Borago officinalis / Bernagie (zaadolie)

Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual plant used from ancient times for culinary and medicinal purposes. Recently, interest in borage has been renewed because its seeds are considered as one of the best sources of gamma-linolenic (all cis-6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid (GLA)). This unusual fatty acid is an intermediate of indispensable compounds in the body such as prostaglandin E1 and its derivatives. Borage seed oil has been promoted as an effective treatment for different pathologies, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, diabetic neuropathy and menopause-related symptoms. It has also been shown to decrease inflammation, improve bone health and exhibit beneficial effects on the function of the skin and on the regulation of lipid metabolism.

Many properties of the borage seed oil are attributed to the GLA content, which constitutes 15–22% of the oil. GLA is obtained from very few vegetable oils, including borage seed oil. This n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid is used for prevention and/or treatment of various degenerative pathologies such as osteoporosis [10], diabetes [11] and cancer [12]–[14]. Additionally, it has been shown to suppress in vitro tumour growth , improve oxygenation status, exert anti-inflammatory activity and display beneficial effects in the early stages of sepsis.

Gilania AH, Bashira S, Khana AU (2007) Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. J Ethnopharmacol 114: 393–399. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.032
Wauquier F, Barquissau V, Léotoing L, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, et al. (2012) Borage and fish oils lifelong supplementation decreases inflammation and improves bone health in a murine model of senile osteoporosis. Bone 50: 553–561. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.05.030
Brosche T, Platt D (2000) Effect of borage oil consumption on fatty acid metabolism, transepidermal water loss and skin parameters in elderly people. Arch Gerontol Geriatrics 30: 139–150. doi: 10.1016/s0167-4943(00)00046-7



Borage (Borago officinalis or Echium amoenum) verwarring over de plant, Echium is slangenkruid wel een ruwbladig familielid van de bernagie.
Borage is a herb originating in Syria. The flowers of the plant can be used in herbal teas. Although the plant is used in traditional Iranian medicine for mood enhancement, its antidepressant mechanism is unclear.

Review of efficacy by Depressive disorders
There has been one small randomised controlled trial (RCT) [20]. A total of 35 adults with mild to moderate major depressive disorder received either placebo or 375 mg of aqueous extract of borage flowers daily for 6 weeks. By week 4 there was a small significant difference in levels of depression symptoms between the two groups, with lower levels in the borage group. Results at week 6 were similar but no longer statistically significant.

Conclusion
There is preliminary evidence that borage flower extract may be helpful for depression. Longer trials with larger samples are needed to confirm these results. There is no evidence on the effects of borage in non-clinically depressed people.

Sayyah M, Sayyah M, Kamalinejad M: A preliminary randomized double blind clinical trial on the efficacy of aqueous extract ofEchium amoenum in the treatment of mild to moderate major depression.Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006, 30:166-169.PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text

Does Borage Help with Thinning Hair?

Hearing that borage promotes healthy hair might make you think borage could be a remedy for hair loss too. Borage contains essential fatty acids that are supposed to have a beneficial effect on hair and skin, but no evidence exists that borage will actually stop or reverse thinning hair.
Identification
Borage, or Borago officinalis, is an annual plant native to the Mediterranean region. All parts of the plant, including the flowers, have been used in food and drink in one form or another for centuries. The Whole Health MD website notes that a wine made from the leaves and flowers was renowned for "relieving boredom and dispelling melancholy" in Europe in the 1600s. Borage oil is commonly found as an omega-6 fatty acid supplement.

Importance
Omega-6 fatty acids positively affect and promote skin and hair growth, and this may be why some look to borage as a hair remedy. Borage oil also has large amounts of gamma-linolenic acid, or GLA, an omega-6 fatty acid that may reduce inflammation. Whole Health MD claims that taking flaxseed oil plus either borage or evening primrose oil will make your hair more lustrous and softer.

No Evidence
Despite the role of omega-6 fatty acids in healthy hair and skin, and despite the amounts of omega-6 fatty acids in borage oil, no evidence exists that borage oil itself helps with thinning hair. The connection between the two appears to be based solely on the fact that borage oil has omega-6 fatty acids.

Considerations
Borage oil does seem to have an effect on skin, however. A 2010 review published in "Nutrition" looked at the results of studies testing borage oil intake on atopic dermatitis, a type of eczema. Results were mixed. Some studies showed an effect and others didn't, but the researchers concluded that milder cases might benefit to some extent. An earlier study did find positive results when borage oil supplements were given to women with irritated skin. After 12 weeks, skin irritation and dryness had been reduced in groups taking borage oil or flaxseed oil. That study was published in 2009 in "The British Journal of Nutrition."


