Hedera helix / Klimop

Klimop werd al in het oude Egypte en Griekenland gebruikt bij verschillende kwalen. Komen die gebruiken overeen met de toepassingen nu of zijn er tegenwoordig geheel andere inzichten? 
In de oudheid werd klimop gebruikt bij hoofdpijn, slijmvorming en koorts en er werden magische krachten aan toegeschreven. Bij uitwendig gebruik zou het helpen bij builen en blauwe plekken. In de 15e eeuw werd klimop toegepast bij narigheden als rachitis, dysenterie, galstenen en geelzucht.

Klimop had ook symbolische functies. De plant had eigenlijk een dubbelrol: hij was het zinnebeeld van dronkenschap maar gaf ook bescherming tegen dronkenschap omdat het blad de wijn onschuldig zou maken. Klimop werd dan ook geassocieerd met de god van de wijn: zowel de Griekse Dionysos als de Romeinse Bacchus werden vaak met klimop afgebeeld. In de middeleeuwen dacht men dan weer heksen te kunnen herkennen door een klimopkrans te dragen.
Anno nu laat modern wetenschappelijk onderzoek zien dat klimopextract werkzaam is bij luchtwegaandoeningen als hoest en astma. De dosering is hierbij van groot belang: een te hoge dosering werkt vaatvernauwend en irriterend, en kan zelfs giftig zijn. Daarom is registratie als geneesmiddel eigenlijk een voorwaarde voor veilig gebruik.

Klimopblad heeft in enkele Europese landen een geneesmiddelenstatus. In 2007 werden in Duitsland bijna twee miljoen hoestmiddelen met klimop voorgeschreven, en dat was maar liefst 80% van het totaal aan uitgeschreven recepten bij hoestproblemen. Ook in Nederland bestaat er een kruidengeneesmiddel op basis van klimop; het is geregistreerd voor vastzittende hoest en kriebelhoest.

Bron: Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Fytotherapie 2014, nr 1


 
Namen van Hedera helix
BG (bălgarski): Бръшлян, лист 
CS (čeština): břečťanový list 
DA (dansk): Vedbendblad 
DE (Deutsch): Efeublätter 
EL (elliniká): Φύλλο κισσού 
EN (English): ivy leaf 
ES (espanol): Hiedra, hoja de 
ET (eesti keel): luuderohuleht 
FR (français): Lierre (feuille de) 
HU (magyar): Borostyánlevél 
IT (italiano): Edera foglia 
LT (lietuvių kalba): 
LV (latviešu valoda): Vijīgās efejas lapas 
MT (malti): Werqa tal-Liedna 
NL (nederlands): Klimop 
PL (polski): Liść bluszczu 
PT (português): Hera, folha 
RO (română): frunză de iederă 
SK (slovenčina): Brečtanový list 
SL (slovenščina): list navadnega bršljana 
SV (svenska): Murgröneblad 
IS (íslenska): 
NO (norsk): Eføyblad 



Wetenschappelijk onderzoek Hedera helix

Phytomedicine. 2009 Jan;16(1):17-24. Epub 2006 Jul 24. Tolerance, safety and efficacy of Hedera helix extract in inflammatory bronchial diseases under clinical practice conditions: a prospective, open, multicentre postmarketing study in 9657 patients.
Fazio S1, Pouso J, Dolinsky D, Fernandez A, Hernandez M, Clavier G, Hecker M.
In this postmarketing study 9657 patients (5181 children) with bronchitis (acute or chronic bronchial inflammatory disease) were treated with a syrup containing dried ivy leaf extract. After 7 days of therapy, 95% of the patients showed improvement or healing of their symptoms. The safety of the therapy was very good with an overall incidence of adverse events of 2.1% (mainly gastrointestinal disorders with 1.5%). In those patients who got concomitant medication as well, it could be shown that the additional application of antibiotics had no benefit respective to efficacy but did increase the relative risk for the occurrence of side effects by 26%. In conclusion, it is to say that the dried ivy leaf extract is effective and well tolerated in patients with bronchitis. In view of the large population considered, future analyses should approach specific issues concerning therapy by age group, concomitant therapy and baseline conditions.



