couronne. Les champions des Jeux Olympiques portaient des couronnes de laurier. Nos mot Bacca moyens de lauréats ?? de laurierbes »et fait référence à la réussite d'une étude, il fait allusion à des lauriers qui portaient les poètes et les savants, quand ils ont été honorés par l'académie dans la Grèce antique.
A Rome, le laurier ne était pas seulement un symbole de la gloire, mais il a également apprécié la réputation d'un bon protecteur contre le tonnerre et la foudre. Il est dit que l'empereur Tibère beaucoup de crédibilité à cette hypothèse, que pendant la tempête une couronne de laurier sur la tête et se mettre sous son lit bouché.

L'empereur Néron dit, il se enfuit à Laurentium lorsque la peste éclata, afin de préserver son amour de la santé et timide; den respirer par avion, qui a été purifié par lauriers. Lorsque légionnaires romains avaient gagné une bataille, essuyez et timide; tanière avec baie leur laisse le sang de leurs épées et leurs lances; Ce était un geste d'expiation.

Laurel dans la Bible
En Palestine et au Moyen-Orient était le laurier dans les temps bibliques bien connu. Dans Psaumes 37: 35, nous trouvons la métaphore suivante: «Je ai vu la violence menaçant méchant, et se étendant comme un laurier vert" ?? est dans la Bible anglaise ?? comme un arbre verdoyant, "comme une verte ?? laurier "Cette imagerie est bien choisi, parce que la belle, toujours luxuriante laurier vert a un verschij frappante & ;. timide été jardinage dans une terre aride et sec où la plupart des arbres verkom et timide; Merd épineuse petite et ont été en proie à des intempéries .

Laurel médiévale et plus tard
Bien que le laurier en Italie a été considéré comme un protecteur et de chance-porteur, il y avait une superstition qu'une catastrophe majeure se passerait-il si ces arbres mouraient. Pas étonnant que les gens de Padoue cette croyance depuis longtemps continué à soutenir, car en 1629 il a éclaté juste après et timide, les lauriers de la ville était malade et qu'il était mort, de la peste. Au Moyen Age, on croyait vallée de baies de laurier menstruations il a encouragé les femmes et ont donc été utilisé à fortes doses pour provoquer l'avortement.

Dans le Grete Herbal, qui en 1526 en Angleterre a été publié par Treveris, une pommade de baies de laurier pulvérisées ont été mélangés avec du miel ?? recommandée contre la mauvaise couleur du visage et contre une sorte de choses rouges, qui se produisent sur le visage de jeunes '

Culpepper a également conseillé d'utiliser l'huile de baies de laurier. Dans son com & timide, complète Herbal nous lisons:
L'huile, faite à partir des baies, et particulièrement apaisant pour toutes les maladies des articulations, nerfs, veines, de l'estomac, de l'utérus ou la cavité abdominale, qui sont causées par le froid; et aide à la paralysie, convulsions, agrafes et timide; stylos, des douleurs, des tremblements et engourdissement dans ne importe quelle partie du corps, même quand la fatigue et les douleurs causées par un travail lourd. Tous les maux et les douleurs provoquées par le vent, soit en tête, ventre, le dos, l'abdomen ou de l'utérus, dans la zone touchée avec elle pour salir; et des douleurs dans les oreilles peut également être guérie par des écoulements dans l'huile, ou en plaçant un entonnoir par la vapeur d'une décoction de baies dans les oreilles. L'huile tache de la peau et la chair causée par des contusions, chutes, etc, et résout le sang coagulé sur elle. Il aide également à des démangeaisons, croûtes, et les vergetures sur la peau ".

Laurier à Dodonaeus
Dodonaeus décrit également Laurier contre de nombreux maux: Ces fruits de l'arbre Laurus avec du vin inghenomen sijn Goet tseghen qui mord coups de couteau sur le revenu des revenus de tous les scorpions tseghen Fenijn de vergiffenisse de revenu. Ce selve fruits Cleyn ghestooten / revenus avec huenich souvent eenich syrope vermenght / sijn surveillant Goet l'ghenen que uutdrooghen / amborstich cort de revenu de souffle sijn / revenus avec Coude fluymen que Borste chargé sijn / dicwils revenu geleckt lieu dans le mont. Ce daer de vin ces fruits d'arbres dans Laurus ghesoden sijn / souvent que le jus de la Selven dans ces oreilles de gheneest ghedruypt que tuyten van der Selver / es revenu Goet tseghen que doofheyt revenus qualick entendre.

