Cichorium intybus / Wilde cichorei

Wilde cichorei, vergeten wegenwachter

Wilde cichorei! Deze stijve groene plant is weinig opvallend, om niet te zeggen slordig maar als de stengel doorschiet en dan uiteindelijk zijn hemelsblauwe bloemen vertoond, ontdekken we heel even de verborgen schoonheid van onze wegenwachter.
Cichorei is zo wie zo een plant die vele gedaanteveranderingen kan ondergaan. Is het niet de verborgen moederplant van groenten zoals Andijvie, Groenlof en de succesvolle Witloof. Alleen als geneeskrachtige plant is hij uit de actualiteit verdwenen.

Cichorium intybus
Zijn wetenschappelijke naam Cichorium intybus verwijst mogelijk naar zijn klassieke groeiplaats langs de wegen. Daar is uiteraard de Nederlandse naam cichorei van afgeleid en omdat die nogal moeilijk uit te spreken was, werd hij gemakkelijk vervormd tot Suikerij, hoewel de plant niets met suiker te maken heeft. De wortel smaakt zelfs bitter. Het is dus zuiver een klankverbastering. Deze naam is op vele plaatsen in ons land in gebruik geweest, met de nodige dialectische en gewestelijke vormen zoals Soekerij, Sokerij, Sokkerei, Succoreye, Suikerijlof, Sükerei, Sukereiwoartel, Tsukerei. Deze verbasterde namen zijn van ten andere van alle tijden, we komen ze al tegen in 1514 als Succoreie en als Zukorey.

Bittere, zwijnensla
De naam Molsla, die ook aan paardenbloem gegeven werd, slaat op het verbleekte blad dat eveneens wordt gegeten. De namen Bitter pee, Bitterpeen, Bitterij en Bittere, zoals wij hem als kind kenden, verwijzen weer naar de bitter smakende wortel, het deel van de plant dat ook medicinaal, voor de lever en als spijsverteringbevorderend middel gebruikt wordt. Dezelfde wortel werd ook als voer voor varkens beschouwd. Hierop wijzen de volksnamen Zwijnensalade en Zwijnensla. De naam Korenbloem, duidt alleen op de overeenkomst met de echte korenbloem, beiden bezitten hemelsblauwe bloemen.

De naam Duitse koffie heeft de volgende geschiedenis: Vanwege de hoge prijs van koffie zocht men naar een vervangingsmiddel. Zo vonden in 1775 twee Franse artsen, Harpong en Brunon, de geroosterde en gemalen wortel goed om als surrogaat voor koffie te dienen. Vanwege het continentale stelsel, in het Napoleontische tijdperk, kreeg deze pee-koffie grote bekendheid, want import van echte koffie was niet mogelijk. Dr. Uittien (1946) sprak over het gebruik van cichorei ter vervanging van koffie over 'het verdriet voor de menschen'. Ze spraken zelfs over Chagrin in plaats van cichorei. Het ging soms zover dat er gesproken werd van een pakje Sacherijn of een pakje Verdriet.

Hemelsleutel, Hupaardje
Op Walcheren maakten ze het zich ook gemakkelijk, daar noemen ze de plant Hupaardje, Heukels zegt dat men van het Paardje sprak, omdat de grootste cichoreifabriek.een paardje als merk had. De naam hemelsleutel, reeds in 1514 als Hemelslotel, Hemelslotele in de Ortis Sanitatis opgenomen, is te verklaren omdat men geloofde dat een plant met zulke prachtige hemelsblauwe bloemen, uit de hemel gevallen moest zijn. Ook vertelde men elkaar dat Petrus eens zijn sleutels op de aarde had laten vallen. Toen de engelen de sleutels terughaalden, groeide op die plaats waar de sleutels de grond geraakt hadden, de Cichorei.

