Hypericum androsaemum / Mansbloed

Volgens Nijlandt 1682
De androsaemon van Dodonaeus heeft recht opstaande, ronde, gestreepte en harde steeltjes met bladeren bekleed die drie of vier maal groter zijn dan die van het St. Jans kruid. Die zijn eerst groen en op het eind van de zomer donker groen van kleur. Als die gewreven of geperst worden komt een rood sap te voorschijn. De bloemen zijn geel en worden door ronde bolletjes gevolgd die eerst groen, daarna rood en tenslotte zwartachtig van kleur worden en bruin zaad in zich hebben. De wortel is houtachtig.
Lobel drukt zijn androsaemon uit met de schilderij die Dodonaeus aan de wilde ruit met de vorm van Hypericum gegeven heeft. Hij schrijft dat dit kruid de ware Androsaemon heet omdat niet alleen de bloemen, maar ook als de bladeren geperst of gewreven worden een bruinrood sap geven. (Hypericum hircinum ?) Het gehele gewas is groter en langer, heeft minder maar zoveel  groter bladeren dan St. Jans kruid waar het van bloem en zaad op lijkt. De stelen zijn roodachtig, dun, rond en negentig cm hoog.
 
Plaats.
Androsaemon wordt door de liefhebbers van kruiden in de hoven geteeld.
 
Tijd.
Dit kruid bloeit in juli en augustus.
 
Teelt.
Het wordt door zaad aangewonnen en als het voort gekomen is blijft het lang in leven.
 
Aard en krachten.
Dit gewas is warm en droog van aard, afvegende en de galachtige vochtigheden afjagend van krachten, zo dat het in aard, krachten en medicinaal gebruik met het hertshooi of Ascyrum in alles over een komt. Dioscorides, Dodonaeus.



Hypericum ascyron, L. (mans bloed)
Op elke knoop van de stengel staan twee bladeren die groter zijn dan die van het St. Janskruid en wat ronder, met een paar of weinig gaten erin, lang eivormig en spits, heldergroen en 4-9cm lang, deels stengelomvattend.
De plant schiet met bruinachtige, vierkante stengels op tot soms anderhalve meter hoog en spreidt zijn takjes vanaf de top.
Aan de toppen van de stengels staan vele sterachtige bloemen die gevuld zijn met vele meeldraden, 3-12 helder gele bloemen van 4-6cm lang, meeldraden in bundels, 5 stijlen die aan de voet met elkaar zijn vergroeid in juni/augustus.
Vochtige en zonnige plaatsen.
Het is een opgaande heester  van 50-100cm hoog uit N. Amerika, Mandsjoerije en O. Azië. Is beschreven in 1774.
 
Naam.
 (Dodonaeus) (a) ‘De Grieken noemen dit gewas Ascyron, de Latijnen geven het geen andere naam. Sommige noemen het ook Androsaemon door dezelfde oorzaak waarom Hypericum ook zo heet. Galenus zegt dat het een soort van Androsaemon en Hypericum is en Ascyron of Ascyroïdes genoemd wordt’.
Ascyron is oud Grieks van a: niet, en skyros: hart, het betekent mans bloed.
Dodonaeus (b) ‘De Hoogduitsers noemen het Hartshaw en Waldthopff, in het Nederlands mag men het hertshooi noemen, het is in de apotheken niet bekend. Hertshooi kan bijna zoveel doen als het Hypericum of Sint Janskruid. De bloemen zijn bleker en langer van bladeren dan die van Sint Janskruid en ruikt ook vol naar als hars’.
Hars hooi of hooi waarin hars zit en vandaar in Duits Hartshaw.
(c) Dit kruid is wel bekend als St. Petrus kruid, Duits St. Petruskraut, Engelse St. Petruswort, de plant is wat groter en steviger dan het Sint Janskruid. Sint Petrus is ook een grotere apostel. Red leaved St. John’s wort of Siberian St. John’s wort.
In Wales "Creulys bendiged", in Ierland "Beahnua Firion".
 
