Coreopsis tinctoria / Meisjesogen


Coreopsis tinctoria of meisjesogen is een weinig eisende eenjarige plant met ranke stengels en fijn ingesneden blad. De bloemen variëren van goudgeel met roodbruine vlek in het hart tot geheel roodbruin. Het is een goede snijbloem en verfplant die bloeit van juli tot in september. De plant wordt zo'n 60 centimeter hoog.
Ter plekke zaaien vanaf eind april tot mei en vanaf half mei de jonge planten op een zonnige plek uitplanten, een plantafstand van ongeveer 20 centimeter aanhouden. 



Coréopsis
Originaire d’Amérique centrale et du Sud, cette jolie plante de la famille des astéracées est cultivée comme ornementale dans de nombreux pays. Les pétales jaunes contiennent entre autres des anthocyanes et des fl avonoïdes. Au Pérou, on la trouve sous le nom de Pahuau. On s’en sert pour teindre des draps en orange, plus ou moins intense selon la quantité de fl eurs utilisées. On peut aussi nuancer la couleur par des bains de lessive de cendres. La teinture au Pahuau sert également de «pied»* de teinture pour obtenir plusieurs tons composés. Les couleurs obtenues sont assez solides au lavage, un peu moins à la lumière.

Historique :
Le coréopsis est peu référencé dans la littérature mais fait probablement partie des sources de teintures jaune à orange des civilisations précolombiennes d’Amérique centrale et du sud. Les Cherokees et les Apaches utilisaient le Coréopsis comme source de colorant rouge.

Biochimie – Phytochimie :
Les flavonoïdes contenus dans le Coréopsis sont un mélange de chalcones et d'aurones (encore appelés pigments antochlores) dont les structures ne sont connues que depuis le milieu du 20ème S.



Cytoprotective effect of Coreopsis tinctoria extracts and flavonoids on tBHP and cytokine-induced cell injury in pancreatic MIN6 cells. Teresa Dias a, Bo Liub, Peter Jones b, Peter J. Houghtonc, Helder Mota-Filipea, Alexandra Pauloa,∗
Ethopharmacological relevance: Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops infusion is traditionally used in Portugal for treating the symptoms of diabetes. Recent studies have revealed its antihyperglycemic activity when administered for 3 weeks to a STZ-induced glucose intolerance model in the rat and glucose tolerance regain was even clearer and pancreatic function recovery was achieved when administering Coreopsis tinctoria flavonoid-rich AcOEt fraction.
In this study we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops aqueous extract, AcOEt fraction and the pure compounds marein and flavanomarein, against beta-cell injury, in a mouse insulinoma cell line (MIN6) challenged with pro-oxidant tert-Butyl-Hydroperoxide (tBHP) or cytokines.

Materials and methods: The protective effects of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops extracts and pure compound were evaluated through pre-incubating MIN6 cells with samples followed by treatment with tBHP (400 M for 2 h) after which viability was determined through ATP measurements. In order to assess whether plant extracts were involved in decreasing reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion production was determined through a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescent method. Lastly, the direct influence of Coreopsis tinctoria extracts and main compounds 
on cell survival/apoptosis was determined measuring caspase 3 and 7 cleavage induced by cytokines.

Results: Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops extracts (25–100 g/mL) and pure compounds (200–400 M), when pre-incubated with MIN6 cells did not present any cytotoxicity, instead they increased cell viability in a dose dependent manner when challenged with tBHP. Treatment with this pro-oxidant also showed a rise in superoxide radical anion formation in MIN6 cells. This increase was significantly reduced by treatment with superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) but not by pre-treatment with Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops extracts. Caspase 3/7 activation measurements show that Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops extracts, as well as marein and flavanomarein, significantly inhibit apoptosis.
Conclusions: Coreopsis tinctoria extracts and pure compounds show cytoprotection that seems to be due to inhibition of the apoptotic pathway, and not through a decrease on superoxide radical production.



