Cydonia / Kweepeer

Cydonia oblonga is een kleine boom van vier tot zes meter hoog. U kunt de vruchten in de herfst plukken. De beste periode is september en oktober. Een rijpe kweepeer is geel van kleur en heeft een uitgesproken geur. Let daarop als u ze plukt. Nog een handig weetje: het dons op de schil moet makkelijk loskomen als u erover wrijft. Kies altijd kweeperen die goed rijp zijn, want eenmaal geplukt rijpen ze niet meer verder.

Pectine, een vezel met heel veel goede eigenschappen
Kweeperen bevatten heel veel pectine, een vezel die heel veel vocht kan vasthouden maar ook de afvalstoffen neutraliseert. Een andere chemische bouwsteen van de kweepeer is tannine, een stof die de darmtransit vertraagt en de darmslijmvliezen beschermt. De combinatie tannine-pectine is een ideale barrière tegen bacteriën en helpt ook bij diarree. Volgens sommige studies zou regelmatige consumptie van  kweeperen zelfs darmkanker helpen voorkomen.
Pectine vertraagt ook de absorptie van vetten en stimuleert de afvoer ervan, wat dan weer de cholesterolwaarden doet zakken.
Door de pectine en de vele andere oplosbare vezels verminderen kweeperen bovendien de insulineproductie na het eten. Een uitgelezen dessert dus voor mensen met diabetes type 2!

Kweeperen: vitamine en mineralen
 Jammer genoeg gaat een groot deel van de vitamine C verloren bij het koken en kweeperen kunnen niet rauw gegeten worden, omdat het vruchtvlees zo stevig is. De mineralen blijven tijdens het kookproces wel goed bewaard, vooral dan het kalium. Die stof is essentieel voor de goede werking van ons zenuw- en spierstelsel.
The main nutritional composition of quince fruits in 100 g fresh weight were: energy: 176 kj , protein;
0.6g, acid: 0.9g, carbohydrate: 9.1g, water; 86.9g, ash: 0.6g and fiber: 1.9g. Mineral element contents in 100 g
quince fruits were: Na 9.2 mg, K 189 mg, Ca 66 mg, Mg 10 mg, Fe 1.1 mg, P 25 mg, Cu 0.006 mg, Zn 0.013
mg, and Mn 0.002 mg
The vitamin contents in 100 g fresh quince fruit were: retinol: 5.5 μg, carotene 0.03 mg, thiamine: 30 μg,
riboflavin: 30 μg, niacin : 0.2 mg and ascorbic acid: 13 mg(81-82)
.

Kweeperen bereiden: zoet of hartig!
Origineel aan deze Oosterse vrucht is dat ze zowel zoet als hartig bereid kan worden.

Door het lage gehalte aan koolhydraten hebben kweeperen bijvoorbeeld iets zurigs dat goed samengaat met rood vlees (te combineren bijvoorbeeld met kweeperenpuree). Zoete gerechten zoals compote en gelei zijn heel makkelijk te maken. Dankzij de pectine verandert de jam automatisch in gelei als ze is afgekoeld.

U kunt kweeperen ook verwerken tot siroop of wijn en in tal van andere gerechten, zoals taart, chocoladefondue, een fruitslaatje, enz.

Als gelei: kies voor een recept met het vruchtvlees van de kweeperen in plaats van met het opgevangen kookvocht. Zo zitten er meer voedingsstoffen in.
Door te stomen blijven de mineralen en oligo-elementen optimaal bewaard.
Kweeperen blijven wekenlang goed als u ze bewaart op een droge en goed verluchte plaats (in de koelkast kunnen de andere levensmiddelen ernaar gaan ruiken).