Gebruik.
Zo was het gebruik vroeger. (Dodonaeus, 311, 309) ‘Om alle galachtige vochten door de stoelgang af te zetten: Neem van het zaad een half lood en geef het met mede of honingwater in. Dioscorides.
Tegen heupjicht: Neem van hertshooi drie handen vol, kook het op in wijn tot een pint en laat hiervan een roemertje vol drinken en laat ondertussen het zaad op de voor verhaalde wijze dikwijls gebruiken. Dodonaeus.
Om de wonden te helen: Maak een afkooksel van de bladeren met wijn en was de wonden dikwijls daarmee. Dodonaeus.
Galenus zegt ook dat het zaad purgeren en afjagen kan en de buik week maken
De bladeren worden net zo gebruikt als die van het St. Janskruid en helpen die plaatsen van het lichaam die door het vuur geraakt zijn’.



J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 May;92(1):79-84.
Protective activity of Hypericum androsaemum infusion against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in isolated rat hepatocytes.
Valentão P1, Carvalho M, Fernandes E, Carvalho F, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, de Lourdes Bastos M.
Hypericum androsaemum L. (Guttiferae) is a medicinal plant with antioxidant activity. Increasing evidence regarding free radical generating agents suggests that hepatotoxic-related disorders may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Hypericum androsaemum infusion on isolated rat hepatocytes oxidative injury induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that pretreatment of the cells with this infusion (16, 62 and 250 microg/ml) prevented the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lipid peroxidation caused by a 30-min treatment with t-BHP (1mM). However, infusion-induced alterations on glutathione homeostasis were noticed, as it was observed by the increase in glutathione oxidised form (GSSG) and depletion in total glutathione levels, which indicates that plant-derived antioxidant extracts may not be considered a generalised way of treating pro-oxidant-related diseases.

Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Oct;25(10):1320-3.
Antioxidant activity of Hypericum androsaemum infusion: scavenging activity against superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid.
Valentão P1, Fernandes E, Carvalho F, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, de Lourdes Bastos M.
Hypericu m androsaemum is a medicinal plant species containing many polyphenolic compounds, namely flavonoids and phenolic acids. Since polyphenolic compounds have high antioxidant potential, the ability of H. androsaemum infusion to act as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid) was investigated. Superoxide radical was generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase and phenazine methosulphate/NADH systems. The infusion-mediated prevention of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical was used as the measured endpoint. Hydroxyl radical was generated by the Fe3+-EDTA/ascorbate Fenton system, and assayed by evaluating deoxyribose degradation using the thiobarbituric acid method. Hypochlorous acid scavenging activity was tested by measuring the inhibition of hypochlorous acid-induced 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid oxidation to 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The tested infusion mainly exhibited a potent scavenging effect on superoxide radicals (although a noncompetitive inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase was also observed). The infusion also acted as a moderate scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid. A phytochemical study of the infusion was also undertaken, and nine phenolic compounds were identified.

