Galium aparine / Kleefkruid

In veel bos- en struikranden, maar ook in half beschaduwde ruigten en akkerranden vind je Kleefkruid, Galium aparine. De met veel weerhaakjes bezette planten vallen alleen daardoor al op. De bladeren staan in kransen op de knopen van de vierkante stengels. De piepkleine witte bloemen hebben vergroeide kroonblaadjes die een klein sterretje vormen.

Het meest bijzondere van Kleefkruid is toch wel dat de plantensoort zo gemakkelijk verspreid wordt door dieren en mensen, door de weerhaakjes waarmee de vruchten en andere onderdelen zo gemakkelijk blijven hangen aan haren en kleren.
De kransvormige staande bladeren zijn eigenlijk twee tegenoverstaande bladeren ieder met twee steunblaadjes die uitgegroeid zijn tot dezelfde lengte als de bladeren.

Medicinaal wordt kleefkruid gebruikt om het lymfesysteem te ondersteunen. Het is dan ook een voortreffelijk kruid bij gezwollen klieren overal in het lichaam, maar vooral in hals, nek en rond de oren. Ook bij ontstoken keel -en neusamandelen doet het zijn werk heel goed. Kleefkruid voert overtollig vocht uit het lichaam af, gaat mogelijk ontstekingen tegen, werkt heilzaam op de nieren; te gebruiken bij urineweginfecties.

In de oudheid werd deze plant aparine, zij die zich vast grijpt, genoemd. Ook wel philanthropè omdat hij zo op de mens gesteld was?. Een bosje kleefkruid werd gebruikt om ongerechtigheden uit de melk te verwijderen. Stofjes, gras ed blijft aan de plant kleven. In de bovengrondse delen zitten naast zeepstoffen, wat urine- en slijmafdrijvend werkt, ook flavonoïden deze bevorderen het herstel van aandoeningen van hart en bloedvaten. De stof asperuloside werkt ontstekingremmend. 



Volgens Dodonaeus Van Cleefcruyt. Cap. LVI.
Naam.
Dit kruid wordt in Grieks Aparine genoemd en door sommige Philandropos en Omphalocarpos. In Latijn Aparine. In Hoogduits Klebkraut. In Nederduits kleef kruid. In Frans reble of grateron.
 
Natuur.
Kleefkruid is warm en droog van naturen.
 
Kracht en Werking.
Het sap van de bladeren en zaad van kleefkruid is goed om te drinken tegen de beet en steek van de venijnige gedierten. Hetzelfde sap dat in de oren gedruppeld wordt, geneest de pijn en weedom van de oren.
Dit gestampte kruid stelpt het bloed als het op de verse wonden gelegd wordt en als het met varkensvet vermengd wordt verteert en laat het de kroppen en klieren aan de hals scheiden als het daarop gelegd wordt.