Bronnen: 
  • Silva, BM et al., J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jul 28;52(15):4705-12
  • Magalhães A et al., Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Jun;47(6):1372-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.03.017. Epub 2009 Mar 21.
  • Wikiera A. et al., Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2014 Jan 2;68(0):590-6
  • http://www.snv.jussieu.fr/bmedia/Marche/coing.htm


Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 2014: 282698.
Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats
Muhammad Aslam 1 ,* and Ali Akbar Sial 2

Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

 Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) family Rosaceae also known as bahi (Urdu) and safarjal (Arabic) is official in Tib-e-Nabvi and is mentioned in the Holy Quran [11]. Traditionally, Cydonia oblonga had been used as an antidiarrhoeal, gastric tonic, ulcer-healing, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic and astringent agent. The fruit is suitable for uterine and hemorrhoid bleeding [12]. A number of pharmacological studies have also revealed antimicrobial activity [13], antiradical activity [14], antioxidant activity [15], the inhibitory effect on IgE immune reactions [16], antiulcerative activity [17], antiproliferative activity [18], antihemolytic activity [15], antiallergic activity [19], lipid-lowering activity [20], antidiabetic activity [21], and healing effects of Cydonia oblonga [22]. 

References
11. Sarfaraz KM, Mir AK, Muhammad AK, Mushtaq A, Muhammad Z, Fazal-ur-Rehman SS. Fruit plant species mentioned in the Holy Qura’n and ahadith and their ethnomedicinal importance. The American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 2009;5:284–295.
12. Evans WC, Evans D, Trease GE. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 15th edition. New York, NY, USA: WB Saunders; 2002.
13. Fattouch S, Caboni P, Coroneo V, et al. Antimicrobial activity of tunisian quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) pulp and peel polyphenols extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55(3):963–969.[PubMed]
14. Magalhães AS, Silva BM, Pereira JA, Andrade PB, Valentão P, Carvalho M. Protective effect of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009;47(6):1372–1377. [PubMed]
15. Costa RM, Magalhães AS, Pereira JA, et al. Evaluation of free radical-scavenging and antihemolytic activities of quince (Cydonia oblonga) leaf: a comparative study with green tea (Camellia sinensis) Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009;47(4):860–865. [PubMed]
16. Kawahara T, Iizuka T. Inhibitory effect of hot-water extract of quince (Cydonia oblonga) on immunoglobulin E-dependent late-phase immune reactions of mast cells. Cytotechnology. 2011;63(2):143–152.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
17. Hamauzu Y, Irie M, Kondo M, Fujita T. Antiulcerative properties of crude polyphenols and juice of apple, and Chinese quince extracts. Food Chemistry. 2008;108(2):488–495. [PubMed]
18. Márcia C, Silva BM, Renata S, Patrícia V, Andrade PB. First report on Cydonia oblonga miller anticancer potential: differential antiproliferative effect against human kidney and colon cancer cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010;58(6):3366–3370. [PubMed]
19. Shinomiya F, Hamauzu Y, Kawahara T. Anti-allergic effect of a hot-water extract of quince (Cydonia oblonga) Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 2009;73(8):1773–1778. [PubMed]
20. Khademi F. The efficay of quince leave extract on atherosclerotic plaques induced by atherogenic diet in coronary and aorta, hyperlipidemia and liver in rabbit [MSc dissertation] Tabriz, Iran: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 2009.
21. Aslan M, Orhan N, Orhan DD, Ergun F. Hypoglycemic activity and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants traditionally used in Turkey for diabetes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;128(2):384–389.[PubMed]
22. Hemmati AA, Kalantari H, Jalali A, Rezai S, Zadeh HH. Healing effect of quince seed mucilage on T-2 toxin-induced dermal toxicity in rabbit. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 2012;64(3):181–186. [PubMed]



Abraham Munting 1672 over Kweepeer 

(Cydonia vulgris, kweepeer en kweeappel, zijn naar hun vorm zo genoemd) Kweeboom, in het Latijn Malys cydonia, naar een oude vervallen stad in Kreta gelegen, ook wel Malus Cotonea, in Hoogduits Quittenbaum of Kittenbaum, in Frans Coignacier.
Hiervan zijn me in hun aard en natuur twee bijzondere soorten bekend, te weten: Malus cydonia, kweeappel, en Pyrus cydonua, kweepeer. Beide van een en dezelfde cultuur.

