Bellis perennis / Madeliefje

Bellis perennis is a common European species of daisy. Although many other related plants are also called daisy, Bellis perennis is often considered the archetypal species. It is sometimes called common daisy or English daisy. It is native to western, central, and northern Europe, but is commonly found as an invasive plant in North America.
The medicinal properties of Bellis perennis have been recorded in herbals as far back as the 16th century. John Gerard, the 16th century herbalist, recommended English daisy as a catarrh (inflammation of mucous membrane) cure, as a remedy for heavy menstruation, migraine, and to promote healing of bruises and swellings.
Infusions of the flowers and leaves have been used to treat a wide range of other disorders including rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and liver and kidney disorders. An insect repellent spray has also been made from an infusion of the leaves. A strong decoction of the roots has been recommended for the long-term treatment of both scurvy and eczema, and a mild decoction may ease complaints of the respiratory tract.
Bellis perennis has also been used traditionally for treating wounds. Chewing the fresh leaves is said to be a cure for mouth ulcers. In homeopathy, Bellis perennis is often used in combination with Arnica montana to treat bruising and trauma.

Common daisy is widely used in homeopathy, but is currently only rarely used in herbal medicine. Although homeopathic dosing is generally recognized as safe (GRAS; U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation), there is a lack of available scientific evidence to support claims for effectiveness related to the use of Bellis perennis. More research is needed in this area. Recent research has explored the possibility of using the plant in HIV therapy.

* Key to grades
A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory
The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. 

Analgesic (pain reliever), antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antitussive (suppresses coughs), arthritis, astringent, blood purifier, breast cancer, bronchitis, bruises, burns, bursitis (inflammation of bursa), childbirth (cesarean sections, episiotomy), cancer, catarrh (inflammation of mucous membrane), circadian clock acceleration, concussions, demulcent (soothes inflammation), digestion enhancement, diuretic, dysmenorrheal (painful menstruation), eczema, edema (post-operative and post-traumatic), emollient (soothes skin), expectorant (expels phlegm), fractures, HIV support, inflammation (tenosynovitis, styloiditis), insect repellent, jet lag, joint disorders (blood in joint), joint inflammation (epicondyle), joint problems (dislocations), kidney disorders, laxative, liver disorders, menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding), migraines, mouth ulcers, ophthalmologic (eye) uses, osteoarthritis, periarthritis humeroscapularis, periodontitis / gingivitis, pneumonia, post-surgical recovery (plastic surgery), purgative, rheumatism, scurvy, skin diseases, soft-tissue injury (acute), sports injuries, sprains, tissue healing after surgery (abdominal), tonic, trauma (pelvic organ), wounds.

Dosing
Adults (18 years and older)
Based on available scientific evidence, there is no proven safe or effective dose for Bellis perennis. One cup of tea made from 2 teaspoons of dried Bellis perennis herb steeped in 300 milliliters of boiling water for 20 minutes, and then strained, has been taken two to four times daily.
Typical homeopathic doses used are 1 or 2 (6C or 30C potency) tablets dissolved on the tongue. For general acute conditions, one dose every two hours repeated for a maximum of six doses has been used. For less acute conditions (e.g. seasonal or chronic), one dose three times a day between meals for no more than one month has been used.

Children (younger than 18 years)
Based on available scientific evidence, there is no proven safe or effective dose for Bellis perennis. In general, 1 or 2 homeopathic 6C or 30C potency tablets dissolved on the tongue have been used. For general acute conditions, one dose every two hours for up to six doses has been used. For less acute conditions (e.g. seasonal or chronic), one dose three times a day between meals for no more than one month has been used.

Safety
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects. 

Allergies
Avoid in individuals sensitive or allergic to Bellis perennis products or any of their ingredients. Respiratory allergies have occurred in sensitive individuals.

Side Effects and Warnings
In general, Bellis perennis appears to be well tolerated when used at homeopathic doses.
As an herb, however, Bellis perennis may affect the clotting cascade, resulting in blood clotting. Common daisy may also result in stunted growth, although there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting this.
Patients at risk for coagulation disorders such as strokes or blood clots, or patients with anemia should use cautiously.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Bellis perennis is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Avoid use at traditional herbal doses during pregnancy and breastfeeding because of the possibility of growth retardation in the fetus and infant.

Interactions
Interactions with Drugs
Bellis perennis may affect coagulation and it is unclear how this herb may interact with medications that may increase the risk of bleeding. Examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®). Caution is advised.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Bellis perennis may affect coagulation, and it is unclear how this herb may interact with herbs and supplements that may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised when taking with herbs and supplements that may increase the risk of bleeding, such as garlic or Ginkgo biloba.

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  3. Avato, P., Vitali, C., Mongelli, P., and Tava, A. Antimicrobial activity of polyacetylenes from Bellis perennis and their synthetic derivatives. Planta Med 1997;63(6):503-507. View Abstract
  4. Siatka, T. and Kasparova, M. [Seasonal changes in the hemolytic effects of the head of Bellis perennis L.]. Ceska.Slov.Farm 2003;52(1):39-41. View Abstract
  5. Oberbaum, M., Galoyan, N., Lerner-Geva, L., Singer, S. R., Grisaru, S., Shashar, D., and Samueloff, A. The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study--preliminary results. Complement Ther.Med 2005;13(2):87-90. View Abstract
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  8. Schopke, T., Wray, V., Kunath, A., and Hiller, K. Bayogenin and asterogenic acid glycosides from Bellis perennis. Phytochemistry 1992;31(7):2555-2557. View Abstract
  9. Glensk, M., Wray, V., Nimtz, M., and Schopke, T. Triterpenoid saponins of Bellis perennis. Scientia Pharmaceutica 2001;69-73.
  10. Schopke, T., Hiller, K., Wray, V., Koppel, K. D., Yamasaki, K., and Kasai, R. Triterpenoid saponins from Bellis sylvestris, I. Structures of the major deacylsaponins. J Nat.Prod. 1994;57(9):1279-1282.View Abstract
  11. Schopke, T., Wray, V., Kunath, A., and Hiller, K. Virgaureasaponin 2 from Bellis perennis L. Die Pharmazie 1-1-1990;45:870-871.
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