H. Kleijn (1970), Planten en hun naam

Gálium aparíne: Kleefkruid
De wetenschappelijke soortnaam aparine is afgeleid van het Griekse woord apaireo: ik grijp, ik pak beet. De Nederlandse naam duidt daar duidelijk op. De gehele plant, ook het zaad, is bedekt met kleine, kromme stekeltjes of haartjes die zich vasthechten aan allerlei voorwerpen - vooral kleren en vachten - wanneer zij daarmede in aanraking komen. Dodonaeus vermeldt: ‘de herders pleghen dit cruydt in het melck te steken, soo blijven alle hayren die daer in zijn, aen de rouwigheyt van dit cruydt hangen.’ Dit laatste vinden we reeds bij Dioscorides (eerste eeuw na Chr.) vermeld. Dodonaeus schrijft nog verder over de plant: ‘Men noemtet oock in ’t Griex Philanthropos, al oftmen seyde Menschenvriendt, om dattet aen de cleederen soo vast houdt ende cleeft.’
Vele namen, verspreid over ons gehele land, duiden op dit ‘kleven’ of ‘klitten’ en andere daarmee verwante eigenschappen. We laten hieronder een selectie volgen die, vinden wij, voor zichzelf spreekt: Jan-kleef-an, Jan-plak-an, Katteklauwen, Klef-Klef, Kleine klit, Kletteklauw, Kliskruid, Klitkruid en Klevers. De Groningse volksnaam Duvelsnaaigoarn zal waarschijnlijk ontstaan zijn omdat de tot een meter lange stengels, doordat zij overal aan blijven kleven, last veroorzaken, en de duivel hierin dus wel de hand gehad zal hebben en het als naaigaren gebruikt zal hebben. Voor het nabije Duitse Ostfriesland vinden we de overeenkomstige naam van Düwelsdraat. De lange, vierkante stengel klimt met zijn hakige haren tegen andere planten op, wat de plant ook de naam Wilde klimmer bezorgde.
De naam Ganzegras, zonder enige nadere plaatsaanduiding, is volgens ons geen echte volksnaam, maar een vertaling van de Engelse volksnaam Goose grass. In Engeland mengden namelijk de kippenhouders de gekookte plant door het voer van ganzen en kalkoenen. Dit gebruik hebben we tot nu toe nog niet voor ons land kunnen vinden.
Meer moeilijkheden leveren namen op zoals Riepeltocht in Groningen, Ripel-tocht in Friesland, en Rijpeltocht zonder plaatsaanduiding. Dr. Uittien schrijft dat hij voor de verklaring van Riepeltocht het antwoord schuldig moet blijven. We zullen trachten een verklaring te geven, maar voegen hieraan direct toe, dat we gaarne voor aanvullingen of verbeteringen openstaan. Ons uitgangspunt is een mededeling die we vonden bij van Hall in zijn Landbouwkundige Flora van het midden van de vorige eeuw. Hij schrijft over het Kleefkruid het volgende: ‘Inzonderheid vindt men het in de gerst, zodat men in enige delen van Groningen afzonderlijke “Rijpeltogtzeven” heeft om de gerst van dit gewas te zuiveren.’ Slaat men het Etymologisch Woordenboek van dr. J. de Vries op dan lezen we bij rijp: ‘Oudsaksisch ripi hangt samen met het Oudengelse ripan “oogsten”, een Noorweegse dialectische vorm is ripa: afplukken, verder met reep en repel. Rijp is dus het gewas, dat geplukt of geoogst kan worden.’ Bij tocht vinden we: ‘is een afleiding van een Germaans werkwoord teuhan dat met “het trekken” in verband staat, zie teug en tijgen.’ Bij teug: ‘behoort bij het Middelnederlandse tien, tooch, ghetoghen,’ en bij tijgen: ‘Een verouderd werkwoord dat terug gaat op het Middelnederlandse tien: trekken.’ Een bezigheid om het voedselgewas van dit lastige onkruid te zuiveren werd hier tot volksnaam van de plant zelf. In de volksgeneeskunst werd het kruid in velerlei gevallen gebruikt, zoals de bladeren op wonden leggen, om bloedingen te stelpen. Dit gebruik vinden we reeds bij Plinius vermeld. Hieruit blijkt dus overduidelijk dat een dergelijk middeltje zich eeuwen en eeuwen kan handhaven.



Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Feb;102:24-9. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2012.09.056. Epub 2012 Oct 13.
Evaluation of diverse antioxidant activities of Galium aparine. Bokhari J1, Khan MR, Shabbir M, Rashid U, Jan S, Zai JA.

Methanol extract and its n-hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fraction of Galium aparine L. (Rubiacea) were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant capacity (DPPH, superoxide radical, phosphomolybdate assay); reducing power (ABTS, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, to reduce Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) ions) and to estimate total flavonoid and phenolic contents. All the free radical generating assay models depicted differential positive scavenging activity but considerable magnitude for all the fractions. The results showed that aqueous fraction strongly scavenge the DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between IC(50) values of DPPH and superoxide radical with total phenolic content and phosphomolybdate assay with total flavonoid contents, respectively. These results suggested that aqueous fraction can be a good source of antioxidant therapeutic in oxidative stress damages.


Cleavers (Galium aparine) 
Uittreksel uit de zeer kritische monografie van Natural Standard

Cleavers (Galium aparine) is a climbing plant native to North America, Europe, and Asia. It has been used to coagulate milk. According to some herbalists, cleavers is a good lymphatic and blood purifying tonic and is often used to treat swollen glands and skin eruptions caused by lymphatic congestion. It has also been recommended as a diuretic for chronic cystitis (inflamed bladder) and prostatitis (enlarged prostate), and has been used traditionally as a treatment for epilepsy. Currently, there is insufficient evidence in humans to support the use of cleavers for any indication.

Tradition / Theory
The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. 

Antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiperspirant, antipyretic, astringent, benign prostatic hypertrophy, blisters, blood cleanser, breast pain/inflammation, cancer , choleretic, chronic prostatitis, common cold, cystitis, dandruff, deodorant, detoxification, diarrhea, diuretic, earache, edema, enuresis, epilepsy, gallbladder stones, gout, hepatitis, hormonal effects, hysteria, immunomodulator, insect bites and stings (poisonous), insomnia, kidney cleanser, kidney stones, laxative, lymphadenitis, mastitis (animals), menopause, psychological disorders, relaxation/stress/anxiety, restlessness, scurvy, skin eruptions, stomach ailments, sunburn, swollen glands, tonsillitis, ulcers, urinary disorders, withdrawal from narcotics, wound healing.