Ze houden van een gewone vochtige en goed gemeste grond, een luchtige en open plaats en zeer veel water in warme of droge tijden omdat daardoor hun vruchten groot en sneller volkomen worden. Worden daarom van velen in de maand november of maart met een wassende maan aan de waterkanten gezet. Ze worden zeer groot gezien als men de ene kweeboom op een andere ent die van zaad is voortgekomen en van zijn penwortel beroofd is. (als van de appel en andere bomen gezegd is) Het enten kan het beste met een wassende maan van maart gebeuren, dan groeien ze snel voort. Ze krijgen eerst hun rechte geur, rijpheid en gele kleur als de nachten lang, koel en nevelig zijn. Ze kunnen lang goed bewaard worden als je ze met de handen (als het kan) in droog weer met een volle maan van oktober er afneemt en met een schone doek al haar ruigte of wolligheid afwrijft en daarna twee of drie dagen daarna in droog zaagsel of zand op een droge plaats neerlegt zodat ze elkaar niet aanraken, dan blijven ze lang goed, anders steken ze niet alleen elkaar aan, maar ook alle andere vruchten die daarbij liggen. Ze blijven ook lang goed geheel in potaarde gedaan.

Heeft iemand zinom deze gezonde, versterkende en aangename vruchten een heel jaar goed en smakelijk  te houden  Neem goede ongeschonden kweeappelen of kweeperen zoveel je wil, schil ze dunnetjes af en snij ze midden door in twee stukken en neem alle zaden en het witte of huisje er goed uit zodat daarvan niets overblijft, [22] leg ze dan in een pot met regenwater en laat ze even opwellen of koken, neem ze dan daaruit en laat ze op een houten tafel of plank koud worden. Neem dan alle schillen en de er uitgenomen korrels al waren daar ook stukken van kleine kwee bij die men toch niet gebruiken kan, doe dat alles tezamen in het water waar de kwee in gekookt is of te wellen lagen en laat het tezamen tot op de helft inkoken en als het daarna geheel koud geworden is neem dan alle gekookte kweeën en leg ze in een groot glas of hard gebakken stenen pot en giet het nat dat zolang gekookt is daarover zodat ze geheel bedekt worden, zet ze dan op een droge plaats en neemt daaruit als het u belieft en goed lijken zal.



The medical importance of Cydonia oblonga- A review

Immunological and antiallergic effects of Cydonia oblonga

The effects of the combined Citrus medica ssp. limonum efructibus/ Cydonia oblonga efructibus (Citrus
medica ssp limonum and Cydonia oblonga: each 0.01 g/ml), and separate products of citrus (0.01 g/ml) and
cydonia (0.01 g/ml) were investigated on the immunological pathways involved in seasonal allergic rhinitis
(SAR). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from five healthy and five grass pollen allergic donors
were isolated and analyzed in vitro after polyclonal and allergen-specific stimulation of T cells in the presence
of the three extracts. The analyses demonstrated acceptable cell survival with no signs of toxicity. Citrus mainly
had a selective effect on reducing allergen-specific chronic inflammatory (TNF-α; Citrus compared to Cydonia
and Citrus/Cydonia: −87.4 (p<0.001) and −68.0 (p<0.05), respectively) and Th2 pathway activity (IL-5; Citrus
compared to cydonia: −217.8 (p<0.01); while, both cydonia and citrus/cydonia mainly affected the induction of
the allergen-specific Th1 pathway (IFN-γ; Cydonia and citrus/cydonia compared to citrus: 3.8 (p< 0.01) and 3.0
(p<0.01), respectively). Citrus and cydonia demonstrated different working mechanisms in the treatment of SAR
and the combination product did not demonstrate larger effects than the separate preparations(94)
.
The immunomodulatory and antiallergic properties of preparations from lemon, Citrus medica,
and Cydonia oblonga, which were used in pharmaceutical products to treat patients suffering from allergic
disorders, were investigated. Preparations were analyzed with respect to their impact on the degranulation
capacity from basophilic cells as well as mediator release from activated human mast cells in vitro, including
IL-8 and TNF- α secretion. The results showed that the degranulation of basophilic cells was diminished only in
the presence of Citrus, and this effect was compared to the synthetic drug azelastine. Furthermore, Citrus
and Cydonia both inhibited the production of IL-8 and TNF- α from human mast cells, and at low
concentrations additive effects were observed(95)
.
The effect of a crude hot-water extract (HW) of Cydonia oblonga fruit was studied in type I allergy in vivo and
in vitro. The oral administration of the quince HW-added diet to NC/Nga mice for 63 day showed a significant
decrease in the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions under conventional conditions. The
concentration of IgE in the serum collected from mice fed with quince HW was also lowered in a dosedependent
manner. Moreover, quince HW inhibited the release of beta-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic
leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 after a 24-hr treatment. The quince HW fraction of less than 3 kDa reduced the
mRNA expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) gamma subunit(96)
.
To compare the efficacy and safety of two routes of administration (nasal spray versus subcutaneous injections)
of Citrus/Cydonia in seasonal allergic rhinitis, a randomised, comparative clinical trial with two parallel groups
was carried out. After a one- or two-week wash-out period, 23 patients were randomized, to a 6-week treatment 