Laurel, une belle ou triste? par exemple, comment une plante à l'allure mythique un être ordinaire, dégénérés ordinaires cuisine d'épices. -



J Med Food. 2009 Aug;12(4):869-76. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0119.
Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Laurus nobilis L. leaf infusion.
Dall'Acqua S1, Cervellati R, Speroni E, Costa S, Guerra MC, Stella L, Greco E, Innocenti G.
Laurus nobilis L. (laurel) leaves are frequently used as a spice for cooking purposes. Folk medicine in many countries uses the infusion of the plant in stomachic and carminative remedies, as well as for the treatment of gastric diseases. Little information is available about the phytochemical composition of the infusion of dried leaves, which is a way to consume this aromatic and medicinal plant. Phytochemical investigations on the infusion were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) and direct electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Several flavonoid derivatives were detected. Semipreparative HPLC from the infusion of laurel leaves isolated 10 flavonoid O-glycosides, one flavonoid C-glycoside, catechin, and cinnamtannin B1. Structures of the isolated compounds were computed on the basis of spectral measurements including high-resolution mass spectrometry spectroscopy and one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The amount of the flavonoids was also determined by HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity of the tea and the isolated compounds was also measured using two different in vitro methods: the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction test, at a pH similar to that of the gastric juice, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, at the pH of blood. For the infusion and the methanol extract the total phenolic content was also measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

Nat Prod Res. 2011 Aug;25(14):1295-303. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2010.502532. Epub 2011 Jun 24.
Antimicrobial sesquiterpenoids from Laurus nobilis L.
Fukuyama N1, Ino C, Suzuki Y, Kobayashi N, Hamamoto H, Sekimizu K, Orihara Y.
Activity-guided fractionations of leaf extracts from Laurus nobilis L. led to the isolation of a known sesquiterpene lactone, deacetyl laurenobiolide (1). Compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity against periopathic pathogens (Actinomyces viscosus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), opportunistic Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus). Furthermore, acetylation and cyclisation of deacetyl laurenobiolide (1) yielded laurenobiolide (2) and a new compound, (5S,6R,7S,8S,10R)-6,8-dihydroxyeudesma-4(15),11(13)-dien-12-oic acid 12,8-lactone (3), respectively. Compounds 2 and 3 also showed antimicrobial activities. All compounds 1-3 demonstrated growth inhibitory effects with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 31 to 1000 µg mL(-1). This is the first report of compounds 1-3 showing antimicrobial activities.

Phytother Res. 2003 Aug;17(7):733-6.
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn.
Sayyah M1, Saroukhani G, Peirovi A, Kamalinejad M.
The leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn. (Lauraceae) has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and rats. The essential oil exhibited: (1) a significant analgesic effect in tail-flick and formalin tests; (2) a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in the formalin-induced edema and (3) a moderate sedative effect at the anti-inflammatory doses. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the essential oil was comparable to reference analgesics and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs: morphine and piroxicam. Present results make the essential oil worthy of further investigations.



Laurier en Alepzeep
De Laurier is niet alleen een aromatische plant, maar ook haar reinigende eigenschappen worden al millennia lang op hun waarde geschat. De Laurier stond zelfs aan de wieg van de huidige cosmetische industrie.
Laurierolie is het essentiële ingrediënt van de eerste vaste zeep. De meer dan duizend jaar oude ”Moeder Aller Zepen”; de Alepzeep. De kwaliteit van de zeep wordt bepaald door het aandeel van de laurierolie.
De Alepp zeep laat de zachtheid van olijfolie en de helende werking van Laurier samensmelten tot een pure, weldadige zeep. De zeep is vooral aan te raden voor mensen met een gevoelige of beschadigde huid.
De zeep werkt vocht inbrengend en voedend voor de huid. Na enkele dagen voel je al wat Alepp voor de huid doet. Alepp zeep is 100% plantaardig, biologisch volkomen afbreekbaar en gaat lang mee.
De zeep is afkomstig uit de stad Aleppo. Aleppo is, gelegen aan de Zijderoute in Mesopotamië, één van de oudste steden ter wereld. Ruim 4.000 jaar geleden werden hier al de eerste cosmetische producten vervaardigd.
De originele Arabische naam van de Alepp zeep is “Sapun Ghar”, wat letterlijk Laurierzeep betekent. Later brachten de Kruisvaarders de Alepp zeep naar Europa, waar het de basis vormde van de zeep industrie in Marseille (Savon de Marseille).



Laurier bij Dodonaeus e.a.

