Juglans nigra

Zwarte walnootextract
De zwarte walnoot (Juglans nigra) is een boom uit de okkernootfamilie. De olie van de groene schil rond de walnoot van Juglans nigra bevordert in hoge mate de inwendige reiniging. Daarnaast stimuleert het de darmwerking. Walnoottinctuur kan ook verdund gebruikt worden als gorgeldrank voor mond en keel. Walnoottinctuur kan worden gebruikt als onderdeel van een reinigingskuur.

Indicaties
  • Intestinale disbiose
  • Darmparasieten
  • Ondersteuning eetlust, spijsvertering en stoelgang
  • Schimmelinfecties
  • Huidinfecties (zoals ringworm, zwemmerseczeem, impetigo)
  • Acne
  • Keelontsteking
Contra-indicaties
  • Allergie voor (wal)noten
  • Zwangerschap(swens), lactatie
  • Hypertensie
  • Ernstige lever- en nieraandoeningen
Gebruiksadviezen
Algemene therapeutische (orale) dosis: 3x daags 5 tot 7 druppels
Keelontsteking: gorgelen met (paar druppels) walnoottinctuur in water
Uitwendig gebruik: huid deppen met oplossing van walnoottinctuur of compres met walnoottinctuur
 Let op: walnoottinctuur is niet geschikt voor langdurig gebruik (langer dan 6 weken).

Veiligheid
Zwarte walnoottinctuur kan bij uitwendig gebruik huidirritatie of huidontsteking veroorzaken. Bij inwendig gebruik zijn (milde) maagdarmklachten mogelijk. Walnoottinctuur heeft mogelijk een vaatvernauwend effect; mensen met hoge bloeddruk dienen hiermee rekening te houden. 


Black Walnut  / Juglans nigra monograph

Botany

There are approximately 15 species of Juglans walnuts. “Walnut” refers to several varieties, most commonly the English walnut ( Juglans regia ; see Walnut monograph) and the black walnut ( J. nigra ). Walnut trees have short trunks with round-topped crowns and can grow up to 45 m in height. The black walnut is native to the deciduous forests of the eastern United States (central Mississippi and Appalachian regions) and Canada. The wood is valued for its rich beauty and is used to make furniture, cabinets, and gun stocks. The fruit is an elongated drupe containing a 4-ribbed edible nut within a thick, hard, black shell that is smaller than the English walnut. 1 , 2

History

Walnuts have been found in prehistoric deposits dating from the Iron Age in Europe. In the Middle Ages, walnuts were thought to ward off witchcraft, the “evil eye,” and epileptic fits. Black walnut has been used in certain skin conditions, including eczema, pruritus, psoriasis, warts, and parasitic skin conditions. Treatment of eye irritations and styes are other uses for black walnut. 3 Extract of black walnut was used to dye the hair, skin, and clothing. 3 , 4 , 5 As a food, black walnut is commonly used in baked goods, candies, and frozen foods. 5 , 6 The traditional herbal medicine is extracted from the black, tarry, sticky part in the outermost hull.

Chemistry

Black walnuts contain juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), alpha hydrojuglone and its glycoside beta-hydrojuglone, caffeic acid, plumbagin, hyperin, kaempferol, and tannin. Ellagic acid is also present. 3 , 7 , 8

Black walnuts contain 15 to 20 g of protein per 100 g. Trace minerals present include iron, zinc, sodium, phosphorus, and magnesium. 3 , 6 Black walnuts contain approximately 700 calories per 100 g, with fat (oil) content estimated to be about 60%. 6 The pesticide methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate has been reported in black walnut fruit. 9

Uses and Pharmacology

No human clinical trials regarding black walnut and its many traditional uses have been recorded in the medical literature. Black walnut has been proposed as a candidate for chemotherapy because of the toxic nature of juglone and plumbagin, but studies to support this are lacking. 10 , 11

Antioxidant
Black walnut leaf was evaluated for its antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging and antiradical-generating effects were demonstrated. 12 , 13

Nutritional value
Black walnut is important for its nutritional value (see Chemistry). The nut is high in calories, a good source of protein, is rich in dietary fiber, and contains essential fatty acids. 3 , 5 , 6 See also the Walnut monograph.