period and the immunological and symptom severity changes and safety were evaluated. Both routes of
administration were safe, they demonstrate immunological and clinical effects, with larger inflammatory and
innate immunological effects of the nasal spray route and larger allergen-specific clinical effects of the
subcutaneous route(97)
.
In a three-way-crossover study in 18 healthy male and female subjects aged from 20 to 49 years the influence of
a 1% and 3% solution of a standardized composition of Citrus limon, succus, and extract from Cydonia
oblonga, fructus (Gencydo) on the intranasal mucociliar clearance was investigated after multiple
administration. Neither after intranasal administration of the 1% and 3% Citrus/Cydonia solution nor after
placebo solution, a prolongation of the perception time was found. It could be concluded that there was no
measurable influence of the test products on the intranasal ciliar function(98)
.
The effect of a crude hot-water extract (HW) of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit on immunoglobulin E
(IgE)-dependent late-phase immune reactions of mast cells was evaluated using in vitro system. Mast cell-like
RBL-2H3 cells were treated with quince HW and late-phase reaction was then induced by stimulation with
IgE + Antigen. Quince HW reduced the elevation of interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α expression level.
Furthermore, quince HW suppressed these cytokine expressions of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells
(BMMCs). Leukotriene C4 and prostaglandin D2 production in BMMCs were also reduced by treating the cells
with quince HW after 1 and 6 h of stimulation. The induction of intracellular cyclooxygenase (COX)-2
expression but not COX-1 expression in BMMCs was also reduced by quince HW(99)