Naam.
(Dodonaeus) (a) ‘Deze boom heet in Grieks Daphne en in het Latijn Laurus en daarnaar hier te lande laurus boom, lauwer boom en laurier, in Frankrijk laurier, in Hoogduitsland Lorbeerbaum, in Italië lauro, in Spanje laurel, lorer en lonreiro, in Engeland laurel of bay tree, in Bohemen bobeck’. Enige Z. Europese talen en het nabije Oosten hebben nog steeds namen die aan de sage en de naam Daphne herinneren. Ze betekent het Hebreeuwse aley daphna „Bladeren van Daphne“. Turks defne, Albanees dafinë, Bulgaars dafinov list (дафинов лист), Roemeens dafin, Nieuw Grieks dafni (δάφνη) zijn verwijzingen naar die naam.

Laurus, de naam Laurus is mogelijk genomen van het Keltische blaur, blawr of lauer: groen. Maar het kan ook vertaald worden van laus: lof of eer. Men weet ook niet zeker of Laurus samenhangt met het Latijnse luo of lavo: ik was mij, naar de rol als reinigende boom.
(88, (1932) Behoorde tot de al heelmiddelen van de middeleeuwen en gold voor Hildegard van Bingen als waardevolle toevoeging voor vele composities en noemde het Laurus. In Capitulare de villis verschijnt de plant onder de naam Lauros, in het klooster van St. Gallen werd er een bloembed voor ingeruimd. De Duitse Lorbeerbaum was al bekend bij de Germanen, dit getuigt de oud-Hoogduitse naam Lorboum. Ze konden die alleen door bemiddeling van de Romeinen verkregen hebben. Ook Gewürzlorbeer.
In oud-Frans werd het lorier en nog eerder lor, in 14de eeuws Engels lorer, 17de eeuw lorer en nu laurel. Engels bay laurel, poet’s of Roman laurel, sweet bay of victor’s laurel.

Beschrijving: Dodonaeus (b) ‘De vruchten of bessen zijn in het Grieks Daphnis of Daphnides genoemd en in het Latijn Lauri baccae, in Brabant bakeleer of baeyen, in Hoogduitsland Lorbeexen en in Spanje vayas’. De vrucht die vroeger bakelaer genoemd werd of bakelaar, midden-Hoogduits Bekeler, komt van bacca lauri: de bes van laurier. Ook het Engelse sweet bay is een afleiding van 15de eeuws baie, van Latijn baca: bes, de besboom. Laurierbessen werden gebruikt bij vrouwenziektes.

Dodonaeus (c) ‘De boom wordt in het Grieks δάφνη, Daphne, genoemd naar een jonge dochter die Daphne heet die de dochter van Ladon was en van de Godin van de aarde en die beminde de God Apollo zoals de oude poëten versieren en door haar liefde ontstoken volgde haar al om na totdat hij haar tenslotte gegrepen en vast gehouden heeft wat ze voelde en haar moeder de aarde aangeroepen heeft die haar terstond ingenomen heeft en verborgen en in plaats van Daphne een mooie Laurus boom voorbracht of, zoals dezelfde poëten versieren, ze heeft de jonge dochter in een Laurus boom veranderd wat Apollo zag en zeer verwonderd was en heeft die boom naar zijn beminde Daphne ook Daphne genoemd en er een takje af getrokken dat hij ineen gevlochten heeft en maakte er een kroon van die hij op zijn hoofd gesteld heeft. En van die tijd af is de Laurus boom altijd een teken geweest van waarzeggingen en aan de God Apollo, dat is de zon, toegeschreven.’
Van een tak maakte Apollo zijn kroon. Zo'n kroon is sindsdien het zinnebeeld van roem en eer. Hoofden van overwinnaars werden met ere: Laude, dat is met de lauro of lauwerboom gevlochten. Studenten die dan ook een graad behaald hadden werden met de bes dragende laurier onderscheiden, Bacci Lauri, vandaar het woord Baccalaureaat, Duits Bakkalaureus.
Bachelor en laureate. Studenten die een graad gehaald hadden aan de universiteit werden bachelors genoemd, dit van Frans bachelier en dat van Latijn baccalaureus: laurierbes. Die studenten was het niet toegestaan te trouwen, hun taken als echtgenoot en vader zou hen weghouden van hun literaire overpeinzingen en zo werden in de loop der tijden vrijgezellen jongens bachelors genoemd. Verder zijn nog een aantal uitdrukkingen op laurier gebaseerd, bijvoorbeeld "op zijn lauweren rusten", "gelauwerd zijn", "lauweren oogsten".


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