 La Bourrache

La bourrache est originaire de Syrie et, en arabe, son nom (abu rach) signifie « le père de la sueur », une allusion évidente à ses propriétés sudorifiques. On trouve des traces de son usage dès le premier siècle de notre ère. En raison de ses propriétés et de son action diurétique, on a souvent utilisé la bourrache comme dépuratif. On l'a également employée pour donner « du bonheur et du courage » et pour stimuler la lactation.
Traditionnellement, les jeunes feuilles étaient consommées en salade ou ajoutées aux soupes. Les fleurs étaient utilisées pour donner une saveur rafraîchissante au vin. De nos jours, les parties aériennes entrent parfois dans la composition de produits cosmétiques.
Une croyance populaire veut que la bourrache puisse aider à combattre la dépression qui peut accompagner la ménopause, mais rien dans la composition de la plante ne permet de justifier une telle allégation.
L’huile de bourrache, avec ses 20 % à 26 % d'acide gamma-linolénique (AGL), est une meilleure source d’oméga-6 que l’huile d’onagre qui n’en contient que de 7 % à 10 %. C’est pourtant cette dernière qui domine le marché.

Recherches sur la bourrache

Efficacité probable Polyarthrite rhumatoïde. L’acide gamma-linolénique contenu dans l’huile de bourrache permettrait d’atténuer la douleur et l’enflure des articulations, ainsi que les raideurs matinales causées par la polyarthrite rhumatoïde1,4,5. Ces effets ont été obtenus avec des doses égales ou supérieures à 1,4 g par jour (6 g d’huile de bourrache), prises pendant au moins 6 mois. Des périodes de traitement plus brèves ou des doses inférieures à 500 mg d’AGL par jour ne semblent pas produire d’amélioration. Les mécanismes d’action de l’AGL sont encore mal connus, mais on pense qu’il agit sur les médiateurs de l’inflammation.

 Eczéma. Jusqu’à présent, l’utilisation d’huile de bourrache pour traiter l’eczéma a donné des résultats mitigés2. Si la possibilité d’un effet ne peut pas être complètement écartée, notamment pour les cas légers à modérés, il reste néanmoins extrêmement modeste chez la plupart des malades, même à des doses élevées2,3,9. Toutefois, pour des raisons qu’il reste à déterminer (métabolisme des lipides différent, meilleure assimilation de l’AGL), certaines personnes pourraient être plus sensibles aux effets de l’huile de bourrache2.

Selon une synthèse récente, l’huile de bourrache ne peut pas être recommandée comme traitement de l’eczéma, étant donné sa faible efficacité. Néanmoins, elle est bien tolérée et rien ne s’oppose à son utilisation en complément d’émollients classiques2. Il convient cependant de ne pas dépasser les doses généralement utilisées dans les essais cliniques, soit de 2 g à 4 g par jour chez les adultes (équivalents à de 400 mg à 1 000 mg d’acide gamma-linolénique), pendant 8 à 12 semaines.

L’huile de bourrache a également été testée en application sur la peau, mais n’a pas donné de résultats très concluants. Tout au plus, elle a légèrement atténué les rougeurs et les démangeaisons causées par l’eczéma11; un effet que l’hydratation de la peau par l’application d’un corps gras pourrait suffire à expliquer.

Enfin, donné à titre préventif pendant 6 mois à des nouveau-nés courant un plus grand risque de souffrir de la maladie (antécédents familiaux), l’AGL n’a eu aucune incidence sur l’apparition ultérieure de l’eczéma10.

Divers
Trois études peu concluantes indiquent que l’application externe d’huile de bourrache serait utile dans le traitement de la parakératose séborrhéique, aussi appelée « chapeau » 12-14.
Un essai préliminaire publié en 2003 indique que la prise de 3 g d’huile de bourrache pourrait réduire l’inflammation des gencives causée par la parodontite15.
Les parties aériennes de la bourrache renferment des tannins auxquels on attribue des propriétés astringentes. Elles contiennent également du mucilage, ce qui pourrait expliquer les propriétés traditionnelles expectorantes de la plante. On y trouve aussi de l'acide malique et du nitrate de potassium, substances qui pourraient lui donner ses propriétés diurétiques. Cependant, la Commission E a estimé, en 1991, qu'on ne disposait pas de preuves suffisantes pour reconnaître aux feuilles ou aux fleurs de bourrache une quelconque efficacité thérapeutique.