Dat het een hemelsbloem is vind je ook terug in volgende legende: Een kindje loopt langs de akker op een stralende zomermorgen. Diep blauw welft zich de hernelkoepel over het gelende korenveld. En hier en daar tussen de wuivende aren ziet het bloemhoofdjes verscholen, oh kijk! Ook langs de kant! Even blauw als de hemel daarboven. Pakken wil het kind al die kopjes van stralend diep blauw en het rukt aan de taaie stengels, oh het trekt de hele planten uit de grond! Moeder! Korenbloemen! Kijk eens hoe blauw! En de moeder neemt het veldboeket en vertelt hoe die blauwe bloemen; korenbloemen, cichorei, vergeet-mij-nietjes, druppels van het hemelblauw, op de aarde gevallen zijn. En hoe zij altijd weer naar de hemel terug verlangen, en daarom zich rekken op hoge stelen en maar heel losjes wortelen in de aarde. Hemelbloemen zijn het, de cichorei een druppel zacht lenteblauw.

Wegenwachter
De naam Wegewachter heeft zeer oude papieren. Vroeger was het kruid dan ook symbool van trouw. De namen Wegenwachter, Wegwarte, Wegenwaarte en Verwenste Juffer zijn vele sagen in omloop, ook in andere landen. Een legende van een middeleeuwse ziel klinkt zo: 'Een jonkvrouw was verloofd met een dappere ridder, die met een kruistocht mede ging, en niets meer van zich liet horen. Haar vader wilde haar dwingen met een andere man te trouwen of in een klooster te gaan. Maar zij wilde op haar bruidegom wachten. Haar vader vervloekte haar; 'Blijf dan in alle eeuwigheid aan de weg staan om hem op te wachten!' daarop veranderde de trouwe jonkvrouw in de hemelsblauwe wegenwachter.

En daar, langs de weg, wachten zij nog altijd, al beginnen die blauwe bloemen wel hun geduld te verliezen. We vinden ze in elk geval steeds minder langs onze wegen. Wegewachter! Wegenwachter! Op wie moet jij nog wachten? Wie heeft jou nog nodig?



The genus Cichorium (Asteraceae) consists of six species with major distribution areas in Europe and Asia [1]. In several Asteraceae, inulin, a β-2,1 linked fructose polymer with a terminal glucose residue, functions as a reserve carbohydrate in stems, tubers, and taproots [2]. Cichorium intybus L., commonly known as chicory, is an erect fairly woody perennial herb, around 1 m in height with a fleshy taproot of up to 75 cm in length and large basal leaves [1, 3]. Historically, chicory was grown by the ancient Egyptians as a medicinal plant, coffee substitute, and vegetable crop and was occasionally used for animal forage. In the 1970s, it was discovered that the root of C. intybus contained up to 40% inulin, which has a negligible impact on blood sugar and thus is suitable for diabetics [4]. To date, C. intybus is grown for the production of inulin on an industrial scale [2]. The name of the plant is derived from Greek and Latin. Cichorium means field and intybus is partly derived from the Greek “to cut”, because of the leaves, and partly from the Latin tubus to indicate the hollow stem [5].

Chicory is a hardy plant and can endure extreme temperatures during both vegetative and reproductive growth stages [1]. When broken, all plant parts exudate a milky latex [3]. Cichorium intybus is cultivated for numerous applications and can be divided into four main varieties or cultigroups according to their use [6]: (1) “industrial” or “root” chicory, predominantly cultivated in northwestern Europe, India, South Africa, and Chile, produces the taproot as a coffee substitute or for inulin extraction; (2) “Brussels” or “witloof” chicory is commonly cultivated around Europe as industrial chicory for etiolated buds (chicons) by forcing; (3) “leaf” chicory is used as fresh or cooked vegetables; and (4) “forage” chicory, initially derived from wild chicory commonly found along roadsides and waste areas, has been used since the mid-1970s to intensify herbage obtainability in perennial pastures for livestock.

Cichorium intybus is a medicinally important plant in Eurasia and in parts of Africa. Despite its long tradition of use, the plant is not described in the European Pharmacopoeia or in any official Pharmacopoeia of a European Union member state [5]. However, due to its prevalent distribution, different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicines globally [7]. Important phytochemicals are distributed throughout the plant, but the main contents are present in the root [1]. 