Central European Journal of Chemistry Cent. Eur. J. Chem. • 12(8) • 2014 • 858-867
Polyphenols in Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. fruits and the plant extracts antioxidant capacity evaluation
The aim of this research was to investigate the chemical composition of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. fruits extract, to highlight the potential
of ultrasound assisted extraction in the fast preparation of extracts rich in polyphenols using different solvents (55%, 78% and 96%
hydrous ethanol) and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of formulated extracts. LC-MS/MS was used to characterize the ethanolic
extract from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. dried fruits. The extract contains different flavonoids (marein, flavanomarein, quercetagetin-7-
O-glucoside, okanin aurone, leptosidin, luteolin, apigenin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid). Several parameters that
could affect extraction efficiency were evaluated. Finally, this study focused on determination of plant extracts total phenolic content and
their antioxidant capacity. The experimental results allowed the selection of the optimum operating parameters leading to the highest
total polyphenolic content, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, and avoiding the degradation of phenolic compounds (ethanol 55%;
extraction temperature 323.15 K, extraction time 30 min, liquid/solid ratio 20/1). A good relationship between total phenolic content and
antioxidant capacity was obtained
file:///C:/Users/Godefridi/Downloads/s11532-014-0539-x.pdf



Coreopsis, Een bekende kleurstofplant maar verrassend zijn ook de wetenschappelijk beschreven geneeskrachtige eigenschappen.

Endocrinology. 2015 Jun;156(6):2006-18. doi: 10.1210/en.2015-1015. Epub 2015 Mar 16.
The Flower Tea Coreopsis tinctoria Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Regulates Hepatic Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.
Jiang B1, Le L, Wan W, Zhai W, Hu K, Xu L, Xiao P.
An infusion of Coreopsis tinctoria (CT) flowering tops is traditionally used in Portugal to control hyperglycemia; however, the effects of CT protection against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic insulin resistance have not been systematically studied and the precise mechanism of action is not clear. The metabolomic profiles of insulin-resistant rats fed a HFD and a CT-supplemented diet (HFD supplemented with CT drinking) for 8 weeks were investigated. Serum samples for clinical biochemistry and liver samples for histopathology and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic research were collected. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were further used to measure the expression of several relevant enzymes together with perturbed metabolic pathways. Using analysis software, the CT treatment was found to significantly ameliorate the disturbance in 10 metabolic pathways. Combined metabolomic, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that CT treatment significantly improved the glucose homeostasis by, on the one hand, through inhibiting the expression of gluconeogenic pathway key proteins glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and, on the other hand, via regulating the mRNA or protein levels of the Krebs cycle critical enzymes (citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein, and dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase). These results provide metabolic evidence of the complex pathogenic mechanism involved in hepatic insulin resistance and that the supplementation with CT improves insulin resistance at a global scale. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approaches are helpful to further understand diabetes-related mechanisms.

Flavonoids furom Coreopsis tinctoria adjust lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia animals by down-regulating adipose differentiation-related protein
Yali Li, Xinmei Chen, Jie Xue, Jiangyun Liu, Xinhua Chen, Muhuyati Wulasihan
To identify the chemical structure of Coreopsis tinctoria extracts and their effect and mechanism on reducing blood lipid in hyperlipemia mice.
Methods
The flavonoids were extracted from Coreopsis tinctoria. The chemical structure was identified by HPLC. 59 mice were divided randomly into 5 groups. (group 1: normal diet control; group 2: hyperlipemia model; group 3: hyperlipemia mice treated with Coreopsis tinctoria, low dose 100 mg/kg; group 4: hyperlipemia mice treated with Coreopsis tinctoria high dose group 200 mg/kg; group 5 hyperlipemia mice treated with Fenofibrate. After 2 week of hyperlipid diet, the treatment of Coreopsis tinctoria and Fenofibrate were given for another 6 weeks with continuous hyperlipid diet. The TC, TG, HDL, histology, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) expression in different groups were compared.
Results
Compared with normal diet group, TC, TG in hyperlipemia model group increased ( P < 0. 01). After treatment with Coreopsis tinctoria low dose group, high dose group, TC of the hyperlipemia mice decreased (P < 0. 05) without increasing AST, ALT and ALP. Fenofibrate can also decrease TC and TG but increase AST, ALT and ALP. Expression of hepatic ADRP increased in hyperlipemia mice. Coreopsis tinctoria high dose group 200 mg/kg can inhibit ADRP as Fenofibrate does.
Conclusion
The flavonoids from Coreopsis tinctoria extracts can reduce blood lipid without liver function damage, showing better anti- hyperlipemia effect than Fenofibrate by down-regulating ADRP.