Précautions
Les parties aériennes de la bourrache renferment une petite quantité de pyrrolizidines, des substances qui se sont avérées dommageables pour le foie et cancérigènes au cours d'essais sur les animaux. Le danger de toxicité croît en cas d'usage prolongé. Notez que l’huile ne contient pas de pyrrolizidines.
Contre-indications
Les personnes souffrant de troubles du foie, ainsi que les femmes enceintes et qui allaitent devraient éviter de consommer les parties aériennes de la bourrache à cause de leur teneur en pyrrolizidines.
Effets indésirables
Les parties aériennes de la bourrache peuvent causer de la constipation. De fortes doses d'huile peuvent provoquer des selles molles, des éructations et des ballonnements, comme c’est le cas pour toutes les huiles prises seules (sans autres aliments).

Interactions 
Avec des plantes ou des suppléments Aucune connue
Avec des médicaments
L'action hépatotoxique (sur le foie) des pyrrolizidines que renferment les parties aériennes de la bourrache pourrait, en cas d’usage prolongé, être exacerbée par plusieurs médicaments hépatotoxiques : acétaminophène, amiodarone, fluconazole, itraconazole, carbamazépine, érythromycine, isoniazide, phénytoïne, lovastatine, pravastatine, simvastatine, etc.
 
Réviseur :
Jean-Yves Dionne, B.SC. Pharm. (mars 2011)
Recherche et rédaction : PasseportSanté.net
Mise à jour : avril 2011

References
1. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of arthritis. Part 2: Rheumatoid arthritis. Cameron M, Gagnier JJ, Little CV, Parsons TJ, Blümle A, Chrubasik S. Phytother Res. 2009 Dec;23(12):1647-62.
2. Borage oil in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Foster RH, Hardy G, Alany RG. Nutrition. 2010 Jul-Aug;26(7-8):708-18. Review.
3. Oral essential fatty acid supplementation in atopic dermatitis-a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. van Gool CJ, Zeegers MP, Thijs C. Br J Dermatol. 2004 Apr;150(4):728-40.
4. Belch JJ, Hill A. Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions.Am J Clin Nutr2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):352S-6S. Texte intégral : www.ajcn.org
5. Soeken KL, Miller SA, Ernst E. Related Herbal medicines for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003 May;42(5):652-9. Review. Texte intégral [Consulté le 28 février 2011] : rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org
9. Takwale A, Tan E, et alEfficacy and tolerability of borage oil in adults and children with atopic eczema: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trialBMJ. 2003 Dec 13;327(7428):1385. Texte intégral : bmj.bmjjournals.com
10. van Gool CJ, Thijs C, et alGamma-linolenic acid supplementation for prophylaxis of atopic dermatitis--a randomized controlled trial in infants at high familial riskAm J Clin Nutr. 2003 Apr;77(4):943-51. Texte intégral : www.ajcn.org
11. Kanehara S, Ohtani T, Uede K, Furukawa F. Clinical effects of undershirts coated with borage oil on children with atopic dermatitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialJ Dermatol. 2007 Dec;34(12):811-5.
12. Tollesson A, Frithz A, Stenlund K. Malassezia furfur in infantile seborrheic dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997 Nov-Dec;14(6):423-5. 
13. Tollesson A, Frithz A. Borage oil, an effective new treatment for infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis.Br J Dermatol. 1993 Jul;129(1):95. Étude mentionnée et résumée dans : Chandler Frank (Ed.) Herbs – Everyday Reference for Health Professionals, Canadian Pharmacists Association and Canadian Medical Association, 2000, page 60.
14. Tollesson A, Frithz A. Transepidermal water loss and water content in the stratum corneum in infantile seborrhoeic dermatitisActa Derm Venereol. 1993 Feb;73(1):18-20. 
15. Rosenstein ED, Kushner LJ, et alPilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitisProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003 Mar;68(3):213-8.



J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Dec 3;114(3):393-9. Epub 2007 Aug 24.
Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.
Gilani AH1, Bashir S, Khan AU.
In this study, we investigated the crude extract of Borago officinalis leaves (Bo.Cr) for its antispasmodic, bronchodilator, vasodilator and cardio-depressant activities to rationalize some of the traditional uses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Bo.Cr was studied using different isolated tissue preparations including rabbit jejunum, trachea, aorta, and guinea-pig atria.
RESULTS:
Bo.Cr which was tested positive for flavonoids, coumarins, sterols and tannins produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, suggestive of Ca++ antagonist effect, which was confirmed when pretreatment of the tissue with Bo.Cr produced a rightward shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves like that caused by verapamil. In rabbit tracheal preparations, Bo.Cr relaxed the carbachol (1microM) and K+-induced contractions. Verapamil also produced non-specific inhibitory effect. In rabbit aorta preparations, Bo.Cr exhibited vasodilator effect against phenylephrine and K+-induced contractions similar to verapamil. When tested in guinea-pig atria, Bo.Cr caused inhibition of both atrial force and rate of contractions.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest that the spasmolytic effects of Bo.Cr are mediated possibly through Ca++ antagonist mechanism, which might explain the traditional use of Borago officinalis in hyperactive gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.

Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Feb;30(1):151-6. doi: 10.1007/s11011-014-9594-4. Epub 2014 Jul 25.
The protective effect of Borago Officinalis extract on amyloid β (25-35)-induced long term potentiation disruption in the dentate gyrus of male rats.
Zargooshnia S1, Shahidi S, Ghahremanitamadon F, Nikkhah A, Mehdizadeh M, Soleimani Asl S.
Erratum to: The protective effect of Borago Officinalis extract on amyloid β (25-35)-induced long term potentiation disruption in the dentate gyrus of male rats. [Metab Brain Dis. 2015]
Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with impairment in synaptic functions before developing into later neurodegeneration and neural loss. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago Officinalis (borage) extract on amyloid β (Aβ)--Induced long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). LTP in perforant path- DG synapses was assessed using electrophysiology method and field excitatory post- synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitude were measured by 400 Hz tetanization. Finally, the total thiol content of hippocampus was measured using colorimetric reaction based on the Ellman's method. The results showed that Aβ (25-35) significantly decreased fEPSP slope and SP amplitude comparing with the control and sham group, whereas borage extract administration increased these parameters compared to the Aβ group. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in total thiol content of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal total sulfhydryl (SH) groups. This data suggest that Aβ (25-35) can effectively inhibit LTP in the granular cells of the DG in hippocampus, and borage supplementation reverse the synaptic plasticity in DG following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction.







In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.

PubMed

Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

2011-01-01

Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 μg/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000 μg/mL. The IC₅₀ of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9 μg/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887


Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.

PubMed

Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-06-01

Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids. PMID:17722661


The detection of radical scavenging compounds in crude extract of borage (Borago officinalis L.) by using an on-line HPLC-DPPH method.

PubMed

Bandoniene, Donata; Murkovic, Michael

2002-01-01

The rapid evaluation of antioxidant activity of crude borage (Borago officinalis L.) extract was determined by using DPPH free radical method. This borage extract resulted in a rapid decrease of the absorbance and showed very high hydrogen-donating capacity towards the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. A new HPLC-DPPH on-line method was applied for a screening of several radical scavenging components in this borage extract as well as for quantitative analysis. This on-line HPLC-DPPH method was developed using a methanolic solution of DPPH-stable radical. The HPLC-separated analytes reacted post-column with the DPPH solution in methanol. The induced bleaching was detected as a negative peak photometrically at 515 nm. The separation of antioxidative components was carried out by gradient HPLC with mobile-phase composition ranging from 2% to 80% acetonitrile with 2% acetic acid in water, UV detection was carried out at 280 nm. The HPLC analysis of borage extract revealed the presence of several radical scavenging components in the borage extract. The results obtained from the chromatograms suggest that some compounds present in the extract possess high radical quenching ability. The dominant antioxidative compound in the crude extract of borage leaves was identified as rosmarinic acid. PMID:12406585


Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves-Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

PubMed

Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H; Almajano, María Pilar

2014-01-01

Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50-90 °C, 0%-30%-60% ethanol (v/v), and 10-15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875


Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

PubMed Central

Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Almajano, María Pilar

2014-01-01

Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v), and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875


The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

PubMed Central

Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

2015-01-01

Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. Discussion: The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats. PMID:26649166


Structured lipids via lipase-catalyzed incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid into borage (Borago officinalis L.) and evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.) oils.

PubMed

Senanayake, S P J Namal; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2002-01-30

Enzymatic acidolysis of borage oil (BO) or evening primrose oil (EPO) with eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) was studied. Of the six lipases that were tested in the initial screening, nonspecific lipase PS-30 from Pseudomonas sp. resulted in the highest incorporation of EPA into both oils. This enzyme was further studied for the influence of enzyme load, temperature, time, type of organic solvent, and mole ratio of substrates. The products from the acidolysis reaction were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The highest incorporation of EPA in both oils occurred at 45-55 degrees C and at 150-250 enzyme activity units. One unit of lipase activity was defined as nanomoles of fatty acids (oleic acid equivalents) produced per minute per gram of enzyme. Time course studies indicated that EPA incorporation was increased up to 26.8 and 25.2% (after 24 h) in BO and EPO, respectively. Among the solvents examined, n-hexane served best for the acidolysis of EPA with both oils. The effect of the mole ratio of oil to EPA was studied from 1:1 to 1:3. As the mole ratio of EPA increased, the incorporation increased from 25.2-26.8 to 37.4-39.9% (after 24 h). The highest EPA incorporations of 39.9 and 37.4% in BO and EPO, respectively, occurred at the stoichiometric mole ratio of 1:3 for oil to EPA. PMID:11804516


Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.

