Centranthus ruber / Rode spoorbloem

De spoorbloem (Centranthus ruber) of rode spoorbloem, vroeger wel "Rode valeriaan" genoemd, is een plant uit de kamperfoeliefamilie (Caprifoliaceae). De plant komt oorspronkelijk uit Zuid-Europa en is in Nederland op enkele plaatsen verwilderd. De plant kan goed tegen hitte, wordt 30-80 cm hoog en bloeit van mei tot juli. De bloemen staan in tuilen en hebben een klein spoor aan de onderzijde. De bloemkroon is rood, maar soms komen ook planten voor met een witte. De plant houdt van een droge kalkrijke bodem. In België komt de rode spoorbloem bijna uitsluitend in de Condroz en de Famenne voor.

De stengel is evenals de bladeren blauwgroen berijpt. De plant groeit het liefst op kalkrijke grond. De spoorbloem trekt veel vlinders, zoals de kolibrievlinder.

Zowel de bladeren als de wortels zijn eetbaar. De bladeren kunnen als salade, maar ook kort gekookt gegeten worden. De wortels kunnen in soep gebruikt worden.

Namen
Engels: Red Valerian
Duits: Rote Spornblume
Frans: Centranthe rouge

Eksp Med Morfol. 1981;20(1):43-6.[Pharmacological studies of Centranthus ruber].
[Article in Bulgarian]
Manolov P, Marekov N.
The authors carried out pharmacologic studies on the valepotriate component-valtrate, isolated from the plant Centranthus ruber, for its central depressive action. The data from the conducted studies showed that the valtrate possessed neurotropic activity, characteristic of psycholeptic (anxiolytic) properties. The orientation reflexes and motor activity were much manifestly inhibited, when specific tests for central depressive action were used. The convulsive effects of pentetrazol and the excitation effects of morphine and to less degree of amphetamine were antagonized. Hexobarbital narcosis was enhanced. The examined substance could be included in the group of psycholeptics and more exactly in the group of anxiolyitics.

Plant Cell Rep. 1995 Feb;14(5):294-8. doi: 10.1007/BF00232031.
Production of valepotriates by hairy root cultures of Centranthus ruber DC.
Gränicher F1, Christen P, Kapétanidis I.
Hairy root cultures of Centranthus ruber DC. were established by infection of sterile plantlets with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, strain R1601. The transformed roots were grown in 12 different, hormone-free liquid media, and valtrate, isovaltrate, 7-desisovaleroyl-7-acetylvaltrate, 7-homovaltrate, didrovaltrate and isovaleroxyhydroxydidrovaltrate were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The highest overall valepotriate content (3.0% dry wt) was observed in half-strength Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 3% sucrose. This concentration is very similar to that found in the roots of parent plants grown in the field. The use of N,N-dimethylmorpholinium iodide, a plant bioregulator, was very detrimental to the hairy root growth and to the valepotriate production. The hairy roots cultured in half strength Gamborg B5 liquid medium supplemented with 3% sucrose for 45 days produced over 31 mg/g dry wt valepotriates.
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