References

1. Bais HP, Ravishankar GA. Cichorium intybus L.—cultivation, processing, utility, value addition and biotechnology, with an emphasis on current status and future prospects. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2001;81(5):467–484.
2. van Arkel J, Vergauwen R, Sévenier R, et al. Sink filling, inulin metabolizing enzymes and carbohydrate status in field grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) Journal of Plant Physiology. 2012;169(15):1520–1529.[PubMed]
3. van Wyk BE, van Oudtshoorn B, Gericke N. Medicinal Plants of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications; 1997.
4. Judžentienė A, Būdienė J. Volatile constituents from aerial parts and roots of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) grown in Lithuania. Chemija. 2008;19:25–28.
5. European Medicines Agency. Assessment report on Cichorium intybus L., radix. EMA/HMPC/113041/2010, 2013.



Wetenschappelijk onderzoek Cichorium

1. Bais HP, Ravishankar GA. Cichorium intybus L.—cultivation, processing, utility, value addition and biotechnology, with an emphasis on current status and future prospects. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2001;81(5):467–484.
2. van Arkel J, Vergauwen R, Sévenier R, et al. Sink filling, inulin metabolizing enzymes and carbohydrate status in field grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) Journal of Plant Physiology. 2012;169(15):1520–1529.[PubMed]
3. van Wyk BE, van Oudtshoorn B, Gericke N. Medicinal Plants of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications; 1997.
4. Judžentienė A, Būdienė J. Volatile constituents from aerial parts and roots of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) grown in Lithuania. Chemija. 2008;19:25–28.
5. European Medicines Agency. Assessment report on Cichorium intybus L., radix. EMA/HMPC/113041/2010, 2013.
6. Cadalen T, Mörchen M, Blassiau C, et al. Development of SSR markers and construction of a consensus genetic map for chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) Molecular Breeding. 2010;25(4):699–722.
7. Süntar I, Akkola EK, Kelesb H, Yesiladac E, Sarkerd SD, Baykala T. Comparative evaluation of traditional prescriptions from Cichorium intybus L. for wound healing: stepwise isolation of an active component by in vivo bioassay and its mode of activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012;143(1):299–309. [PubMed]
8. Gurib-Fakim A. Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 2006;27(1):1–93. [PubMed]
9. Wang Q, Cui J. Perspectives and utilization technologies of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): a review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10(11):1966–1977.
10. Sezik E, Yeşilada E, Honda G, Takaishi Y, Takeda Y, Tanaka T. Traditional medicine in Turkey X. Folk medicine in Central Anatolia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001;75(2-3):95–115. [PubMed]
11. European Medicines Agency. Community herbal monograph on Cichorium intybus L., radix. EMA/HMPC/121816/2010, 2012.
12. Bischoff TA, Kelley CJ, Karchesy Y, Laurantos M, Nguyen-Dinh P, Arefi AG. Antimalarial activity of Lactucin and Lactucopicrin: sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Cichorium intybus L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;95(2-3):455–457. [PubMed]
13. Pieroni A. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000;70(3):235–273. [PubMed]
14. Ahmed B, Al-Howiriny TA, Siddiqui AB. Antihepatotoxic activity of seeds of Cichorium intybus . Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;87(2-3):237–240. [PubMed]
15. Hanlidou E, Karousou R, Kleftoyanni V, Kokkini S. The herbal market of Thessaloniki (N Greece) and its relation to the ethnobotanical tradition. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;91(2-3):281–299. [PubMed]
16. Jarić S, Popović Z, Mačukanović-Jocić M, et al. An ethnobotanical study on the usage of wild medicinal herbs from Kopaonik Mountain (Central Serbia) Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;111(1):160–175.[PubMed]
17. Pushparaj PN, Low HK, Manikandan J, Tan BKH, Tan CH. Anti-diabetic effects of Cichorium intybusin streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;111(2):430–434. [PubMed]