Antioxidant and antimicrobial EFFECTS of Cydonia oblonga
In comparison of antioxidant potential of quince leaf and green tea (Camellia sinensis). Quince leaf exhibited a
significantly higher reducing power than green tea (227.8 ± 34.9 and 112.5 ± 1.5 g/kg dry leaf, respectively), but
showed similar 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities. Quince leaf methanolic
extract significantly protected the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis under the oxidative action of 2,2’-
azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride(100)
.
The radical scavenging potential of the extracts was determined and compared with that of synthetic
antioxidants. The stronger properties corresponded to those obtained from peel material with a 70-80%
inhibitory effect on DPPH radicals(88)
.
The antioxidant functions of quince phenolic extracts were superior to that of chlorogenic acid and ascorbic
acid, evaluated in both the linoleic acid peroxidation system and the DPPH radical scavenging system(87)
.
The antioxidant activity of quince fruit (pulp, peel, and seed) and jam, methanolic extracts were fractionated
into a phenolic fraction and an organic acid fraction and were analyzed by high-performance liquid
chromatography/diode array detection and HPLC/UV. Antiradical activities of the extracts and fractions were
evaluated by a microassay using 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The phenolic fraction exhibited a stronger
antioxidant activity than the whole methanolic extract. Organic acid extracts were the weakest in terms of
antiradical activity, which indicated that the phenolic fraction gave a higher contribution for the antioxidant
potential of quince fruit and jam. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts showed that
peel extract exerted the highest antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values of quince pulp, peel, and jam extracts were
correlated with the caffeoylquinic acids content. Among the phenolic fractions, the seed extract was the one that
exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity(101)
.
Cydonia oblonga fruit were separated into pulps, peels and seeds and methanolic extracts of these parts were
prepared. Antioxidant properties were studied for their ability to quench the stable free radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to inhibit the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced
oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Pulp and peel extracts showed similar DPPH free radical
scavenging activities (EC50 of 0.6 and 0.8 mg/ml, respectively), while seed extract presented much lower
antioxidant potential (EC50 of 12.2mg/ml). Under the oxidative action of AAPH, pulp and peel extracts showed
significant protection of the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis, in a time- and concentration-dependent
manner(102)
.
The antioxidant potential of Cydonia oblonga leaf, compared with green tea, was studied by Folin-Ciocalteu
reducing capacity assay and by the ability to quench the stable free radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
(DPPH) and to inhibit the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis
of human erythrocytes. Quince leaf exhibited a significantly higher reducing power than green tea (mean value
of 227.8 ±34.9 and 112.5 ± 1.5 g/kg dry leaf, respectively). Quince leaf extracts showed similar DPPH radicalscavenging
activities (EC50 mean value of 21.6 ± 3.5 microg/ml) but significantly lower than that presented by
green tea extract (EC50 mean value of 12.7 ± 0.1 microg/ml). Under the oxidative action of AAPH, quince leaf
methanolic extract significantly protected the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis in a similar manner to that
found for green tea (IC50 mean value of 30.7 ± 6.7 and 24.3 ± 9.6 microg/ml, respectively, P > 0.05)(100)
.
The antioxidant effects of lipophilic quince wax extract (QWE) and an aqueous fermented one (QAFE) were
studied including their radical scavenging and reductive power as well as their antilipoperoxidative properties. 
The Quince Aqueous fermented extract (QAFE) effectively scavenged the radical target species exhibiting ID50
values equal to 68.8 μg/ml towards DPPH· and 73.7 μg/ml towards the anion superoxide radical. Quince wax
extract (QWE) was more effective at preventing the formation of thiobarbituric reactive species than QAFE,
exhibiting an ID50 value equal to 48.9 μg/ml(103)
.
Antimicrobial effect:
The antimicrobial activity of Cydonia oblonga leaves extracts against different microorganism strains was also
investigated. Quince peel extract was the most active for inhibiting bacteria growth with minimum inhibitory
and bactericide concentrations in the range of 102-5 x 103 microg polyphenol/ml. It appeared that chlorogenic
acid acts in synergism with other components of the extracts to exhibit their total antimicrobial activities(88)
.
The ethanolic extract of Cydonia oblonga seeds was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to obtain the final
concentrations: 500, 250, and125 mg/ml and the agar well diffusion method was used to determine antibacterial
activity of extract. Six millimeter diameter wells were punched in to the agar and filled with 0.1ml of each
extract. Solvents were used as negative control. Tract exexhibited antibacterial activity against s. aureus at all
concentrations and the sensitivity increases directly with increasing the concentration, s. epidermids was
sensitive at 500 mg/ml and k. pneumonia was sensitive at 250mg/ml. E. coli and Moraxella were resistant to
ethanolic extract(104)
.
The antibacterial effects of Cydonia oblonga fruit and seed (ethanolic, acetonic and aquatic extracts) were
studied on some dermatic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus
and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Ethanolic extract of quince seed was the most effective extract. Quince seeds
extracts showed more antibacterial effect compared with Quince fruit. The aquatic extracts didn’t show
antibacterial effect(105)
.
The antibacterial effects of extracts of the fruit and seed of Cydonia oblonga Miller was studied against
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The results showed that the ethanolic
extract of seeds was the most effective. E. coli was the most sensitive bacterium to the extracts, and aqueous
extract only showed antimicrobial effect against E. aerogenes(106)
.
The antimicrobial activity of Cydonia oblonga was studied Cydonia oblonga was performed by the diffusion
method in dishes with disks embedded at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml fruit decoction and
crude extract from Cydonia oblonga leaves, were tested against six bacteria. The crude extract from leaves
showed antibacterial activity, it partially inhibited the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae(107)
.
The antimicrobial effect of extracts from quince fruits was investigated against foodborne pathogenic
(Staphylococcus aureus) strains. The antimicrobial effect was investigated by rapid impedance method. The
antimicrobial effect of extracts was confirmed by decreasing of the integrated area of the impedimetric growth
curve(108)
.
The in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of 33 substances, juices and plant extracts and 35 of their
combinations were tested using an agar diffusion method on Columbia blood agar. Quince (Cydonia oblonga)
juice demonstrated the strongest anti-H. pylori activity followed by cranberry juice(109)
.
The antifungal effects of ethanolic and acetonic extracts of Cydonia oblonga leaves were studied against
Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the Cydonia oblonga extracts inhibited the growth of A. niger and
ethanolic extract was more effective than acetonic extracts(110)
.
 Anti-influenza viral activities of quince fruits phenolic extract was studied. Quince phenolics showed antiinfluenza
viral activity on the hemagglutination inhibition test(87)