PubMed

Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

2015-01-01

In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and γ-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage. PMID:25360856


The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.

PubMed

Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-09-01

Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125


Status epilepticus associated with borage oil ingestion.

PubMed

Al-Khamees, Wafa'a A; Schwartz, Michael D; Alrashdi, Saleh; Algren, Adam D; Morgan, Brent W

2011-06-01

The use of herbal and complementary medicine is common. Many herbal products are known to produce serious adverse effects. Borage oil is derived from the seeds of the borage plant (Borago officinalis) an abundant source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and Borage oil has been promoted as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, diabetic neuropathy, and menopause-related symptoms. We report a case of status epilepticus in a patient who consumed borage oil for one week. PMID:21387119


Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.

PubMed

Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

2001-04-15

The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Boragoofficinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves. PMID:11368168


A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.

PubMed

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of γ-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010


Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

PubMed

Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

2002-06-01

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432


The protective effect of Borago Officinalis extract on amyloid β (25-35)-induced long term potentiation disruption in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

PubMed

Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani Asl, Sara

2015-02-01

Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with impairment in synaptic functions before developing into later neurodegeneration and neural loss. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago Officinalis (borage) extract on amyloid β (Aβ)--Induced long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). LTP in perforant path- DG synapses was assessed using electrophysiology method and field excitatory post- synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitude were measured by 400 Hz tetanization. Finally, the total thiol content of hippocampus was measured using colorimetric reaction based on the Ellman's method. The results showed that Aβ (25-35) significantly decreased fEPSP slope and SP amplitude comparing with the control and sham group, whereas borage extract administration increased these parameters compared to the Aβ group. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in total thiol content of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal total sulfhydryl (SH) groups. This data suggest that Aβ (25-35) can effectively inhibit LTP in the granular cells of the DG in hippocampus, and borage supplementation reverse the synaptic plasticity in DG following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25060965


Protective effects of Borago officinalis extract on amyloid β-peptide(25-35)-induced memory impairment in male rats: a behavioral study.

PubMed

Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Soleimani Asl, Sara

2014-01-01

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid β (A β)-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the A β (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The results showed that A β (25-35) impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, A β (25-35) significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the A β-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. A β induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value) of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following A β treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25013802


Protective Effects of Borago officinalis Extract on Amyloid β-Peptide(25–35)-Induced Memory Impairment in Male Rats: A Behavioral Study

PubMed Central

Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Soleimani Asl, Sara

2014-01-01

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid β (Aβ)-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ(25–35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The results showed that Aβ(25–35) impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, Aβ(25–35) significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the Aβ-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value) of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25013802


Officinalioside, a new lignan glucoside from Borago officinalis L.

PubMed

Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

2016-01-01

A new lignan glucoside, officinalioside (1), was isolated from n-BuOH fraction of the aerial parts of Borago officinalis L., together with four known compounds: actinidioionoside (2), roseoside (3), crotalionoside C (4) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structure of the new compound was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 52.6 ± 1.70 and 41.3 ± 0.25 μM, respectively) comparable with that of the standard trolox (16.6 ± 2.2 μM) without any significant cytotoxicity towards human cell line A549 (IC50 > 100 μM). PMID:26382913


Antioxidant evaluation for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis edible wild plants in Palestine.

PubMed
Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Damiri, Basma; Abualhasan, Murad N

2016-01-01

Natural plants products are one of the famous and commonly utilized remedies used in fighting diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant activity of plants commonly used in Palestine (Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis). Free radical scavenging activity method was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate. The result show that the overall antioxidant activity of Rumex cyprius was the highest among the plants, followed by Urtica urens, and Borago officinalis; respectively. The (IC(50)) values of the methanolic extracts were 29.70±0.60μg/ml, 5.07±0.49μg/ml, 39.92± 0.52 μg/ml for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis respectively. The results of this study revealed that these edible plants have high antioxidant activity and therefore they can provide natural sources of antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer. These exhibited properties propose that such plants extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries and further characterization of Rumex cyprius constituents is needed. PMID:27005499


Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants.
PubMed
Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio
2016-01-01

Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg · mL(-1) for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631


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