18. Carazzone C, Mascherpa D, Gazzani G, Papetti A. Identification of phenolic constituents in red chicory salads (Cichorium intybus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 2013;138:1062–1071. [PubMed]
19. Norbak R, Nielsen K, Kondo T. Anthocyanins from flowers of Cichorium intybus . Phytochemistry. 2002;60(4):357–359. [PubMed]
20. Suresh B, Sherkhane PD, Kale S, Eapen S, Ravishankar GA. Uptake and degradation of DDT by hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus and Brassica juncea . Chemosphere. 2005;61(9):1288–1292. [PubMed]
21. Gazzani G, Daglia M, Papetti A, Gregotti C. In vitro and ex vivo anti- and prooxidant components of Cichorium intybus . Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 2000;23(1):127–133. [PubMed]
22. Shaikh T, Rub RA, Sasikumar S. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2012
23. Nandagopal S, Kumari RBD. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)—a multipurpose medicinal plant. Advances in Biological Research. 2007;1(1-2):17–21.
24. Rani P, Khullar N. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi . Phytotherapy Research. 2004;18(8):670–673. [PubMed]
25. Mares D, Romagnoli C, Tosi B, Andreotti E, Chillemi G, Poli F. Chicory extracts from Cichorium intybus L. as potential antifungals. Mycopathologia. 2005;160(1):85–91. [PubMed]
26. Monde K, Oya T, Shirata A, Takasugi M. A guaianolide phytoalexin, cichoralexin, from Cichorium intybus . Phytochemistry. 1990;29(11):3449–3451.
27. Miller MC, Duckett SK, Andrae JG. The effect of forage species on performance and gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs. Small Ruminant Research. 2011;95(2-3):188–192.
28. Marley CL, Cook R, Keatinge R, Barrett J, Lampkin NH. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites. Veterinary Parasitology. 2003;112(1-2):147–155. [PubMed]
29. Molan AL, Duncan AJ, Barry TN, McNabb WC. Effects of condensed tannins and crude sesquiterpene lactones extracted from chicory on the motility of larvae of deer lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes. Parasitology International. 2003;52(3):209–218. [PubMed]
30. Foster JG, Cassida KA, Turner KE. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominantly Haemonchus contortus egg population. Veterinary Parasitology. 2011;180(3-4):298–306. [PubMed]
31. Leclercq E. Determination of lactucin in roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A. 1984;283:441–444.
32. Fallah Huseini H, Alavian SM, Heshmat R, Heydari MR, Abolmaali K. The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(9):619–624. [PubMed]
33. Najmi AK, Pillai KK, Pal SN, Aqil M. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity of jigrine against galactosamine induced hepatopathy in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005;97(3):521–525.[PubMed]
34. Gilani AH, Janbaz KH. Evaluation of the liver protective potential of Cichorium intybus seed extract on acetaminophen and CC14-induced damage. Phytomedicine. 1994;1(3):193–197. [PubMed]
35. Zafar R, Mujahid Ali S. Anti-hepatotoxic effects of root and root callus extracts of Cichorium intybus L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998;63(3):227–231. [PubMed]
36. Gilani AH, Janbaz KH, Shah BH. Esculetin prevents liver damage induced by paracetamol and CCL4 . Pharmacological Research. 1998;37(1):31–35. [PubMed]
37. Ahmed B, Khan S, Masood MH, Siddique AH. Anti-hepatotoxic activity of cichotyboside, a sesquiterpene glycoside from the seeds of Cichorium intybus . Journal of Asian Natural Products Research. 2008;10(3-4):223–231. [PubMed]
38. Gadgoli C, Mishra SH. Antihepatotoxic activity of Cichorium intybus . Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1997;58(2):131–134. [PubMed]
39. Ziamajidi N, Khaghania S, Hassanzadeh G, et al. Amelioration by chicory seed extract of diabetes- and oleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) via modulation of PPAR-alpha and SREBP-1. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;58:198–209. [PubMed]
40. Sultana S, Perwaiz S, Iqbal M, Athar M. Crude extracts of hepatoprotective plants, solanum nigrum and cichoriunz intybus inhibit free radical-mediated DNA damage. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995;45(3):189–192. [PubMed]
41. Hardeep FM, Pandey DK. Anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of chicory roots in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Pharmacy. 2013;3(1):211–216.