Effect on git and smooth muscle contraction of Cydonia

The pharmacological rationalization for the medicinal use of Cydonia oblonga in gut and airways diseases was
investigated. Results showed that the crude extract of Cydonia oblonga seeds (Co.Cr) produced atropine
sensitive spasmodic effects in isolated ileum of guinea-pig and rabbit jejunum preparations. In rabbit jejunum,
Co.Cr also showed relaxant activity at slightly higher concentrations (0.1-10 mg/ml). When analyzed on rabbit
jejunum pre-contracted with K+ (80 mM), the plant extract (0.003-10 mg/ml) produced relaxation. A rightward
shifting of Ca++ dose-response curves along with decline in the maximum response was observed after
pretreatment with Co.Cr (0.003-0.01 mg/ml), which was similar to the effect of verapamil. The crude extract of
Cydonia oblonga seeds (Co.Cr) (0.01-10 mg/ml) relaxed CCh (1 μM) and K+
(80 mM)-induced contractions of isolated rabbit tracheal preparations, similar to the effect produced by verapamil(117)
.
The effect of quince juice (QJ) and quince hydroalcoholic extract (QHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by
TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) was studied in rats. Rats were grouped and fasted for 36 hr before colitis
induction. TNBS was instilled into the colon with a hydroalcoholic carrier and then treated for 5 days starting 6
h after colitis induction with different doses of QJ (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), QHE (200, 500 & 800 mg/kg) orally,
QJ (400 mg/kg) and QHE (200 and 500 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The colon tissue was removed and tissue
damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. The examined doses of QJ and QHE
were effective to reduce the extent of UC lesions, only the greatest doses (500 and 800 mg/kg) resulted in 
significant alleviation. Weight/length ratio as an illustrative of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also
diminished with quince treatments (118)
.
Cydonia oblonga fruit preparations reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion and inhibited castor oil-induced
diarrhoea in mice(119)



Reproductive effect of Cydonia oblonga

The effect of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf decoction was evaluated in testicular injury and impaired
spermatogenesis induced by hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Mature New Zealand white male rabbits were
randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (hypercholesterolemia), group 2 (hypercholesterolemia plus quince
treatment), and group 3 (control). Groups 1 and 2 received a cholesterol-enriched diet for six weeks. Group 2
received Cydonia oblonga leaf decoction as drinking supplement as well. After six weeks, a normal diet was
substituted in groups 1 and 2 for another six weeks. Group 3 (control group) was maintained throughout the
study on a regular diet. At the end of the 12th week, the left testes of the animals were resected for light
microscopic study for evaluation of the maturity of germ cells in seminiferous tubules using Johnsen's score.
Increase in intertubular connective tissue and diameter of vessels, abundant spermatogonia and primary
spermatocytes along the reduced germinal epithelium were noted in all rabbits of the group 1. The animals in
groups 2 and 3 had no significant changes in their testicular sections. The mean Johnsen's score of group 1 (4.20
± 1.92) was significantly lower than that of group 2 (7.33 ± 0.52) and group 3 (7.05 ± 0.07). (p=0.01).
According to the results , authors concluded that quince leaf decoction (Cydonia oblonga) protected rabbit
testes and spermatogenesis from damage induced by hypercholesterolemia(120)
.
 The aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga was studied in Wistar
rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500  and 800 mg/kg bw per day as a single
dose for 28 days. The results showed that after administration of the extract, mounting frequency and the mating
performance of the rats increased highly significantly (p<0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of
treated animals in comparison to non-treated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to
females(121)


