Darmwier / Enteromorpha sp. intestinalis

Darmwier kun je vinden aan de voet van zeedijken, maar ook op het wad, op het strand en zelfs in zoet water. Daar heet het flap. In Nederland worden zo'n tien soorten darmwier gevonden. Tot welke soort een exemplaar behoort is alleen te bepalen met een microscoop. Darmwieren zijn buisvormig en vertakt, maar het uiterlijk is afhankelijk van de groeiplaats.
Ned: Darmwier
Lat: Enteromorpha spp.
Eng: Gutweed
Dui: Darmtang
Dan: Tarmrørhinde

Beschrijving:Echt darmwier
Deze soort van de groep van de darmwieren ziet er ook echt uit als een darm: hij is vrijwel onvertakt en vormt een buis van ca. 1 cm dikte, die er vaak opgeblazen uitziet vanwege luchtbellen die er in zitten. Deze buizen zitten aan het ene einde vast aan de ondergrond. Ze worden zo’n 75 cm lang en bovenaan zijn ze breder dan aan de onderkant. De kleur is bleekgroen tot donkergroen.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 Mar;9(3):324-9. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.010. Epub 2009 Jan 19.
Characterization and anti-tumor activity of alkali-extracted polysaccharide from Enteromorpha intestinalis.
Jiao L1, Li X, Li T, Jiang P, Zhang L, Wu M, Zhang L.
The polysaccharide DAEB was isolated and purified from Enteromorpha intestinalis. It consisted of rhamnose, xylose, galactose, and glucose in a molar ratio of 5.36:1.00:0.57:0.64, and had a molecular weight of 46.8 kDa. Mice were treated with three doses of DAEB for 10 consecutive days by oral administration, the tumor inhibition was 61.17%, 67.65% and 70.59% at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. However, no direct cytotoxicity was detected. At dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, a significant increase (P<0.01) in relative spleen and thymus weight, and production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were observed in DAEB treated groups. We also found that DAEB significantly stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, especially Concanavalin A-induced lymphocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and augmented phagocytosis and secretion of NO and TNF-alpha in peritoneal macrophages. The results indicated that DAEB had potent anti-tumor activity which may be associated with its potent immunostimulating effect.

Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2013 Nov;8(4):151-9. Epub 2013 Nov 2. In vitro Analysis of Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Enteromorpha antenna, Enteromorpha linza and Gracilaria corticata Extracts.
Narasimhan MK1, Pavithra SK1, Krishnan V1, Chandrasekaran M2.
BACKGROUND:
Seaweeds are taxonomically diverse benthic algae, which are rich in bioactive compounds. These compounds have a potential application in medicine.
OBJECTIVES:
The aim of the study was to investigate the bioactive properties of three seaweed samples, Enteromorpha antenna, Enteromorpha linza and Gracilaria corticata were collected from the shoreline of Mahabalipuram, Tamilnadu.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Bioactive components were extracted by using various solvents. Antioxidant analysis methods like scavenging activity of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, free radical scavenging (DPPH), FRAP (ferric reducing ability plasma) ability and reducing power were carried out. MTT assay was employed to study the anticancer activity against cancer cell lines Hep-G2, MCF7 and normal VERO cell lines.
RESULTS:
It was found that methanolic extracts elicited higher total phenolic content, higher percentage scavenging activity of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, free radical scavenging (DPPH), FRAP (ferric reducing ability plasma) ability and reducing power. Different concentrations of crude methanolic extracts of seaweeds showed potential antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method. Crude methanolic extract of G. corticata had significant anticancer activity followed by E. antenna and E. linza on cancer cell lines Hep-G2, MCF7 and normal VERO cell lines by MTT assay.
CONCLUSIONS:
The methanolic extracts of seaweeds Enteromorpha antenna, Enteromorpha linza and Gracilaria corticata possess high total phenolic content and shows a good free radical scavenging activity and hence are proven to have better antioxidant activity and they might be good candidates for further investigations in order to develop potential anticancer drugs.

Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Greville AN EDIBLE GREEN ALGA AS A SOURCE OF ANTIALLERGIC PRINCIPLE (S)
B. Venkata Raman, D. N. Rao* and T. M. Radhakrishnan
Enteromorpha compressa a marine green algal species grows extensively in North coastal Andhra Pradesh. Besides its nutritional importance it has also been identified as source of anti-anaphylactic compound(s). E. compressa extracts alleviated the IgE levels raised against ovalbumin and otherallergens in mice. Further, Enteromorpha extract also significantly down regulated the serum IgE levels in different murine models irrespective of their genetic background. The results obtained in this study suggest that E. compressa extract has compound(s), which inhibit IgE immune response and may have potential in curing various types of allergies. 

Antibacterial and antihemolytic activities of Enteromorpha intestinalis in Caspian Sea Coast, Iran
Saeid Soltani1*, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh2, Rahil Khoshrooei3 and Zahra Rahmani4
Enteromorpha is one of the filamentous green-algal genus and has a widespread distribution in Caspian Sea Coast. This study aimed at assaying the antimicrobial activities ofEnteromorpha intestinalis in South of Caspian Sea. Antimicrobial activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of five different gram negative and positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Proteus mirabiliswere investigated. The extract was primarily screened for their possible antimicrobial effects using disc diffusion methods. The potential antibacterial activities at different concentrations of the extract were elucidated. The extract displayed variable degrees of antimicrobial activities on different bacteria. Among gram positive bacteria, the B. subtilis (with wider zones of inhibition) was found to be more sensitive than S. aureus. Among gram negative P. aeruginosa was found to be more resistant than P. mirabilis and S. typhimurium. The extract did not show any harmful effects on erythrocytes and, in fact, exhibited potent antihaemolytic activity with IC50 of 323±11.7 μg ml1 compared with 235±9 μg ml-1 for vitamin C which served as positive control. Extract show antihemolytic activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced hemolysis. Our findings suggest the possibility of using the E. intestinalis as a novel source of natural antimicrobial and antihemolytic agent for pharmaceutical industries.

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