42. Ghamarian A, Abdollahi M, Su X, Amiri A, Ahadi A, Nowrouzi A. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;20:56–65. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
43. Ahmad M, Qureshi R, Arshad M, Khan MA, Zafar M. Traditional herbal remedies used for the treatment of diabetes from district attock (Pakistan) Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2009;41(6):2777–2782.
44. Tousch D, Lajoix A-D, Hosy E, et al. Chicoric acid, a new compound able to enhance insulin release and glucose uptake. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2008;377(1):131–135.[PubMed]
45. Gürbüz I, Üstün O, Yeşilada E, Sezik E, Akyürek N. In vivo gastroprotective effects of five Turkish folk remedies against ethanol-induced lesions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;83(3):241–244. [PubMed]
46. Cavin C, Delannoy M, Malnoe A, et al. Inhibition of the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 by chicory extract. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2005;327(3):742–749. [PubMed]
47. Wesołowska A, Nikiforuk A, Michalska K, Kisiel W, Chojnacka-Wójcik E. Analgesic and sedative activities of lactucin and some lactucin-like guaianolides in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;107(2):254–258. [PubMed]
48. Heimler D, Isolani L, Vignolini P, Romani A. Polyphenol content and antiradical activity of Cichorium intybus L. from biodynamic and conventional farming. Food Chemistry. 2009;114(3):765–770.
49. Papetti A, Daglia M, Grisoli P, Dacarro C, Gregotti C, Gazzani G. Anti- and pro-oxidant activity of Cichorium genus vegetables and effect of thermal treatment in biological systems. Food Chemistry. 2006;97(1):157–165. [PubMed]
50. Lavelli V. Antioxidant activity of minimally processed red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) evaluated in xanthine oxidase-, myeloperoxidase-, and diaphorase-catalyzed reactions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;56(16):7194–7200. [PubMed]
51. Pieroni A, Janiak V, Dürr CM, Lüdeke S, Trachsel E, Heinrich M. In vitro antioxidant activity of non-cultivated vegetables of ethnic Albanians in southern Italy. Phytotherapy Research. 2002;16(5):467–473.[PubMed]
52. El SN, Karakaya S. Radical scavenging and iron-chelating activities of some greens used as traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2004;55(1):67–74.[PubMed]
53. Hazra B, Sarkar R, Bhattacharyya S, Roy P. Tumour inhibitory activity of chicory root extract against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Fitoterapia. 2002;73(7-8):730–733. [PubMed]
54. Conforti F, Ioele G, Statti GA, Marrelli M, Ragno G, Menichini F. Antiproliferative activity against human tumor cell lines and toxicity test on Mediterranean dietary plants. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008;46(10):3325–3332. [PubMed]
55. Lee K-T, Kim J-I, Park H-J, Yoo K-O, Han Y-N, Miyamoto K-I. Differentiation-inducing effect of magnolialide, a 1β-hydroxyeudesmanolide isolated from Cichorium intybus, on human leukemia cells. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2000;23(8):1005–1007. [PubMed]
56. Kim HM, Kim HW, Lyu YS, et al. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions by Cichorium intybus . Pharmacological Research. 1999;40(1):61–65. [PubMed]
57. Kim J-H, Mun Y-J, Woo W-H, Jeon K-S, An N-H, Park J-S. Effects of the ethanol extract of Cichorium intybus on the immunotoxicity by ethanol in mice. International Immunopharmacology. 2002;2(6):733–744.[PubMed]
58. Amirghofran Z, Azadbakht M, Karimi MH. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of five herbal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000;72(1-2):167–172. [PubMed]
59. Sakurai N, Iizuka T, Nakayama S, Funayama H, Noguchi M, Nagai M. Vasorelaxant activity of caffeic acid derivatives from Cichorium intybus and Equisetum arvense . Yakugaku Zasshi. 2003;123(7):593–598.[PubMed]
60. Rollinger JM, Mock P, Zidorn C, Ellmerer EP, Langer T, Stuppner H. Application of the in combo screening approach for the discovery of non-alkaloid acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Cichorium intybus . Current Drug Discovery Technologies. 2005;2(3):185–193. [PubMed]
61. Schmidt BM, Ilic N, Poulev A, Raskin I. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2007;45(7):1131–1139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