Dosing
Adults (18 years and older)
Although not well-studied in humans, a version of the red clover combination tea modeled after the Hoxsey formula that contains equal parts red clover, burdock, dandelion root, sarsaparilla, Oregon grape, cleavers, buckthorn, poke, echinacea, licorice, ginger, and wild yam (1 tablespoon of the herbal combination simmered in a cup of boiling water for 10 minutes) has been used at a dosage of 1/2 cup every 1-2 hours for one week.
Secondary sources claim that medium-strength doses of cleavers formulated using 2-4g of the dried herb, 2-4mL of a 1:1 25% fluid extract, or 4-10mL of a 5:1 25% tincture, may be taken three times a day.
Traditional practitioners have recommended that a tea made from the cleavers plant may be used internally and externally for the treatment of cancer. Other secondary sources claim that the juice of the plant may be more useful than a tea. There is insufficient evidence in humans, however, to support the use of cleavers for any indication.
Children (younger than 18 years)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for cleavers in children.

Safety
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects. 

Allergies
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to cleavers (Galium aparine), its constituents, or members of the Rubiaceae family.

Side Effects and Warnings
There is insufficient evidence in humans to support the use of cleavers for any indication, as well as a lack of safety information. Cleavers has traditionally been used as a diuretic and caution is advised in patients taking diuretics or with urinary or renal (kidney) disorders.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Cleavers is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions with Drugs
Although not well studied in humans, cleavers may have diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antigout, antineoplastic, laxative, and hormonal properties. Caution is advised when taking cleavers with other agents that have these effects.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Although not well studied in humans, cleavers may have diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antigout, antineoplastic, laxative, and hormonal properties. Caution is advised when taking cleavers with other herbs or supplements that have these effects.

Attribution
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  • Deliorman D, Calib Y, Ergun F. Iridoids from Galium aparine. Pharmaceutical Biology 2001;39(3):234-235.
  • Ergun F, Deliorman. D, Velioglu A,. Sener. B. Antimicrobial activities of Galium species. GUEDE J Fac Pharm. Gazi. 1999;16: 7-11.
  • Lans, Turner N, Khan T, et al. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007 Feb 26;3:11. PMID: 17324258
  • Morningstar, H. W. Eat Your Weeds! Sentient Times: Alternatives for Personal & Community Transformation 1999;7(4):14-15.
  • Sener, B. and Ergun, F. Isolation and structural studies on the alkaloids of Galium aparine L. GUEDE J Fac Pharm Gazi 1988;5:33-40.
  • Temizer A, Sayin F, Ergun F, et al. Determination of total flavonoid in various Galium species by differential pulse polarography. 1996.
  • Tierra, M. American Herb Association Quarterly Newsletter 1990;7(2):10.
  • Tzakou O, Couladi MM, Philianos S. Fatty acids and sterols in spring and winter samples of Galium aparine. Fitoterapia 1990;61:93.
  • Wisdom of an Elder: Dr. Douglas Kirkbride. Medical Herbalism: A Journal for the Clinical Practitioner 1996;8(3):14-15.
Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/picrender.cgi?accid=PMC2372573&blobname=brmedj04444-0011.tif



GALIUM APARINE AS A REMEDY FOR CHRONIC ULCERS. June 16, 1883.
By F. J. B. QUINLAN, M1.D.Dubl., F.K.Q.C.P.,
Physician to St. Vincent's Hospital; Professor of Materia Mediqa and
Therapeutics, Catholic University; Examiner in same,
Royal University of Ireland.

Immediately after the publication in the JOURNAL of Janumy last of a note upon a pulmonary remedial simple, I received letters
from several parts of the United Kingdom, recommending me to try the effects of the galium aparine in the treatment of chronic
ulcers-a recommendation which I was unable to adopt, for the sufficient reason that the plant was then nowhere to be obtained., I
made a note of the matter, and a suitable opportunity for trial presented itself in due time.

The galium aparine is a wild annual belonging to the natural order Iubiacee, and is described in Sowerby's BritisA Botany, vol. iv, pp. 225-6. An excellent coloured illustration is given in the appendix of the same volume, plate 658. It is a well-known weed, found in the hedges in every part of the United Kingdom, and of Northern Europe. It runs to from two to four feet in length, ard has a succulent square stem covered with prickles, which can be felt by drawing the finger and thumb along the stalk in the upward direction. This circumstance causes it to adhere to the clothes: of
passers-by, and has procured for it in some places the name'of "cleavers,' or "catchweed." Its more usual name in England' is "goosegrass ;" in Ireland, it has the peculiar designation of " robin run the hedge," arising from the Way in which it spreads; in France, it is called "Iaillet gratoron;" in. Gtrmany, ":lKletterndes Labkraut." In this country, it appears from about the beginning of May till the end of autumn.

