Cucumus sativus / Augurk

Cucumis sativus
Augurk (Nederlands); Gewürzgurke, Essiggurke (Duits); cornichon (Frans); gherkin (Engels); ? (Italiaans); pepinillo (Spaans)
De Engelse naam is van het oud-Nederlandse gurkkijn of augurkkijn afgeleid.

Geschiedenis
Tot de botanische komkommerfamilie behoren zo’n 300 soorten. Verreweg de meeste komen voor in Afrika. Alleen die ene, waarvan ‘onze’ komkommers en  augurken stammen, komt uit India. Van de zuidelijke hellingen van d Himalaya, om preciezer te zijn. In Azië wordt ze al 3000 jaar verbouwd. Maar de zure augurk was ook al bekend bij de oude volkeren: Mesopotamiërs, Egyptenaren en Grieken. Vanaf zo rond 300 v Chr. De augurk/komkommer bereikte China rond 200 v Chr.
Op het oog zijn sommige kleinere komkommers niet te onderscheiden van grotere augurken. Augurken zijn in feite voor dat doel geselecteerde komkommerrassen.

In Duitsland zijn de Spreewälder Gurken, uit de deelstaat Brandenburg, een bekend fenomeen. Het is een door de EU beschermd streekproduct. De Spree is een rivier die door Berlijn loopt. Lees er hier meer over (Duitse Wikipedia).

Culinair
Augurken worden jong geplukt en moeten worden ingemaakt. Meestal in het zuur. Voor inmaken: zie hier.
(Zoet-)zure augurken worden gebruikt voor hartige hapjes, in remouladesaus, in salades, enzovoorts.

Voedingswaarde
Per 100 gram zure augurken:
caloriën laag: 11 kcal
mineralen: redelijke hoeveelheid (kalium, fosfor, magnesium); veel natrium: 1208
vitaminen nauwelijks, m.u.v. vitamine K

Rassen
Hokus: late oogst, mooie vruchten, bittervrij, vatbaar voor meeldauw, tegenvallende opbrengst bij slechte zomers (telen wij).
Venlose Nietplekker: gladde fijnbehaarde vruchten
Kleine Groene Scherpe Parijse (Vert Petit de Paris): traditioneel, wratachtig ras. Gevoelig voor ziekten en niet bittervrij. (Dus er kunnen behoorlijk bittere augurken tussen zitten.)
Er zijn ook bittervrije, meer ziektebestendige en meeldauwresistente hybriden: Stimora F1, Meresto F1, Wilma F1, Levina F1.

Wetenschappelijk onderzoek
Arch Dermatol Res. 2011 May;303(4):247-52. doi: 10.1007/s00403-010-1103-y. Epub 2010 Dec 14.
Cucumis sativus fruit-potential antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-elastase agent.
The aim of this study was to screen the antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-elastase activity of the lyophilized juice of Cucumis sativus fruit (CSLJ). The CSLJ was subjected to DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging assay in reference to butylated hydroxytoluene. The hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory assay was performed in reference to oleanolic acid. Furthermore, the activities have been rationalized with HPLC analysis of the CSLJ with standard reference compound of ascorbic acid. The CSLJ exhibited DPPH-free radical and superoxide radical scavenging activity, IC(50) at a concentration of 14.73 ± 1.42 and 35.29 ± 1.30 μg/mL, respectively. The CSLJ also showed strong anti-hyaluronidase ((c) P < 0.001) and anti-elastase ((c) P < 0.001) activity, IC(50) at a concentration of 20.98 ± 1.78 and 6.14 ± 1.74 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC 'chromatogram' of standard and CSLJ showed specific peak at retention time 2.905 and 3.066 min, respectively. Content of ascorbic acid was calculated with respect to the standard compound and it was found to be 3.5 ± 0.23% w/w. CSLJ is the rich source of ascorbic acid and this study thereby rationalizes the use of C. sativus as potential anti-wrinkle agent in cosmetic products.

Clin Interv Aging. 2018 Oct 25;13:2119-2126. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S173227. eCollection 2018.
Effectiveness of Cucumis sativus extract versus glucosamine-chondroitin in the management of moderate osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related disease caused by the wear and tear of the joints. Presently, there is no known cure for OA, but its management involves the use of high doses of pain killers and antiinflammatory agents with different side and dependency effects. Alternative management strategies involve the use of high doses of glucosamine-chondroitin (GC). This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Q-Actin™, an aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus (cucumber; CSE) against GC in the management of moderate knee OA.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Overall, 122 patients (56 males and 66 females) aged between 40 and 75 years and diagnosed with moderate knee OA were included in this randomized double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial that took place in three different centers. The 180 day intervention involved two groups of 61 participants in each: the GC group, which received orally the generally prescribed dose of 1,350 mg of GC twice daily and the CSE group, which received orally10 mg twice daily of CSE. The Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Visual Analog scale, and Lequesne's Functional Index were used to evaluate pain, stiffness, and physical function of knee OA in participants at baseline (Day 0) and on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180.

RESULTS:
In the CSE group, the WOMAC score was decreased by 22.44% and 70.29% on Days 30 and 180, respectively, compared to a 14.80% and 32.81% decrease in the GC group. Similar trends were observed for all the other pain scores. No adverse effect was reported during the trial period.

CONCLUSION:
The use of 10 mg CSE, twice daily, was effective in reducing pain related to moderate knee OA and can be potentially used in the management of knee pain, stiffness, and physical functions related to OA.

Bioimpacts. 2016;6(1):33-9. doi: 10.15171/bi.2016.05. Epub 2016 Mar 28.
Protective mechanisms of Cucumis sativus in diabetes-related modelsof oxidative stress and carbonyl stress.
Oxidative stress and carbonyl stress have essential mediatory roles in the development of diabetes and its related complications through increasing free radicals production and impairing antioxidant defense systems. Different chemical and natural compounds have been suggested for decreasing such disorders associated with diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) fruit (cucumber) in oxidative and carbonyl stress models. These diabetes-related models with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) simulate conditions observed in chronic hyperglycemia.

METHODS:
Cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonyl stress model) were measured and the protective effects of C. sativus were evaluated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

RESULTS:
Aqueous extract of C. sativus fruit (40 μg/mL) prevented all cytotoxicity markers in both the oxidative and carbonyl stress models including cell lysis, ROS formation, membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal labialization, and proteolysis. The extract also protected hepatocytes from protein carbonylation induced by glyoxal. Our results indicated that C. sativus is able to prevent oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in the isolated hepatocytes.

CONCLUSION:
It can be concluded that C. sativus has protective effects in diabetes complications and can be considered a safe and suitable candidate for decreasing the oxidative stress and carbonyl stress that is typically observed in diabetes mellitus.


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