62. Olsen NJ, Branch VK, Jonnala G, Seskar M, Cooper M. Phase 1, placebo-controlled, dose escalation trial of chicory root extract in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010;11, article 156(1) [PMC free article] [PubMed]
63. Schumacher E, Vigh É, Molnár V, et al. Thrombosis preventive potential of chicory coffee consumption: a clinical study. Phytotherapy Research. 2011;25(5):744–748. [PubMed]
64. Vanstreels E, Lammertyn J, Verlinden BE, Gillis N, Schenk A, Nicolaï BM. Red discoloration of chicory under controlled atmosphere conditions. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2002;26(3):313–322.
65. François IM, Mariën E, Brijs K, Coppin P, de Proft M. The use of Vis/NIR spectroscopy to predict the optimal root harvesting date of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2009;53(1-2):77–83.
66. Figueira GM, Park KJ, Brod FPR, Honório SL. Evaluation of desorption isotherms, drying rates and inulin concentration of chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) with and without enzymatic inactivation. Journal of Food Engineering. 2004;63(3):273–280.
67. Papetti A, Mascherpaa D, Carazzonea C, et al. Identification of organic acids in Cichorium intybusinhibiting virulence-related properties of oral pathogenic bacteria. Food Chemistry. 2013;138(2-3):1706–1712. [PubMed]
68. Amaducci S, Pritoni G. Effect of harvest date and cultivar on Cichorium intybus yield components in north Italy. Industrial Crops and Products. 1998;7(2-3):345–349.
69. Baert JRA. The effect of sowing and harvest date and cultivar on inulin yield and composition of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) roots. Industrial Crops and Products. 1997;6(3-4):195–199.
70. Ćustić M, Horvatić M, Butorac A. Effects of nitrogen fertilization upon the content of essential amino acids in head chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum) Scientia Horticulturae. 2002;92(3-4):205–215.
71. Zobel RW, Alloush GA, Belesky DP. Differential root morphology response to no versus high phosphorus, in three hydroponically grown forage chicory cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2006;57(1-2):201–208.
72. Zagal E, Rydberg I, Mårtensson A. Carbon distribution and variations in nitrogen-uptake between catch crop species in pot experiments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2001;33(4-5):523–532.
73. Meijer WJM, Mathijssen EWJM. Experimental and simulated production of inulin by chicory and Jerusalem artichoke. Industrial Crops and Products. 1992;1(2–4):175–183.
74. Anguissola Scotti I, Silva S, Botteschi G. Effect of fly ash on the availability of Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd to chicory. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 1999;72(2):159–163.
75. Varallo G, Membola G, DellAgnola G. Cropping of fly ash-amended soils: effects on soil chemical properties and yield and elemental composition of Cichorium intybus L. Fuel. 1993;72(5):p. 725.
76. Demeulemeester MAC, Verdoodt V, de Proft MP. Interaction between physiological age and cold treatment on the composition and concentration of carbohydrates in chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) Journal of Plant Physiology. 1998;153(3-4):467–475.
77. Ernst M, Chatterton NJ, Harrison PA. Carbohydrate changes in chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum) during growth and storage. Scientia Horticulturae. 1995;63(3-4):251–261.
78. Peters AM, van Amerongen A. Sesquiterpene lactones in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): distribution in chicons and effect of storage. Food Research International. 1996;29(5-6):439–444.
79. Gianquinto G. Morphological and physiological aspects of phase transition in radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. var. silvestre Bisch.): influence of daylength and its interaction with low temperature. Scientia Horticulturae. 1997;71(1-2):13–26.
80. Wiebe H-J. Effects of low temperature during seed development on the mother plant on subsequent bolting of chicory, lettuce and spinach. Scientia Horticulturae. 1989;38(3-4):223–229.
81. Poli F, Sacchetti G, Tosi B, et al. Variation in the content of the main guaianolides and sugars in Cichorium intybus var. “Rosso di Chioggia” selections during cultivation. Food Chemistry. 2002;76(2):139–147.