Hypericum androsaemum water extract inhibits proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells through effects on MAP kinases and PI3K/Akt pathway.
Cristina P R Xavier, Cristovao F Lima, Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira, Cristina Pereira-Wilson
CBMA - Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology/Department of Biology, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.
MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways are commonly altered in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) leading to tumor growth due to increased cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Several species of the genus Hypericum are used in Portugal to prepare herbal teas to which digestive tract effects are attributed. In the present study, the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of the water extracts of H. androsaemum (HA) and H. perforatum (HP) were investigated in two human colon carcinoma-derived cell lines, HCT15 and CO115, which harbour activating mutations of KRAS and BRAF, respectively. Contrarily to HP, HA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell lines. HA decreased BRAF and phospho-ERK expressions in CO115, but not in HCT15. HA also decreased Akt phosphorylation in CO115 and induced p38 and JNK in both cell lines. HA induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases as well as caspase-dependent apoptosis in both cell lines. Chlorogenic acid (CA), the main phenolic compound present in the HA extract and less represented in the HP water extract, did, however, not show any of those effects when used individually. In conclusion, water extract of HA, but not of HP, controlled CRC proliferation and specifically acted on mutant and not wild-type BRAF. The effect of HA was, however, not due to CA alone.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 Oct;105(4):222-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2009.00458.x. Epub 2009 Jul 15. In vitro protective effect of Hypericum androsaemum extract against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species.
Almeida IF1, Fernandes E, Lima JL, Costa PC, Bahia MF.
Hypericum androsaemum L. (Gutiferae) is a medicinal plant growing in Western Europe that has been used in traditional medicine in the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. Oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are common pathogenetic mechanisms contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage in several liver disorders. In the present study, an ethanol:water (4:6) extract from H. androsaemum branches and leaves were evaluated for its putative in vitro scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical, on reactive oxygen species, namely HO•, O₂•-, ROO•, ¹O₂ and H₂O₂ and on reactive nitrogen species, namely •NO and ONOO⁻. The hypericum extract presented a remarkable capacity to scavenge all the tested reactive species, all the IC₅₀ values being found at the μg/ml level. IC₅₀ values for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil, and for the reactive oxygen species O₂•-, H₂O₂, HO• and ¹O₂ were 11.3 ± 0.7, 32.7 ± 3.4, 944 ± 47, 595 ± 82, 28.3 ± 1.2 μg/ml respectively. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity value obtained for ROO• was 1.5 ± 0.1 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg extract. The IC₅₀ values for •NO and ONOO⁻ were 2.2 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/ml respectively. The content of total phenolics was 281 ± 2 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of lyophilized extract. The observed antioxidant activity provides scientific support for the reported therapeutic use of H. androsaemum, though further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the risk/benefit score at therapeutic concentrations.
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Nordic Pharmacological Society.



Front Plant Sci. 2016 Mar 1;7:232. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00232. eCollection 2016. Polar Constituents and Biological Activity of the Berry-Like Fruits from Hypericum androsaemum L.
Caprioli G1, Alunno A2, Beghelli D3, Bianco A4, Bramucci M1, Frezza C5, Iannarelli R1, Papa F6, Quassinti L1, Sagratini G1, Tirillini B7, Venditti A8, Vittori S1, Maggi F1.
Hypericum androsaemum, also known as Tutsan, is a small evergreen shrub common in the Mediterranean basin where it is traditionally used as diuretic and hepatoprotective herbal drug. This plant possesses the peculiarity to produce fleshy and berry-like fruits that ripen from red to shiny black. In the present work, the chemical constituents of methanolic extracts and infusions of red and black fruits were analyzed by HPLC, and correlated with their antioxidant properties which were evaluated by the DPPH, β-Carotene/linoleic acid, and hypochlorous acid tests. In addition, the red pigment of the fruit was isolated by column chromatography and structurally elucidated by NMR. Results showed that H. androsaemum fruits contain high amounts of shikimic and chlorogenic acids, while their color was given by a tetraoxygenated-type xanthone, reported for the first time in Hypericum species. The red berries infusion gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, DPPH, and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching. Cytotoxicity of the berries extracts on three human tumor cell lines (malignant melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and colon carcinoma) was evaluated by MTT assay, and relevant inhibition on colon carcinoma cells (IC50 value of 8.4 μg/mL) was found. Finally, the effects of red berries extract on the immune system were evaluated by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay that revealed a strong stimulation on lymphocytes at low doses (0.4-6 μg/mL).



The genus Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae Jussieu) contains ≈400 species of small trees, shrubs, and herbs, including many ornamental plants that are grown for their attractive, yellow flowers and brown to dark red berries and capsules (Huxley et al., 1992). In addition, Hypericum spp. include a variety of important therapeutic herbs such as H. perforatum L. (St. John's wort), one of the most popular herbal remedies worldwide (Dias, 2003). Hypericum androsaemum exhibits both ornamental traits (Robson, 1985) and potential pharmacological properties (Dias, 2003).

Hypericum androsaemum is native to temperate regions in Europe and Western Asia (Bailey, 1949), but through cultivation and the horticultural trade, the species has naturalized outside of its native range into Australia, New Zealand, and Chile (Robson, 1985). Hypericum androsaemum is considered an invasive species in Australia and New Zealand where it has formed dense thickets and displaced native plants (Weber, 2003). In addition, H. androsaemum is a potentially invasive species in the northwestern United States (Olsen et al., 2006).
 
Comments