J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr 12;134(3):796-802.The effect of the whole extract of common ivy (Hedera helix) leaves and selected active substances on the motoric activity of rat isolated stomach strips.Mendel M1, Chłopecka M, Dziekan N, Wiechetek M.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
The long tradition of using the dry extract of Hedera helix (common ivy) leaves in traditional and contemporary alternative medicine caused that many biological and pharmacological studies have been aimed at evaluating the effects of ivy. Some of the results suggest that Hedera helix extract possesses bronchodilatatory and antispasmodic activity. On the other hand, the symptoms of ivy intoxication in human and animals, as well as adverse-reactions observed during the therapy with ivy-based pharmaceuticals, indicate rather stimulant effect of the plant on smooth muscle. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two main active substances extracted from the plant (α-hederin and hederacoside C) and the whole dry extract of Hedera helix on the gut motility.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The experiments were carried out on isolated stomach corpus and fundus strips. The tissues were isolated from rats. The experiments were performed in isotonic conditions. The results are expressed as the percent of the reaction caused by a reference contractile substance, acetylcholine.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:
The obtained results revealed that α-hederin applied in the concentration ranged from 25 to 320μM significantly changed the spontaneous motoric activity of rat stomach smooth muscle. The observed reaction had always the same character, a contraction, and its force was concentration dependent. The second tested saponin, hederacoside C, did not alter the motility of rat isolated stomach corpus and fundus strips when administered in the concentration up to 100 μM, however, if applied in the concentration of 350 μM it induced a remarkable concentration of smooth muscle. Eventually, the whole extract of Hedera helix in a dose containing 60 μM of hederacoside C produced a strong contraction which strength was comparable with the reaction generated by acetylcholine. According to the results, it is very likely that α-hederin, but not hederacoside C contributes to the contractile response of isolated stomach corpus and fundus strips to the application of Hedera helix leaves' extract.


Therapeutic Effect of Hedera helix Alcoholic Extract Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania major in Balb/c Mice

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is common and endemic in many areas of Iran, caused by species of a protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. There is not any effective vaccine against leishmaniasis; so, therapy is important for prevention and separation of disease. Herbal extract for treatment of CL is cost-effective, applicable topically to lesions, and can avoid the development of drug resistance.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of an alcoholic extract of Hedera helix (a native Iranian plant) on the experimental ulcer of zoonotic CL in Balb/c mice.

Materials and Methods: At least 5x l06 promastigotes of Leishmania major (MHOM/64/IR/ER75) were inoculated subcutaneously in the tail base of Balb/c mice. Fifty six infected mice were distributed in four groups, two groups (16 mice for 20% alcoholic extract of H. helix and 13 for 70% extract) were used as experimental groups, one (15 mice) as placebo control (Control A), and one (12 mice) as negative control. Treatment effects of two concentrations were determined by comparison of placebo and nontreated groups via measuring the size of skin lesions and the number of parasitologically positive and negative mice after the therapy period.

Results: This study showed that the main lesion size did not decrease significantly, or the small lesions did not completely disappear after treatment by H. helix alcoholic extract. Amastigotes counts (mean ± SD) of the skin lesions decreased in control A and 20% concentration groups, but in negative control and 70% concentration groups the number of parasites did not reduce.

Conclusions: The present study did not support the in vivo antileishmanial effect of H. helix extract. We recommend further studies using major components of H. helix, especially hederasaponin (saponin K10), to investigate the antileishmanial effect of this plant on L. major.

Info
http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Herbal_-_Community_herbal_monograph/2011/04/WC500105313.pdf
http://biorevive.com/wp-content/uploads/Prospan-Study.16_EU-Monograph.pdf


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