Dosage

No clinical trials are available to support dosage recommendations. Walnut leaves have been approved by the German Commission E for external application for excessive perspiration and skin inflammation. 14

Pregnancy/Lactation

Avoid use. Documented adverse reactions (mutagenic properties). 11 , 15 Possible cathartic effects have been observed at higher doses. 16

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Allergies to nuts are common in the United States (an estimated 1%), 17 with walnut and other tree nut allergy considered to be second only to peanuts (considered legumes) in anaphylactic reactions. Use care with topical preparations due to possible cytotoxic effects. 8 , 11

Toxicology

Little data exist. However, the naphthaquinone juglone, which is present in all species of the family Juglandaceae, is a known animal toxin. 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 Apoptosis and necrosis effects have been demonstrated in cancer cells with extracts of black walnut. Juglone and plumbagin, the yellow quinone pigments of black walnut, were shown to decrease cell viability and cell death. 8 , 11

Bibliography

1. Juglans nigra . L. USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database ( http://plants.usda.gov , 28 October 2007). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Weber RW . Black walnut . Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol . 2003 ; 91 ( 3 ): A-6 .
3. D'Amelio FS . Botanicals: A Phytocosmetic Desk Reference . Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999 : 209 .
4. Hocking GM . A Dictionary of Natural Products . Medford, NJ: Plexus Publishing; 1997 : 409 .
5. Rosengarten F . The Book of Edible Nuts . New York, NY: Walker; 1984 : 239-262 .
6. Ensminger AH , et al. Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia . 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1994 :2277-2278.
7. Bhargava UC , Westfall BA , Siehr DJ . Preliminary pharmacology of ellagic acid from Juglans nigra (black walnut) . J Pharm Sci . 1968 ; 57 ( 10 ): 1728-1732 .
8. Inbaraj JJ , Chignell CF . Cytotoxic action of juglone and plumbagin: a mechanistic study using HaCaT keratinocytes . Chem Res Toxicol . 2004 ; 17 ( 1 ): 55-62 .
9. Cline S , Felsot A , Wei L . Determination of methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate in black walnut fruit . J Agric Food Chem . 1981 ; 29 ( 5 ): 1087-1088 .
10. Segura-Aguilar J , Jönsson K , Tidefelt U , Paul C . The cytotoxic effects of 5-OH-1,4-naphthoquinone and 5,8-diOH-1,4-naphthoquinone on doxorubicin-resistant human leukemia cells (HL-60) . Leuk Res . 1992 ; 16 ( 6-7 ): 631-637 .
11. Montoya J , Varela-Ramirez A , Estrada A , Martinez LE , Garza K , Aguilera RJ . A fluorescence-based rapid screening assay for cytotoxic compounds . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 2004 ; 325 ( 4 ): 1517-1523 .
12. Halvorsen BL , Holte K , Myhrstad MC , et al. A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants . J Nutr . 2002 ; 132 ( 3 ): 461-471 .
13. Choi HR , Choi JS , Han YN , Bae SJ , Chung HY . Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts . Phytother Res . 2002 ; 16 ( 4 ): 364-367 .
14. Blumenthal M , Goldberg A , Brinckmann J , eds. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs . Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000 .
15. Brinker FJ . Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions . 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications; 1998 .
16. McGuffin M , et al, ed. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook . Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1997 .
17. Sicherer SH , Sampson HA . Peanut and tree nut allergy . Curr Opin Pediatr . 2000 ; 12 ( 6 ): 567-573 .
18. True RG , Lowe JE . Induced juglone toxicosis in ponies and horses . Am J Vet Res . 1980 ; 41 ( 6 ): 944-945 .
19. Ralston SL , Rich VA . Black walnut toxicosis in horses . J Am Vet Med Assoc . 1983 ; 183 ( 10 ): 1095 .
20. Thomsen ME , Davis EG , Rush BR . Black walnut induced laminitis . Vet Hum Toxicol . 2000 ; 42 ( 1 ): 8-11 .
21. Galey FD , Beasley VR , Schaeffer D , Davis LE . Effect of an aqueous extract of black walnut ( Juglans nigra ) on isolated equine digital vessels . Am J Vet Res . 1990 ; 51 ( 1 ): 83-88 .