82. Suhonen I. Growth, bolting and yield quality of ‘radicchio rosso’ Scientia Horticulturae. 1991;46(1-2):25–31.
83. Krebsky EO, Geuns JMC, de Proft M. Polyamines and sterois in Cichorium heads. Phytochemistry. 1999;50(4):549–553.
84. Piéron S, Belaizi M, Boxus P. Nodule culture, a possible morphogenetic pathway in Cichorium intybusL. propagation. Scientia Horticulturae. 1993;53(1-2):1–11.
85. Wijbrandi J, de Both MTJ. Temperate vegetable crops. Scientia Horticulturae. 1993;55(1-2):37–63.
86. Robert C, Emaga TH, Wathelet B, Paquot M. Effect of variety and harvest date on pectin extracted from chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) Food Chemistry. 2008;108(3):1008–1018. [PubMed]
87. Sanderson MA, Labreveux M, Hall MH, Elwinger GF. Nutritive value of chicory and English plantain forage. Crop Science. 2003;43(5):1797–1804.
88. Scharenberg A, Arrigo Y, Gutzwiller A, et al. Palatability in sheep and in vitro nutritional value of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), and chicory (Cichorium intybus) Archives of Animal Nutrition. 2007;61(6):481–496. [PubMed]
89. Kaur N, Gupta AK. Applications of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition. Journal of Biosciences. 2002;27(7):703–714. [PubMed]
90. Aksoy A. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): a possible biomonitor of metal pollution. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2008;40(2):791–797.
91. Yakupoğlu D, Güray T, Yurtsever Sarica D, Kaya Z. Determination of airborne lead contamination in Cichorium intybus L. in an urban environment. Turkish Journal of Botany. 2008;32(4):319–324.
92. Šarić-Kundalić B, Dobeš C, Klatte-Asselmeyer V, Saukel J. Ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants in human therapy of east, north and north-east Bosnia and Herzegovina. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;133(3):1051–1076. [PubMed]
93. Leporatti ML, Ivancheva S. Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;87(2-3):123–142. [PubMed]
94. Miraldi E, Ferri S, Mostaghimi V. Botanical drugs and preparations in the traditional medicine of West Azerbaijan (Iran) Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001;75(2-3):77–87. [PubMed]
95. Guarrera PM, Forti G, Marignoli S. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy) Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005;96(3):429–444. [PubMed]
96. Loi MC, Maxia L, Maxia A. Ethnobotanical comparison between the villages of Escolca and Lotzorai (Sardinia, Italy) Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants. 2005;11(3):67–84.
97. Pieroni A, Quave C, Nebel S, Heinrich M. Ethnopharmacy of the ethnic Albanians (Arbëreshë) of northern Basilicata, Italy. Fitoterapia. 2002;73(3):217–241. [PubMed]
98. Jouad H, Haloui M, Rhiouani H, El Hilaly J, Eddouks M. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases in the North centre region of Morocco (Fez-Boulemane) Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001;77(2-3):175–182. [PubMed]
99. El-Hilaly J, Hmammouchi M, Lyoussi B. Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco) Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;86(2-3):149–158.[PubMed]
100. Šavikin K, Zdunića G, Menković N, et al. Ethnobotanical study on traditional use of medicinal plants in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;146(3):803–810. [PubMed]
101. Kokoska L, Polesny Z, Rada V, Nepovim A, Vanek T. Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;82(1):51–53. [PubMed]
102. Tetik F, Civelek S, Cakilcioglu U. Traditional uses of some medicinal plants in Malatya (Turkey) Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;146(1):331–346. [PubMed]
103. Kisiel W, Zielińska K. Guaianolides from Cichorium intybus and structure revision of Cichoriumsesquiterpene lactones. Phytochemistry. 2001;57(4):523–527. [PubMed]
104. Pyrek JS. Sesquiterpene lactones of Cichorium intybus and Leontodon autumnalis . Phytochemistry. 1985;24(1):186–188.
105. Bridle P, Thomas Loeffler RS, Timberlake CF, Self R. Cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside in Cichorium intybus . Phytochemistry. 1984;23(12):2968–2969.
106. Malarz J, Stojakowskaa A, Sznelerb E, Kisiel W. A new neolignan glucoside from hairy roots of Cichorium intybus . Phytochemistry Letters. 2013;6:59–61.
Comments