Coreopsis Tinctoria Nutt Protect Human Liver Cell from Oxidative Damage and Exhibit Antioxidant Capability
Background:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect and the mechanism of total extract and two isolated compounds derived from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. on human hepatocyte LO2 injured by hydrogen peroxide in vitro. 
Methods: The chemical compounds of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. were isolated and identified. The cell model with oxidative damage was set up by adding H2O2 in normal liver cell LO2. LO2 cells were pre-incubated with Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt compounds to test cell viability, nitric oxide release, caspase activity and apoptosis. The protective effect against oxidative damage were measured and the mechanism was analyzed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS+• radical-scavenging assay and reducing power (Fe3+) assay
Results: The study showed that incubation with Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt caused significant increase in the viability of LO2 cell, decrease of nitric oxide release, caspase activity and cell apoptosis in LO2 cell injured by hydrogen peroxide. The Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt and its two compounds showed antioxidant abilities.
Conclusions: Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt protect normal human liver cells against oxidative induced DNA damage and apoptosis by reducing nitric oxide release. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·), donating electron (e).

References
  • Demo A, Petrakis Ch, Kefalas P, Boskou D. Nutrient antioxidants in some herbs and mediterranean plant leaves. Food Res Int. 1998;32:351–4.
  • Dias T, Liu B, Jones P, Houghton PJ, Mota-Filipe H, Paulo A. Cytoprotective effect of Coreopsis tinctoria extracts and flavonoids on tBHP and cytokine-induced cell injury in pancreatic MIN6 cells.J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jan 31;139(2):485-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.11.038. Epub 2011 Nov 28.
  • Dias T, Bronze MR, Houghton PJ, Mota-Filipe H, Paulo A. The flavonoid-rich fraction of Coreopsis tinctoria promotes glucose tolerance regain through pancreatic function recovery in streptozotocin-induced glucose-intolerant rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Nov 11;132(2):483-90. [PubMed: 20813179]
  • Eugene NO, Jude CI, Catherine CI, Augustine AU. Quantitative high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of simple terpenes, carotenoids, phytosterols and flavonoids in the leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana Muell Arg. Pac J Sci Technol. 2010;11:480–7.
  • Sanchez-Moreno C, Larrauri JA, Saura-Calixto F. Free radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of lipid oxidation of wines, grape juices and related polyphenolic constituents. Food Res Int. 1999;32:407–12.
  • Sun YH, Zhao J, Jin HT, Cao Y, Ming T, Zhang LL, Hu MY, Hamlati H, Pang SB, Ma XP.Vasorelaxant effects of the extracts and some flavonoid from the buds of Coreopsis tinctoria. Pharm Biol. 2013 Sep;51(9):1158-64.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Sep 7;15:314. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0826-x.
The anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal damage in rats. Yao L1, Li L2, Li X3, Li H4, Zhang Y5, Zhang R6, Wang J7, Mao X8.
BACKGROUND:
Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes whose development process is associated with inflammation, renal hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt, traditionally used as a healthcare tea, has anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, and glycemic regulation activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the renal protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of C. tinctoria Nutt (AC) on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
METHODS:
A diabetic rat model was induced by high-glucose-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg STZ. After treatment with AC at a daily dose of 150, 300 or, 600 mg/kg for 4 weeks, metabolic and renal function parameters of serum and urine were examined. Degree of renal damage, renal proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrotic protein expression were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Renal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad signaling pathway were determined by western blotting.
RESULTS:
Diabetic rats showed obvious renal dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. However, AC significantly reduced levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary albumin, as well as expression of kidney proinflammatory cytokines of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. AC also ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis by reducing fibronectin and collagen IV and suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Meanwhile, AMPKα as a protective cytokine was markedly stimulated by AC.
CONCLUSION:
In summary, AC controls blood glucose, inhibits inflammatory and fibrotic processes, suppresses the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, and activates phosphorylation of AMPKα in the kidneys, which confirms the protective effects of AC in the early stage of diabetic kidney disease.

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