References
  • Amarowicz, R, Dykes, GA, and Pegg, RB. Antibacterial activity of tannin constituents from Phaseolus vulgaris, Fagoypyrum esculentum, Corylus avellana and Juglans nigra. Fitoterapia 2008;79(3):217-219. View Abstract
  • Choi, HR, Choi, JS, Han, YN, et al. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts. Phytother Res. 2002;16(4):364-367. View Abstract
  • Belknap, JK, Giguere, S, Pettigrew, A, et al. Lamellar pro-inflammatory cytokine expression patterns in laminitis at the developmental stage and at the onset of lameness: innate vs. adaptive immune response. Equine Vet J 2007;39(1):42-47. View Abstract
  • Eaton, SA, Allen, D, Eades, SC, et al. Digital Starling forces and hemodynamics during early laminitis induced by an aqueous extract of black walnut (Juglans nigra) in horses. Am J Vet Res. 1995;56(10):1338-1344. View Abstract
  • Fontaine, GL, Belknap, JK, Allen, D, et al. Expression of interleukin-1beta in the digital laminae of horses in the prodromal stage of experimentally induced laminitis. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62(5):714-720. View Abstract
  • Galey, FD, Beasley, VR, Schaeffer, D, et al. Effect of an aqueous extract of black walnut (Juglans nigra) on isolated equine digital vessels. Am J Vet Res. 1990;51(1):83-88. View Abstract
  • Hurley, DJ, Parks, RJ, Reber, AJ, et al. Dynamic changes in circulating leukocytes during the induction of equine laminitis with black walnut extract. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 4-15-2006;110(3-4):195-206. View Abstract
  • Inbaraj, JJ and Chignell, CF. Cytotoxic action of juglone and plumbagin: a mechanistic study using HaCaT keratinocytes. Chem Res Toxicol. 2004;17(1):55-62. View Abstract
  • Loftus, JP, Belknap, JK, and Black, SJ. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in laminae of black walnut extract treated horses correlates with neutrophil abundance. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 10-15-2006;113(3-4):267-276. View Abstract
  • McConnico, RS, Stokes, AM, Eades, SC, et al. Investigation of the effect of black walnut extract on in vitro ion transport and structure of equine colonic mucosa. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66(3):443-449. View Abstract
  • Moodley, R, Kindness, A, and Jonnalagadda, SB. Elemental composition and chemical characteristics of five edible nuts (almond, Brazil, pecan, macadamia and walnut) consumed in Southern Africa. J Environ Sci Health B 2007;42(5):585-591. View Abstract
  • Qasem, JR. Weed Allelopathy, Its Ecological Impacts and Future Prospects: A Review. Journal of Crop Production. 2001;4(2):43-119.
  • Riggs, LM, Franck, T, Moore, JN, et al. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase measurements in plasma, laminar tissue, and skin of horses given black walnut extract. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68(1):81-86.View Abstract
  • Roux, KH, Teuber, SS, and Sathe, SK. Tree nut allergens. Int Arch.Allergy Immunol. 2003;131(4):234-244. View Abstract
  • von Kiparski, G. R., Lee, L. S., and Gillespie, A. R. Occurrence and fate of the phytotoxin juglone in alley soils under black walnut trees. J Environ Qual. 2007;36(3):709-717. View Abstract



Black walnut (Juglans nigra) was introduced in Europe in 1629. It has gradually been acclimatized in many countries: Great Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine and Russia. Black walnut was first introduced in Botanical Gardens and parks. (3) 
While there are those who say that Black Walnut hulls can effectively reduce the risks of heart attacks, it is more widely known for its anti-parasitic qualities. It is said to have effectively killed more than 100 known parasites. It has been proven to be a strong natural remedy for the treatment of acne, thyroid disease, colitis, eczema, hemorrhoids, ringworm, sore throats, tonsillitis, skin irritations, and wounds. (2) 
Black walnut has been traditionally used to expel worms from the intestinal system. (7) 

Active Constituents
​The main active ingredients of black walnut are tannins such as galloyglucose and ellagitannins, and juglone (5-hydroxy-alphanapthaquinone). Walnut shells are very rich in vitamin C , and betacarotene, B1,B2, and B6 are found in the leaves. (5)
Juglone is a napthoquinone pigment that occurs as a natural product in the roots, leaves, nut-hulls, bark and wood of black walnut (Junglans nigra) (1) Juglone is a powerful and toxic substance that prevents many plants from growing within the tree's root zone, extending as much as 80 ft (24 m) from a mature black walnut trunk. (5)
Traditionally in herbal medicine the green hulls of black walnut are dried and powdered for use internally. 