Cornelius C., aged 74, from Clonmel, a very tall, weak, and wornout old man,, applied for admission to St.. Vincent's Hospital on the 8th of February last. He suffered from enormous ulcers of both legs; that on the right being eight inches and a half long, and extending nearly round the whole limb; and that on the left being little smaller. He had just come out of another Dublin hospital, where he had been for four months under the care of a very eminent medical man, and with no good result. A more unpromising case ofsuch ulceration could not be imagined, and few hospitals Would entertain the idea of receiving him. He was, however, admitted at the request of a very valued friend of the institution, who repre- sented that he had come a long way from home in the hope of relief. Strapping being plainly out of the question, from the size of the ulcers and the low vitality of the surrounding skin, I grafted the entire surfaces with layers of sponge. This process went on in the usual manner, and left a healthy surface; the granulations of which, however, soon died away, and could not be kept up. 

Skin- grafting failed utterly.
We had now come nearly to the end of April, and our failure in this case was as complete as that of our sister hospital. It appeared to me that now was the time to try the galium aparine, which was beginning to peep out in all the hedgerows about Dublin. Here I must tender my acknowledgments of the zeal and energy of the members of my clinical class, who were untiring in their efforts to collect this herb, which was not to be had of any of the herbalists. An ample supply for this and other less severe cases has since been kept up, and it has been used with the most marked success in the following manner.
Grasping in the left hand a bundle of ten or twelve stalks, with a scissors held in the right hand, the bundle is cut into junks about 'half an inch long. These are thrown into a mortar, and pounded into a paste. This paste, which has an acrid taste and slightly acrid smell, is made up into a large poultice, applied to the ulcer, and' secured with a bandage. It is renewed three times a day. Its action appears to be a slight steady stimulant, and powerful pro- moter of healthy granulation. Its effect in this most unhopeful case was decisive and plain to all. Healthy action ensued, and has since steadily continued; and, after a month of treatment, both ulcers have been reduced to considerably less than half their original size. If this action continue, which I have no reason to doubt, the cure will be accomplished within a measurable and short period. The patient is in the ward, and anyone can see the great amount of new dermatisation which has been effected during the month.

I could give several other cases not so striking as the above, but it would be mere repetition. Of one, however, I would wish to make brief mention.
Mary G., aged 34, was in a very advanced stage of pulmonary consumption, with great wasting and emaciation. Severe lesions of the left lung compelled her to lie always on her right side; and, as a result, she got bed-sores on the right shoulder and on the right trochanter. In addition to a large water-bed, I dressed both bedsores
with the galium pulp. The application was found most grateful and soothing, and rapidly healed the bed-sores. She is still alive, though passing rapidly away. She does not, however, suffer from the sores; and I have had some other instances of the same kind. As far as chronic ulcers are concerned, the application suits best in the indolent or in the healthy states. In irritable ulcers, its stimulating property causes pain. In such cases, it is necessary to reduce the irritability by poultices, iodoform, or other well-known remedies, before beginning the galium. My reason for putting forward this remedy so soon is, that now is the time to try it. It is growing freely in almost every hedge, and can be got in any quantity during the rest of the season. A difficulty at once suggests itself as to its general employment; viz., that in winter and spring it is not to be had at all. It appears to me that this difficulty can be effectually met by the method of ensilage, by means of which green food for cattle has for the last few years been kept perfectly sweet and fresh by burying it in silos under the ground. This plan is generally known, but all particulars about it can be learned in the pamphlet of Mr. Thomas Christy, P.L.S. (Christy and Co., 155, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.). In the case of the galium, the process would consist of cutting the herb very fine, ramming it down by screw-pressure into a glazed earthenware jar with an air-tight cover, and burying it in the ground. Thus secured from air, moisture, and heat, it would be likely to keep through the winter. One of my pqpils, Mr. MI. Pierce, has already laid it thus down, and will report the result to me.* This plan, if successful, might be extended to other pharmaceutical herbs; for I have always had the idea that green herbs are more powerful than dried ones. Indeed, the late Mr. Donovan of this city used to maintain that, to make tincture of digitalis properly, the alcohol should be brought to where the foxglove was growing, and the live plant plunged into it.

Many virtues are attributed to the galium by old writers; but Ihave not been able to find any allusion to its employment in the
treatment of ulcers. Linnseus mentions that in Sweden the shepherds use its stalks for straining milk-a fact also stated by Dioscorides.
Its roots form a nice red dye. These are the only usesthat I have been able to ascertain in regard to it in the books at my disposal.
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