.
Dermatological effect of Cydonia oblonga
The healing effect of quince seed mucilage on the skin lesions induced by T-2 toxin was studied in
rabbits. Rabbits received 5, 10, and 15% mucilage treatment. A solution of T-2 toxin (83 mg/ml) in methanol
was prepared and 12 µl were applied on skin twice with 24 h interval. On the day eight, erythema and
inflammation with grown hairs were observed. The complete healing of the skin damage was recorded in
rabbits treated by 10 and 15% guince seed mucilage. The proposed mechanisms of healing effects of quince
seed mucilage were: preventing impaired protein synthesis by T-2 toxin, acting as an obstacle between T-2
toxin and skin along with reducing water evaporation and acting as antioxidant(122)
.
Anticancer effect of Cydona
Moreover the cytotoxic effects of lipophilic quince wax extract (QWE) and an aqueous fermented one (QAFE)
against human HepG2, A549, and HeLa cell lines were evaluated. The two preparations exerted a different
effect on the proliferation of the three tested cell lines. Noteworthy, QAFE was almost always more active than
QWE but, sometimes, its effects seemed to be strongly dependent on exposure time(103)
.
The antiproliferative properties of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf and fruit (pulp, peel, and seed) was
investigated against human kidney and colon cancer cells. Quince leaf and fruit extracts exhibited distinctive
antiproliferative activities. The extracts from quince leaf showed concentration-dependent growth inhibitory
activity toward human colon cancer cells (IC50 = 239.7 ±43.2 microg/ml), while no effect was observed in renal
adenocarcinoma cells. The seed extracts exhibited no effect on colon cancer cell growth, whereas a strong
antiproliferative efficiency against renal cancer cells was observed for the highest concentration assayed (500
microg/ml)(123)
.
Antiinflammatory effect of Cydonia
The anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller was
investigated. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages stimulated secretion of
the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the chemokine IL-8. Quince peel polyphenolic extract inhibited
these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the antiinflammatory
cytokine IL-10 as well as IL-6 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. The increase in IL-6
secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible
for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince
polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors,
nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), p38MAPK and Akt(124)
.
Antidiabetic effect of Cydonia
The antidiabetic activity of quince leaves hydro-ethanolic extract was studied in normal and streptozocininduced
diabetic rats. There was no significant effect on normal rats glucose, while, a significant reduction in
the blood glucose levels was recorded in diabetic rats at a time period of 0 to 3 h(125)
.
Protective effects of Cydonia
The putative role of quince (Cydonia oblonga) leaf extract in protection and/or alleviation of the negative
impacts of UVA on some biochemical and hematological variables was studied in economically important
African catfish. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit were
recorded in the groups exposed to UVA compared to the control groups. Exposure to UVA induced marked red
cell shrinkage (increased mean cell hemoglobin concentration) and showed an elevation in mean cell volume
and mean cell hemoglobin in the blood of the exposed fish compared to the control. A significant (P<0.05)
reduction in the total white blood cells was also recorded in the exposed fish compared to the control. The
biochemical parameters (blood glucose, total plasma protein, blood cholesterol, plasma creatinine, aspartic
amino transferase and alanine amino transferase) were also exhibited a significant increase in the blood of fish
exposed to UVA. Methanolic extract of quince leaf before ripening of the fruits had the ability to prevent
hematotoxic stress induced by UVA and resulted in enhancement of the immune system of catfish represented
by significant (P<0.05) increase in the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes of the catfish. Quince
extract also protected the red blood cells and biochemical parameters from UVA effects(126)
.
The efficacy of quince extracts (Cydonia oblonga) against hyperlipidemia-induced renal injury was studied in
rabbits fed on a cholesterol-rich diet with and without a quince leaf extract supplement. Mild glomerular injury
and moderate tubular damage were apparent in all rabbits in diseased untreated group, while only milder tubular
injury was detected in all animals in groups treated by quince extracts(127)


.
Side effects of Cydonia
Health risks or side effects following the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages were not
recorded. Because quince mucilage was prepared from the whole seeds, and/or the whole seeds are taken
internally, the cyanogenic glycosides are credited with a slight toxicological relevance(128)
.
Dose of Cydonia
It was used as a powder, a lotion, a decoction and an extract. Preparation: Extract/ decoction: 1 tsp. -of whole
seeds per cup of water. A viscous poultice was prepared from the ground seeds(128)
.


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