Therapeutic uses and Scientific Evidence
Black walnut is used to treat parasitic worm infections and certain other infections including diphtheria and syphilis. It is also used for leukemia. Some people use black walnut as a gargle, apply it to the scalp as hair dye, or put it on the skin to treat wounds. (4)
It is used to expel tapeworms and other internal and external parasites. The American Medical Ethnobotany Reference Dictionary claims that the juice from black walnut hull is effective against ringworm. (6) 
In vitro studies have suggested that plumbagin, an active constituent of Black walnut, may inhibit the motility and hatching of specific worm lavae. (8)
It is the combination of Black Walnut hulls, Wormwood, Clove, and Golden seal taken together in large doses

Brett Elliott  ®

References
(1) PubMed http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/chem_background/exsumpdf/juglone_508...
(2) Black Wlnut Hulls monograph http://www.altcancer.net/phyto/black_walnut.htm
(3) Summary of Chemical Data http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/56742
(4) Black Walnut WebMD http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-639-black%20wal...
​(5) Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine | 2005 | Helwig, David http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Black_walnut.aspx
(6) Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany. Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader. http://www.amazon.com/Native-American-Ethnobotany-Daniel-Moerman/dp/0881...
(7) Felter, H., Lloyd, JU., King's American Dispensatory. 18th Edition ed. Vol. Volume 1. 1983, Portland: Eclectic Medical Publications. 
(8) Fetterer, R., Fleming, MW., Comp Biochem Physiol C, 1991. 100(3): p. 539-342. Effects of plumbagin on development of the parasitic nematodes Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=1687553 

  • General: Based on anecdote, concomitant oral administration of black walnut hulls with prescription drugs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements may theoretically cause precipitation of these agents, due to the high tannin content of black walnut hulls. It is recommended that consumption of oral drugs that contain high levels of tannins be separated by at least two hours.

  • AntiemeticsAntiemetics: Based on anecdote, black walnut has been used to relieve constipation and diarrhea due to a normalizing effect that juglone may exert on intestinal tissue. High doses of black walnut may stimulate strong bowel activity, which may worsen chronic stomach or intestinal conditions.
  • Anti-inflammatory herbs and supplementsAnti-inflammatory herbs and supplements: Based on laboratory and animal study, black walnut extract influences inflammatory processes (161718) that are possibly mediated by COX-2 protein expression (1213).
  • AntimicrobialsAntimicrobials: In laboratory study, Juglans nigra displayed a high level of activity against Listeria monocytogenes (19).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Based on in vitro study, juglone and plumbagin, two quinone constituents of black walnut, may decrease cell viability that may be responsible for cytotoxic effects (1). Black walnut contains tannins; therefore, taking black walnut for extended periods of time may result in some types of oral and esophageal cancer and liver damage.
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Black walnut contains peroxynitrite, a cytotoxicant constituent with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including lipids and amino acids (2).
  • Gastrointestinal herbs and supplementsGastrointestinal herbs and supplements: Based on secondary sources, black walnut may contain high levels of tannins, may cause upset stomach when taken orally, may stimulate strong bowel activity, and may result in some types of oral and esophageal cancer and liver damage when taken for extended periods of time.
  • Hepatotoxic herbs and supplementsHepatotoxic herbs and supplements: Black walnut contains tannins; therefore, taking black walnut for extended periods of time may result in liver damage.
  • HypotensivesHypotensives: In in vitro study, black walnut extract was shown to have vasoconstrictive effects (56).
  • Nephrotoxic herbs and supplementsNephrotoxic herbs and supplements: Black walnut contains tannins; therefore, taking black walnut for extended periods of time may result in kidney damage.
  • Stimulant laxativesStimulant laxatives: Based on secondary sources, black walnut may stimulate strong bowel activity.
  • Tannin containing herbs and supplementsTannin containing herbs and supplements: Black walnut reportedly contains high levels of tannins. Concomitant oral administration of black walnut hulls with other oral agents may theoretically cause precipitation of these agents, due to the high tannin content of black walnut hulls.
  • VasopressorsVasopressors: In in vitro study, black walnut extract was shown to have vasoconstrictive effects (56).

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