Geranium species / Ooievaarsbek

Pharm Biol. 2012 Nov;50(11):1374-9. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2012.675340. Epub 2012 Sep 11. Evaluation of antihemolytic and antioxidant activities of Geranium tuberosum subsp. tuberosum with in vitro models.Sabuncuoğlu S1, Söhretoğlu D.

There are 33 Geranium species growing in Turkey characterized by the presence of polyphenolic compounds. Some Geranium (Geraniaceae) species are used as antidiabetics, hemostatics, antihemorrhoidals, antidiarrheics and for the treatment of pain, fevers, and gastrointestinal ailments, or are consumed as food.
OBJECTIVE:
The in vitro antioxidant activity and antihemolytic effect of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH), methanol (MeOH) and water extracts of Geranium tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum (Geraniaceae), a medicinal food plant, have been evaluated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The two antioxidant enzyme activities of human erythrocyte, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), after in vitro incubation with the extracts, were examined in order to see whether the observed effects are related to altered enzymatic efficiency. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were also measured as oxidative stress marker. Antihemolytic activity of extracts was shown by hemolysis assay in erythrocytes. Furthermore, total phenolic content of extracts was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method.
RESULTS:
All extracts enhanced GSH levels, and the activity of SOD and CAT. The EtOAc extracts seems to be the most potent antioxidant at 100 µg/mL (SOD activity 173.736 ± 8.33, CAT activity 133.218 ± 3.31, GSH level 2.264 ± 2.21). However, apart from the MeOH extracts at 100 µg/mL (68.699 ± 3.93), they didn't increase the resistance of erythrocytes to H(2)O(2) induced cytotoxicity. Therefore, while a significant antioxidant effect was observed in these samples, antihemolytic effect was not determined.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:
The title plant has shown high antioxidant activity without cytotoxicity up to 100 µg/mL, thus could be a potent source as natural antioxidant.

Chem Biodivers. 2013 Nov;10(11):2042-52. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201300200. Volatiles of Geranium purpureum Vill. and Geranium phaeum L.: chemotaxonomy of balkan Geranium and Erodium species (Geraniaceae). Radulović NS1, Dekić MS.
The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Geranium purpureum and G. phaeum were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses (the former for the first time in general). In total, 154 constituents were identified, accounting for 89.0-95.8% of the detected GC peak areas. The investigated essential oils consisted mainly of fatty acids and fatty-acid-derived compounds (45.4-81.3%), with hexadecanoic acid and (E)-phytol as the major components. The chemotaxonomic significance of the variations in the essential-oil composition/production of the presently and previously investigated Geranium and highly related Erodium taxa from Serbia and Macedonia was assessed by multivariate statistical analyses. The main conclusions drawn from the high chemical similarity of the two genera, visible from the obtained dendrograms and biplots, confirm the close phylogenetic relationship between the investigated Geranium and Erodium taxa, i.e., that there is no great intergeneric oil-composition variability. Changes in the composition and production of essential oils of the herein investigated taxa and 60 other randomly chosen species belonging to different plant genera were also statistically analyzed. The results put forward pro arguments for the oil-yield-oil-composition correlation hypothesis.

Estimation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity on Geranium pratense subsp. finitimum and its phenolic compounds.
To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of Geranium species and its phenolic compounds for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Geranium pratense subsp. finitimum (Woronow) Knuth, its fractions and isolated compounds, the mixture of quercetin 3-O-alpha-arabinopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside (1), the mixture of quercetin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside (2), kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), (-)-6-chloroepicatechin (4), the mixture of quercetin 3-O-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-galactopyranoside (5) and myricetin 3-O-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-glucopyranoside (6), on carrageenan-, PGE(2)- and TPA-induced inflammation in mice and p-benzoquinone-induced writhing reflex to assess anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The effective dose of materials for the inhibition of carragenan-induced hind paw edema assay was determined to be 100 mg/kg, which was also used in the assays with the extract, its fractions and isolated compounds in all other experiments. The aqueous extract, 1, 2 (100 mg/kg), as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) inhibited significantly the formation of the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. There was also a significant reduction in PGE(2)-induced hind paw edema and TPA-induced ear edema models with 5, in addition to the aqueous extract and the other active components 1 and 2. In the antinociceptive assay, the aqueous extract and its fractions, as well as 1, 2, and 5 diminished significantly the number of writhings. Based on the results obtained it is suggested that the aqueous extract of Geranium pratense subsp. finitimum and its phenolic compounds display anti-inflammatory activity, supporting the folkloric use.
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