Dracocephalum moldavicum / Turkse drakekop

Dracocephalum moldavica wordt zestig centimeter hoog. De stengels zijn vertakt en de bladen zijn aromatisch. De bloemen zijn violetpaars tot paars. De plant bloeit gedurende de gehele zomer. In Oost-Europa, Siberië, het midden van Azië en sommige delen van Amerika komt de plant van nature voor.

Pharm Biol. 2013 Jan;51(1):74-83. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2012.711839. Epub 2012 Oct 4.
Effects of total flavonoids from Dracocephalum moldavica on the proliferation, migration, and adhesion molecule expression of rat vascular smooth muscle cells induced by TNF-α. Xing J, Peng K, Cao W, Lian X, Wang Q, Wang X.

Dracocephalum moldavica Linn (Labiatae) is one of the ethnomedicinal drugs of Uygur in Xinjiang, China. This herb is mainly used in treating cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of pharmacological activity of D. moldavica has been poorly studied.
To explore the pharmacological mechanism of D. moldavica in treating atherosclerosis by investigating the effects of total flavonoids from the aerial portion of D. moldavica on rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).
The proliferation and migration of VSMCs were evaluated via a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and transwell chamber experiment, respectively. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) of VSMCs was determined using immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).
Total flavonoids (IC(50) = 145.63 μg/mL) significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced VSMC proliferation at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL. Treatment with 50 and 100 μg/mL of total flavonoids also significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced VSMC migration, whereas 25 μg/mL of total flavonoids did not elicit any significant inhibitory effect. In addition, the effects of total flavonoids on inflammatory molecule expression of cells were tested by immunohistochemistry staining, showing that TNF-α-induced expression of PCNA, NF-κB p65, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in VSMCs was dose-dependently suppressed by total flavonoids. Furthermore, qRT-PCR data confirmed the inhibition of mRNA expressions of these inflammatory molecules.
These data suggest that total flavonoids from D. moldavica exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, which is probably one of the underlying mechanisms of D. moldavica for clinical treatment of atherosclerosis.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 14;141(3):908-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.028. Epub 2012 Mar 26.
Neuropharmacological study of Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Lamiaceae) in mice: sedative effect and chemical analysis of an aqueous extract.
Martínez-Vázquez M, Estrada-Reyes R, Martínez-Laurrabaquio A, López-Rubalcava C, Heinze G.
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Dracocephalum moldavica is used as a tranquilizer and as remedy for nervous conditions relief in the Mexican traditional medicine. Despite its intensive use no literature reported neuropharmacological studies on Dracocephalum moldavica as yet.
The sedative, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects of the aqueous extract of aerial parts of Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) (DM) were evaluated in behavioral models in mice. The general toxic effects of DM were evaluated as well as their chemical analysis was performed.
DM effects were evaluated on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time (SPT), the hole-board (HBT), and the avoidance exploratory behavior (AEBT) tests and on the forced swimming test (FST). General activity and motor coordination were evaluated in the open field (OFT) and Rota-rod tests, respectively. The acute toxicity of DM was determinate by its LD(50) dose. The chemical analyses DM were performed by chromatographic and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques.
DM prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, induced sedation in the HBT, decreased spontaneous activity and produced motor coordination impairment in mice. However, DM did not show anxiolytic effects in the AEBT or HBT and it was not effective in FST. The DM-treatment produced mortalities with LD(50)=470 mg/kg body weight. The HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of DM revealed that (acacetin, apigenin and luteolin)-7-O-β-D-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside derivates are the main compounds of DM.
DM induced sedative actions and a general inhibition of CNS activity observed by the decrease of animals' general activity, motor coordination and exploration.